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Is Aluminum The Cause Of Alzheimer’s Disease

Epidemiological Studies Of Ad And Al In Drinking Water

Aluminum exposure may cause Alzheimers report

Some epidemiological studies have failed to demonstrate the relationship between Al and AD . However, there are a number of possible explanations for this inconsistency, particularly when considering the difficulty in making side-by-side comparisons of epidemiological studies of Al . Using strict neuropathological criteria to discriminate between AD patients and controls , McLachlan et al. found an elevated risk of histopathologically verified AD to be associated with the consumption of higher concentrations of Al in drinking water . More detailed analysis revealed an association between exposure to organic monomeric Al and AD, even after adjustment for education level, family history and presence of the apoE4 allele .

The amount of Al consumed in drinking water is approximately 5% of the total daily intake. Thus, it is possible that some factors that prevent or accelerate Al absorption may exist in drinking water. Silicate in the water was reported to interact with Al and prevent Al toxicity to fish . Therefore, the level of silicate in drinking water may also be important. In a French cohort study, the relationship between Al and cognitive impairment is suggested to be influenced by the silica concentration . Cognitive impairment among women was correlated with low concentrations of silica in drinking water .

Is There A Link Between Aluminum And Alzheimers Disease

In the course of the search for the causes of the frequently seen Alzheimers dementia, the described dementia syndrome following aluminum poisoning was also proposed as an explanation. Dialysis patients exhibited impaired speech, apraxia, and, in the further course, dementia syndrome as well as partly focal, partly generalized seizures . Specific EEG changes in the form of alternating spikes and slow waves have proved to be characteristic and diagnostically significant . Neuropathological investigations revealed minimal changes mild vascular changes or aluminum detected in tissue have occasionally been reported , without evident changes typical of Alzheimers disease being identified .

The onset of Alzheimers pathology was observed in animal models following intracranial/intraventricular administration of aluminum compounds . On the other hand, intraperitoneal or oral administration mostly produced no significant pathologies .

Wang et al. found an increased risk for Alzheimers disease in their meta-analysis of individuals chronically exposed to aluminum in drinking water. In contrast, several studies found no association between aluminum exposure and Alzheimers disease after significantly higher occupational aluminum exposure .

From a critical perspective, the following can be concluded on aluminum exposure and Alzheimers disease:

Aluminum In Vaccines Now Linked To Alzheimers Disease

If you have ever known anyone with Alzheimers disease, you know what a cruel killer it is. Fairly quickly your loved ones dont know who you are, who their spouse is, where they are living, how old they are, they often forget their own names, and have hallucinations so vivid that they cannot be reasoned with.

But what are we doing about this terrible disease? With all the millions and millions of dollars that have been spent trying to find a cure, we still arent even sure about the reason behind it. In the meantime, millions of people are diagnosed with this terrible disease every single day.

There have been numerous studies lately, however, that show a definite link between aluminum and Alzheimers disease. Heavy metal toxins can kill as easily as poison.

We dont hear much about a tiny gland in the center of the brain called the pineal gland, but this tiny gland is vital for our mental and physical health. When this gland becomes overburdened by heavy metals and/or calcified by fluoride, it becomes hard and cannot function.

Many pharmaceuticals are coated with synthetic food colorings. These are petroleum based dyes that are known carcinogens which often contain antifreeze, ammonia, and petroleum produces.

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Most of this, however, is not really new. We have known for decades that aluminum is a known neurotoxin. This information is simply suppressed or glossed over in the interests of big business.

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Risk Factors For Alzheimers Disease:

As we mentioned, there is no clear cause of Alzheimers disease. However, the following risk factors have all been linked to the development and/or progression of the disease:

  • Age
  • Gender
  • Family history
  • Head injury
  • While not listed as a possible risk factor above, one of the most popular hypotheses is the potential link to aluminum exposure.

    In the last 50 years, aluminum has become a possible suspect in contributing to the development of Alzheimersfostering concerns about everyday exposure to aluminum through foil, antiperspirants, beverage cans, and beyond.

    Accumulation Of Al In Ad Brain

    There won

    Another argument cites a lack of significant difference between Al levels in AD patients and age-matched controls. One reason for the controversy may be Al contamination of the solutions used in the process of tissue fixation and staining. Therefore, prior studies in fixed tissues cannot be relied upon for precise measures of Al quantitative analysis of nonfixed and freshly frozen tissues is necessary. One such study showed that the amount of Al in whole brains of AD patients was not significantly different in comparison to controls . Landsberg et al. claimed that they could not detect Al in senile plaques or NFTs using nuclear microscopy . However, this failure could simply be due to low detection limits of their analytical method. Bouras et al. used highly sensitive laser microprobe mass analysis with nonfixed brain samples and reported an accumulation of Al in NFT-bearing neurons of AD brains . An accumulation of Al in both senile plaques and NFTs has been reported in renal failure patients . Recently, Yumoto et al. analyzed Al using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy combined with transmission electron microscopy , a method which yields a high-resolution and low detection limit. Their detailed analysis demonstrated that Al was present in cores of senile plaques at a concentration of 3550ppm .

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    Aluminum And Alzheimers: Current State Of Research

    The literature remains inconclusive in linking aluminum to Alzheimers disease. According to the Alzheimers Association: Almost all scientists today focus on other areas of research, and few experts believe that everyday sources of aluminum pose any threat.

    However, research is ongoing.

    Aluminum is the most abundant neurotoxic metal on earth and repeatedly shown to bioaccumulate. The role of aluminum in Alzheimers disease, however, remains strongly disputed.

    Aluminum has drawn extra attention in recent years due to a number of studies clarifying the building evidence linking chronic aluminum exposure to the development of Alzheimers disease. Evidence to suggest the link includes:

  • Patients with Alzheimers disease have been found to have significantly elevated levels of aluminum in the brain, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid
  • Aluminum bioaccumulates in cells, eventually producing changes that result in loss of function and atrophy consistent with MRI findings in the brains of Alzheimers patients
  • This has led some researchers to believe that elevated aluminum levels may serve as an early marker of Alzheimers and/or play a role in its development or progression.

    However, there have also been numerous studies that fail to prove any correlation or causation in regards to aluminum and Alzheimers disease. The counter arguments to support that there is no link are generally predicated upon the following claims:

  • Excess Aluminum is efficiently excreted from the body
  • What Are Risk Factors

    • Risk factors are aspects of your lifestyle, environment and genetic background that increase the likelihood of getting a disease.
    • Risk factors on their own are not causes of a disease. Rather, risk factors represent an increased chance, but not a certainty, that dementia will develop.
    • Similarly, having little or no exposure to risk factors does not necessarily protect a person from developing dementia.

    There are some risk factors that can be changed, and some that cannot รข read on to know which are which!

    Risk factors

    Read about risk factors for dementia in our downloadable, print-friendly infosheet.

    This sheet also contains strategies and lifestyle changes that can help you reduce your risk of developing dementia.

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    What Does The Research Say

    The current research shows that there is likely to be a relationship between naturally-occurring metals and the development or progression of Alzheimer’s disease. But the evidence doesn’t yet show whether this relationship actually causes Alzheimer’s disease.

    It is also unclear whether reducing metals in the brain via drugs or reducing our exposure would have any effect. These metals are essential to the healthy function of our brain, so further research into changes before or during disease development is also necessary to understand if reducing the amount in the brain would actually be beneficial.

    Dementia research volunteering

    What Are The Sources Of Aluminum Exposure

    What causes Alzheimer’s Disease?

    Workers can be exposed to aluminum during production or processing of this metal and its alloys. In addition to workplace exposure, people can come into contact with aluminum in many other ways.

    Aluminum is found in food, drinking water and in some medications. There has been considerable interest and controversy concerning the relationship between aluminum in drinking water and Alzheimer’s disease. So far, the results of many studies have been inconclusive and contradictory. It is important to note that the content of this metal in the diet is increased by the use of aluminum and its alloys in the food industry. The cooking and storage of food in aluminum ware has also been noted. The Alzheimer Society of Canada notes that this route of exposure is considered to be a very small percentage of the average person’s intake of aluminum, and that it would be difficult to avoid this exposure even if aluminum were clearly implicated in the development of the disease.

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    Health Environmental And Lifestyle Factors That May Contribute To Alzheimer’s Disease

    Research suggests that a host of factors beyond genetics may play a role in the development and course of Alzheimer’s disease. There is a great deal of interest, for example, in the relationship between cognitive decline and vascular conditions such as heart disease, stroke, and high blood pressure, as well as metabolic conditions such as diabetes and obesity. Ongoing research will help us understand whether and how reducing risk factors for these conditions may also reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s.

    A nutritious diet, physical activity, social engagement, sleep, and mentally stimulating pursuits have all been associated with helping people stay healthy as they age. These factors might also help reduce the risk of cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease. Clinical trials are testing some of these possibilities.

    Early-life factors may also play a role. For example, studies have linked higher levels of education with a decreased risk of dementia. There are also differences in dementia risk among racial groups and sexesall of which are being studied to better understand the causes of Alzheimers disease and to develop effective treatments and preventions for all people.

    Historical Overview Of Aluminum Hypothesis And Arguments

    A link between Al and AD is supported on many fronts, beginning in 1965 with the finding of Klatzo et al. that the intracerebral administration of Al to experimental animals induced neurofibrillary degeneration and the appearance of tangle-like structures that were similar to the NFTs found in the brains of AD patients . Crapper et al. reported an increased level of Al in the brains of AD patients . In the 1970s, Al in dialysis solutions or pharmacological compounds was found to cause dementia in dialysis patients . As noted previously, several epidemiological studies reported a high percentage of AD cases in areas with high Al level in drinking water .

    Regarding the first argument, more recent immunohistochemical studies have indicated that depositions in the brains of Al-intoxicated animals are stained with the anti-tau antibody . The accumulation of tau protein was reported in patients with dialysis encephalopathy , and in Al-intoxicated cultured neuronal cells . Al inhibits the dephosphorylation of tau and enhances its aggregation in vitro . Furthermore, NFTs in some AD patients have been shown to be composed of straight-type filaments rather than PHF-type filaments as is observed in Al-NFT . These data indicate that attempts to discredit the aluminum hypothesis on the basis of differences between Al-NFTs and AD-NFTs are no longer tenable.

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    Why Do Some Researchers Suggest An Alzheimers

    Aluminum is not considered to be necessary in our diets, but it is known to affect many processes that occur in our bodies, especially when present in a high concentration. Among other things, aluminum can interfere with the expression of genes synthesis of chemical messengers that cells use to communicate with one another called neurotransmitters inflammatory responses and other processes.

    In mice designed to accumulate one of the hallmarks of Alzheimers , aluminum was shown to increase the clumping and accumulation of tau and neurological dysfunction.

    Additional animal research suggests aluminum might also affect amyloid production and degradation . The relevance to humans of these aluminum effects in animal models has been debated without a definitive conclusion, however.

    Suspicion regarding a link between aluminum and AD first emerged in 1965, when scientists used an aluminum-containing chemical in their research. Injection of this chemical, aluminum phosphate, seemed to trigger cognitive changes and also neurofibrillary tangle formation in animal studies.2 These tangles were determined to be similar but not identical to the tangles found in brains of people with AD.

    Some years later, in 1973, brain tissue collected from deceased persons known to have AD were found to have high aluminum levels.3 Although this evidence was circumstantial, it led researchers to ask whether aluminum exposure might cause or even increase the progression of AD changes in the brain.

    Could Exposure To Aluminum Cause Alzheimer’s Disease

    What causes Alzheimer

      Does aluminum really cause the disease of Alzheimer’s? originally appeared on Quora: the place to gain and share knowledge, empowering people to learn from others and better understand the world.

      Answer by Tirumalai Kamala, Immunologist, Ph.D., Mycobacteriology, on Quora:

      The question ‘Does aluminum really cause the disease of Alzheimer’s?‘ could be more accurately re-stated as ‘Could exposure to aluminum cause Alzheimer’s disease and could a causal link even be proven?‘ Simply because aluminum is such a pervasive element in modern life, it’s practically impossible to pinpoint frequency, duration and dosage of exposure at the individual level, let alone establish a cause-and-effect linkage between this one element, aluminum, on the one hand, and a complex, obviously multi-factorial disease such as Alzheimer’s on the other hand. Simply, conclusive data’s lacking. Rather, epidemiological support of links between cumulative aluminum exposure and correlative risk of developing AD is confusing and inconclusive.

      This answer:

      • Outlines some basic facts about aluminum as it pertains to degree and variety of biological exposure.
      • Summarizes conclusions from some recent meta-analyses, and systematic and umbrella reviews on the link between Aluminum and AD.

      Aluminums Pervasive in Human Foods, Daily Use Products and Environment

      Aluminum and Alzheimer’s Disease : Conclusions from Meta-analyses, & Systematic and Umbrella Reviews



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      Aluminum Content Of Fad Brain Tissues

      The aluminum content of brain tissue across all donors and all brain regions ranged from 0.30 to 33.48 g/g dry wt. . The majority of tissues had an aluminum content above 1.99 g/g dry wt. with 14, 24, 10, and 35 tissues having contents in the range < 1.00, 1.001.99, 2.002.99, and 3.00 g/g dry wt. respectively. The median aluminum content for each lobe was 2.04 , 2.19 , 2.11 , and 2.31 for occipital, temporal, frontal, and parietal, respectively. There were no significant differences in aluminum content between lobes. There was no significant relationship between age of donor and aluminum content. There was a significant difference in aluminum content between genders with females having a higher content than males .

      Table 1

      Aluminum content of brain tissues from Colombian donors with a diagnosis of familial Alzheimers disease

      Case ID

      Data are for all tissue samples measured with 14 replicates per lobe.

      How To Reduce Your Risk Of Alzheimers And Dementia:

      While as we mentioned, there is no one single cause for Alzheimers. Aging is the largest risk factor for developing the disease, and even though thats something you cannot change, there are things you can do to limit other risk factors. The Alzheimers Society lists the following six steps you can take:

    • Be physically active
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      Aluminum And Alzheimers: Is There A Connection

      Like many people who come to a memory clinic, Marie wanted to know what she could do to reduce the risk of her husbands decline or at least to slow down what might be an inevitable disease progression.

      One question that often comes up is whether exposure to various toxins, chemicals, pollutants, or even nutrients can contribute to memory loss. Researchers have been very interested in the possible risks of exposure to these substances in our food, water, and air. Certain occupations involve exposure to substances that can be dangerous, and Marie knew that her husbands welding job had exposed him to higher levels of metals than most people experience.

      Aluminum Is Intricately Associated With The Neuropathology Of Familial Alzheimer’s Disease

      Aluminium : Alzheimer’s disease : Time to test the link
      IOS Press
      A new study continues to support a growing body of evidence that aluminum contributes to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease . Researchers found aluminum co-located with phosphorylated tau protein, which is an early initiator of AD.

      A new study published in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease Reports continues to support a growing body of evidence that aluminum contributes to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease . Researchers found aluminum co-located with phosphorylated tau protein, which is an early initiator of AD. This study builds upon two earlier published studies from the same group.

      The new data demonstrate that aluminum is co-located with phosphorylated tau protein, present as tangles within neurons in the brains of early-onset or familial Alzheimer’s disease. “The presence of these tangles is associated with neuronal cell death, and observations of aluminum in these tangles may highlight a role for aluminum in their formation,” explained lead investigator Matthew John Mold, PhD, Birchall Centre, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire, UK.

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