Estimates Of The Number Of People With Alzheimer’s Dementia By State
Table lists the estimated number of people age 65 and older with Alzheimer’s dementia by state for 2020, the projected number for 2025, and the projected percentage change in the number of people with Alzheimer’s between 2020 and 2025.,
|Projected Number with Alzheimer’s||Percentage Increase|
- Created from data provided to the Alzheimer’s Association by Weuve et al.,
As shown in Figure , between 2020 and 2025 every state across the country is expected to experience an increase of at least 6.7% in the number of people with Alzheimer’s. These projected increases in the number of people with Alzheimer’s are due solely to projected increases in the population age 65 and older in these states. Because risk factors for dementia such as midlife obesity and diabetes can vary dramatically by region and state, the regional patterns of future burden may be different than reported here. Based on these projections, the West and Southeast are expected to experience the largest percentage increases in people with Alzheimer’s dementia between 2020 and 2025. These increases will have a marked impact on statesâ health care systems, as well as the Medicaid program, which covers the costs of long-term care and support for many older residents with dementia, including more than a quarter of Medicare beneficiaries with Alzheimer’s or other dementias.
Research Shines Light On Why Women More Likely To Develop Alzheimer’s
Protein tau may spread more rapidly in female brains than males, adding to range of factors
The reason women appear to be at greater risk of developing Alzheimers disease than men might be due to a number of genetic, anatomical and even social influences, researchers have suggested.
Recent figures show about 65% of those with living with dementia in the UK are women, with a similar statistic seen in the US for Alzheimers disease, while dementia is the leading cause of death for women in England. Alzheimers disease is only one of the types of dementia, but the most common form.
While one explanation is that dementia risk increases with age, and women have longer life expectancies than men, new research suggests there might be more to the matter, including that protein tangles found within neurons and linked to Alzheimers disease might spread differently in womens brains than mens.
The study, presented at the Alzheimers Association International Conference in Los Angeles by researchers from Vanderbilt University and which has not yet been peer-reviewed, used scans from a method called positron emission tomography. That allowed them to look at the way clumps of a protein called tau were spread in the brains of 123 men and 178 women without cognitive problems, as well as 101 men and 60 women with mild cognitive problems although not yet diagnosed with Alzheimers disease. Cognitively normal older people often have small amounts of tau in certain areas of their brain.
Active Management Of Alzheimer’s Dementia
- Appropriate use of available treatment options.
- Effective management of coexisting conditions.
- Providing family caregivers with effective training in managing the day-to-day life of the care recipient.
- Coordination of care among physicians, other health care professionals and lay caregivers.
- Participation in activities that are meaningful to the individual with dementia and bring purpose to his or her life.
- Having opportunities to connect with others living with dementia support groups and supportive services are examples of such opportunities.
- Becoming educated about the disease.
- Planning for the future.
To learn more about Alzheimer’s disease, as well as practical information for living with Alzheimer’s and being a caregiver, visit alz.org.
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Overview Of Alzheimer’s Disease
Alzheimer’s disease is a type of brain disease, just as coronary artery disease is a type of heart disease. It is also a degenerative disease, meaning that it becomes worse with time. Alzheimer’s disease is thought to begin 20 years or more before symptoms arise,- with changes in the brain that are unnoticeable to the person affected. Only after years of brain changes do individuals experience noticeable symptoms such as memory loss and language problems. Symptoms occur because nerve cells in parts of the brain involved in thinking, learning and memory have been damaged or destroyed. As the disease progresses, neurons in other parts of the brain are damaged or destroyed. Eventually, nerve cells in parts of the brain that enable a person to carry out basic bodily functions, such as walking and swallowing, are affected. Individuals become bed-bound and require around-the-clock care. Alzheimer’s disease is ultimately fatal.
Gender Vulnerability Related To Alzheimers Disease Think Tank
Although we have unlocked clues as to why gender differences occur, there are still many unanswered questions. In order to address these areas of research head on, the Alzheimers Association organized top experts in Alzheimers, as well those who specialize in the field of biological sex. This think tank allowed experts to identify key gaps within our current knowledge, providing an action plan to enhance our understanding. During this meeting, three main topics were discussed, including possible hormonal factors, the impact of lifestyle choices, and underlying biological mechanisms. Due to this think tank, the Alzheimers Association announced a new grant funding program referred to as the Sex and Gender in Alzheimers program. At the end of the day, this program will help bridge any gaps, as researchers aim to uncover why nearly two-thirds of the 5+ million Americans living with Alzheimers are women.
Individuals with a family history of Alzheimers should seek annual testing. Not only will this help you become aware of any possible changes, but this is a great strategy to keep your worries at bay.
If you would like to try the BrainTest 30-day free trial, you can do so here. This scientifically-validated app can help you better understand potential early warning signs of dementia. You can then discuss your results with a physician.
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Differences Between Women And Men In The Prevalence And Risk Of Alzheimer’s And Other Dementias
More women than men have Alzheimer’s or other dementias. Almost two-thirds of Americans with Alzheimer’s are women., Of the 5.8 million people age 65 and older with Alzheimer’s in the United States, 3.6 million are women and 2.2 million are men., Based on estimates from ADAMS, among people age 71 and older, 16% of women have Alzheimer’s or other dementias compared with 11% of men.
The prevailing reason that has been stated for the higher prevalence of Alzheimer’s and other dementias in women is that women live longer than men on average, and older age is the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer’s.- But when it comes to differences in the actual risk of developing Alzheimer’s or other dementias for men and women of the same age, findings have been mixed. Most studies of incidence in the United States have found no significant difference between men and women in the proportion who develop Alzheimer’s or other dementias at any given age., , – However, some European studies have reported a higher incidence among women at older ages,, and one study from the United Kingdom reported higher incidence for men. Differences in the risk of dementia between men and women may therefore depend on age and/or geographic region.,
Heart Health May Be A Factor As Well
A different study found men are more likely to be fatally affected by heart disease in middle age than women, but men 65 and older tend to have healthier hearts than women. Researchers speculate having healthier hearts may protect older mens brains from the type of cell damage characteristic of Alzheimers disease. This assumption is made because poor heart health affects circulation, which could contribute to brain cell issues and affect parts of the brain that handle essential cognitive functions.
Regardless of gender, there are other Alzheimers risk factors that suggest its a good idea for seniors to have regular physical and cognitive evaluations. According to the Alzheimers Association, these risk factors include:
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Alzheimers Disease Affects Women Differently
Compared with men, women are more likely to develop Alzheimers disease. Women account for nearly two-thirds of Americans affected by it.
On the other hand, Alzheimers disease tends to progress more quickly in men. They tend to experience more rapid cognitive decline and die sooner.
Past studies have found that sex-related differences in hormones, immune function, and energy metabolism may help account for these gaps.
The new study on KDM6A adds another piece to the puzzle, highlighting the role that non-hormone-related genes on sex chromosomes may play.
The Alzheimers Association held a think tank in 2015 to explore the biology that may contribute to sex differences in Alzheimers disease, Heather M. Snyder, PhD, the Alzheimers Associations vice president of medical and scientific engagement, told Healthline.
One of the outstanding questions from that think tank was that we did not yet have the tools to fully evaluate the impact of the X or Y chromosome.
She added that the new study is helping to start to address some important scientific questions by using emerging technologies to look at the complexity of the X chromosome.
Looking To The Future
The G8 and the Prime Minister’s Challenge have committed to finding a disease modifying therapy for dementia by 2025.
With women being 65 per cent of the people affected by dementia, we must make sure that any new therapy works for them as well as men.
From lab to the pharmacy, it’s important dementia research, care and treatment can improve the lives of both men and women.
Diagnosis Of Dementia Due To Alzheimer’s Disease
- Obtaining a medical and family history from the individual, including psychiatric history and history of cognitive and behavioral changes.
- Asking a family member to provide input about changes in thinking skills and behavior.
- Conducting problem-solving, memory and other cognitive tests, as well as physical and neurologic examinations.
- Having the individual undergo blood tests and brain imaging to rule out other potential causes of dementia symptoms, such as a tumor or certain vitamin deficiencies.
- In some circumstances, using PET imaging of the brain to find out if the individual has high levels of beta-amyloid, a hallmark of Alzheimer’s normal levels would suggest Alzheimer’s is not the cause of dementia.
- In some circumstances, using lumbar puncture to determine the levels of beta-amyloid and certain types of tau in CSF normal levels would suggest Alzheimer’s is not the cause of dementia.
Looking To Mice For Insights
To assess the potential role of X chromosomes in Alzheimers disease, the authors of the new study conducted a series of experiments in a mouse model of the disease.
They found that male mice with Alzheimers disease demonstrated greater cognitive impairments and died more quickly than female mice.
When they genetically engineered male mice with Alzheimers disease to have two X chromosomes, those mice performed better on cognitive tests and lived longer than male mice with one X chromosome.
Conversely, female mice that were engineered to have only one X chromosome showed more cognitive impairment and died more quickly than those with two X chromosomes.
The authors show that the addition of an X leads to brain resilience, Mielke explained. Notably, it is not that the Y gene is necessarily detrimental, just that having two X chromosomes, indicative of females, offers more brain protection.
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Alzheimers Hits Men And Women Differently And We Need To Understand Why
To fight the disease, we need to look at sex-specific risks
Growing older may be inevitable, but getting Alzheimers disease is not. Although we cant stop the aging process, which is the biggest risk factor for Alzheimers, there are many other factors that can be modified to lower the risk of dementia.
Yet our ability to reduce Alzheimers risk and devise new strategies for prevention and treatment is impeded by a lack of knowledge about how and why the disease differs between women and men. There are tantalizing hints in the literature about factors that act differently between the sexes, including hormones and specific genes, and these differences could be important avenues of research. Unfortunately, in my experience, most studies of Alzheimers risk combine data for women and men.
For that reason, researchers at the Society for Womens Health Research Interdisciplinary Network on Alzheimers Disease recently published a review paper in Alzheimers & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimers Association that calls for greater analysis of research data by sex to stimulate new approaches that will improve prevention, diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimers.
In men, there are conflicting studies as to whether androgen-deprivation therapy, which is used to treat prostate cancer, increases the risk for Alzheimers. Further investigation is needed into the role of sex hormones, the use of different hormonal treatments and the ways they each impact Alzheimers risk.
Alzheimer’s And Dementia: Why It’s More Common In Women Than Men
Many studies have indicated that women are more frequently affected by Alzheimer’s and dementia than men. While the cause for this discrepancy isn’t yet identified, suggested theories range from variations in health care usage and lifestyle aspects to life expectancy and other biological differences.
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Some Key Warning Signs That Point To An Alzheimers Diagnosis Include:
Game Of Genes In Alzheimer’s
One of the greatest biological risk factors for Alzheimers comes from a gene called APOE4, which has been liked to an increase in risk in both men and women. But having this gene could be even more dire for women a 2014 study found that female participants had an even greater risk of developing the disease than men with the gene.
Women also see hormone fluctuations during menopause that may interact with the gene and could help explain why their brains are more susceptible to Alzheimers. Around age 40 or 50, estrogen, progesterone and testosterone levels drop in women. Often times these changes cause women to experience hot flashes or bouts of depression, but the effects of change could have a lingering impact on the brain, too.
Researchers have looked into whether hormone therapy could be a solution to preventing Alzheimers in post-menopausal women since the 1990s. A 1996 study published in JAMA tested hormone replacement therapy in women, finding that estrogen supplements led to a decrease in Alzheimers development when administered before menopause.
But despite the fact that the analysis was published in a major medical journal, little follow-up research was conducted into the effects of hormones over the next decade.
Thats a historic phenomenon, she says. If women are more likely to manifest the risk factor, then studying women makes a lot of sense, doesnt it?
The Importance Of Female Data In Research
Animals are sometimes used in dementia research to understand the condition and develop new effective treatments.
We know data from female animals has generally been ignored in brain research. In the past, researchers have dismissed data from female animals or results from drugs trials that involved them.
The data was seen as too odd or inconvenient. Today, the use of female data has sparked debate among dementia researchers.
Jacqueline Mitchell, an Alzheimers Society funded researcher at Kings College London, says:
‘We are very aware of sex-based differences we always make sure to use a balance of male and female so that we can statistically compare any differences that arise in response to drug treatments.
It might be a surprise that we havent learned more in the lab about how males and females respond differently to drug treatments.
However, women were only included in clinical trials from 1993.
Q What Should Women Be Doing To Take Care Of Themselves And Prevent The Onset Of Alzheimers
Answer: Women can focus on prevention whats good for the heart is good for the brain. We know that adequate exercise, good nutrition and sleep are critical for avoiding diabetes and heart disease. We also know that its critical not to smoke and to avoid substance abuse, particularly alcohol. So these things can promote brain fitness. We also know that building up a cognitive reserve for women, especially with active lifetime learning there are certain types of learning that are better than others can build up a reserve so that the disease is less devastating once it is established.
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