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Who Is At Risk Of Alzheimer’s Disease

Health Environmental And Lifestyle Factors That May Contribute To Alzheimer’s Disease

Whos most-at-risk for developing Alzheimers disease?

Research suggests that a host of factors beyond genetics may play a role in the development and course of Alzheimer’s disease. There is a great deal of interest, for example, in the relationship between cognitive decline and vascular conditions such as heart disease, stroke, and high blood pressure, as well as metabolic conditions such as diabetes and obesity. Ongoing research will help us understand whether and how reducing risk factors for these conditions may also reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s.

A nutritious diet, physical activity, social engagement, sleep, and mentally stimulating pursuits have all been associated with helping people stay healthy as they age. These factors might also help reduce the risk of cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease. Clinical trials are testing some of these possibilities.

Early-life factors may also play a role. For example, studies have linked higher levels of education with a decreased risk of dementia. There are also differences in dementia risk among racial groups and sexesall of which are being studied to better understand the causes of Alzheimers disease and to develop effective treatments and preventions for all people.

If Familial Alzheimers Disease Is Suspected

Genetic testing can identify specific changes in a persons genes. This test can tell if a person has FAD and if a child has inherited the changed gene from a parent and will develop the disease in the future. It cannot determine when the symptoms will begin.

It is essential to ensure that suspected cases in the family have, or have had, Alzheimers disease and not some other form of dementia. This can only be done through a medical examination, or a careful analysis of past medical records if the person is no longer alive.

Are There Risk Factors For Mci And How Is Alzheimers Diagnosed

There are a number of risk factors that lead to cognitive decline. The main factors are:

  • Age With increasing age, there is a greater incidence of cognitive decline.
  • Family history If someones first-degree relative has Alzheimers, the chances are up to seven times greater that they may develop the disease.
  • Genetic Predisposition A person with two APOe-4 genes is at a higher risk of developing Alzheimers disease in later life.
  • Stroke
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Cardiovascular disease

The good news is that many risk factors can be controlled effectively by adopting correct lifestyle choices to prevent Alzheimers. The three most important ways in which lifestyle modifications can impact our brain health are:

  • Optimize cardiovascular function
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    What Is The Treatment For Alzheimers Disease

    Because Alzheimers disease is extremely complex, no cure has been found yet by medical researchers. Nonetheless, there are certain medications that can help keep the disease under control in people whose condition is in the middle stage. It is worthy of note that on June 7, 2021, the U.S. Food and Drug administration provided accelerated approval for the use of the newest medication for Alzheimers disease, which is called Aducanumab. Taking it reduces amyloid deposits in the brain, which may slow down the progression of the disease.

    Aducanumab is the only disease-modifying drug that is currently approved to treat Alzheimers disease. It is a human antibody that targets the protein beta-amyloid and reduces amyloid plaques, which are brain lesions specific to Alzheimers disease.

    The following are the medications that may be prescribed to patients with mild to moderate Alzheimers disease so as to keep their symptoms under control and provide them with comfort, independence, and dignity for a longer period of time:

    • Galantamine: it prevents the breakdown of acetylcholine and prompts nicotinic receptors to release more acetylcholine in the brain
    • Rivastigmine: it prevents the breakdown of acetylcholine and butyrylcholine, which is a brain chemical similar to acetylcholine, in the brain
    • Donepezil: it prevents the breakdown of acetylcholine in the brain

    What Can Lead To Alzheimer’s Disease

    There won

    There are a few things that may make people more likely to get Alzheimerâs. So far, research has linked the disease with:

    • Age. Your risk for Alzheimer’s goes up as you get older. For most people, it starts going up after age 65.
    • Gender. Women get the disease more often than men.
    • Family history. People who have a parent or sibling with Alzheimerâs are more likely to get it themselves.
    • Down syndrome. Itâs not clear why, but people with this disorder often get Alzheimer’s disease in their 30s and 40s.
    • Head injury. Some studies have shown a link between Alzheimer’s disease and a major head injury.

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    Will I Get Alzheimer’s

    After hearing all this information, the question we’ve probably all asked ourselves remains: will I get Alzheimer’s?

    The simple answer is that, unfortunately, there’s no real way to tell. There are a number of risk factors that can increase your chances of developing the condition, but it is very rare that these factors will guarantee that you will get Alzheimer’s at some point.

    Much more research is needed into the causes and risk factors associated with Alzheimer’s disease, but the good news is that this research is going on right now. The Jackson Laboratory is one such institution leading the charge with cutting edge discoveries, a strong focus on personalized medicine, and our renowned JAX Center for Dementia and Alzheimer’s Research.

    Another institution internationally known for its research and charity is the Alzheimer’s Association. If you are concerned about signs or symptoms of dementia in yourself or a loved one, we recommend turning first to the Alzheimers Association Help & Support page. This page includes a many helpful articles, ways to connect with local support groups, and a 24/7 hotline for any Alzheimers and dementia related questions.

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    The Brain And Alzheimer’s Disease

    When a person has Alzheimerâs, their brain changes. It has fewer healthy cells, and it gets smaller over time. Most of the time, the brain cells also form two types of flaws:

    • Neurofibrillary tangles. These are twisted fibers inside brain cells that keep nutrients and other important things from moving from one part of the cell to another
    • Beta-amyloid plaques. These are sticky clumps of proteins that build up between nerve cells instead of breaking down like they do in healthy brains.

    Plaques and tangles damage the healthy brain cells around them. The damaged cells die, and the brain shrinks. These changes cause the symptoms of Alzheimerâs, such as memory loss, speech problems, confusion, and mood swings.

    Brain cells affected by the disease also make lower amounts of the chemicals called neurotransmitters that nerves use to send messages to each other.

    Scientists don’t know if these brain cell changes cause Alzheimerâs or happen because of it.

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    How Does Alzheimer’s Disease Affect The Brain

    Scientists continue to unravel the complex brain changes involved in Alzheimers disease. Changes in the brain may begin a decade or more before symptoms appear. During this very early stage of Alzheimers, toxic changes are taking place in the brain, including abnormal buildups of proteins that form amyloid plaques and tau tangles. Previously healthy neurons stop functioning, lose connections with other neurons, and die. Many other complex brain changes are thought to play a role in Alzheimers as well.

    The damage initially appears to take place in the hippocampus and the entorhinal cortex, which are parts of the brain that are essential in forming memories. As more neurons die, additional parts of the brain are affected and begin to shrink. By the final stage of Alzheimers, damage is widespread and brain tissue has shrunk significantly.

    Risk Factors And Prevention

    How to decrease risk of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Although age is the strongest known risk factor for dementia, it is not an inevitable consequence of ageing. Further, dementia does not exclusively affect older people young onset dementia accounts for up to 9% of cases. Studies show that people can reduce their risk of dementia by getting regular exercise, not smoking, avoiding harmful use of alcohol, controlling their weight, eating a healthy diet, and maintaining healthy blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar levels. Additional risk factors include depression, low educational attainment, social isolation, and cognitive inactivity.

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    Medications To Maintain Mental Function In Alzheimer’s Disease

    Several medications are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat symptoms of Alzheimers. Donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine are used to treat the symptoms of mild to moderate Alzheimers. Donepezil, memantine, the rivastigmine patch, and a combination medication of memantine and donepezil are used to treat moderate to severe Alzheimers symptoms. All of these drugs work by regulating neurotransmitters, the chemicals that transmit messages between neurons. They may help reduce symptoms and help with certain behavioral problems. However, these drugs dont change the underlying disease process. They are effective for some but not all people and may help only for a limited time.

    Everyone Is At Riskparticularly If You Are A Woman Or Have A Family History

    Here is the last of a three-part series on Alzheimers disease, the most common cause of memory loss and dementia. Part 1 discussed its pathology and stages. Part 2 discussed how Alzheimers disease can be diagnosed during life.

    Family history of Alzheimers disease increases the chances of developing it between twofold and fourfold

    Because Alzheimers is the most common disorder affecting thinking and memory in old age, we are all at risk for developing the disease, approaching 40 to 50% by age 85. If one has a family history of memory problems that sound like Alzheimers disease in a parent or a sibling, the risk of Alzheimers disease does rise, such that it becomes two to four times more likely that the cause of the memory problems is due to Alzheimers rather than something else. For example, if the overall risk of developing Alzheimers disease between ages 65 and 70 is about 2.5%, the risk without a family history is about 1.5%, whereas the risk with a family history is between 3 and 6%. But there is certainly a large proportion of people with a family history of Alzheimers who never develop the disease themselves.

    Genes can cause too much beta amyloid to accumulate

    Alzheimers disease is more common in women

    Alzheimers disease is not part of normal aging

    Reduce your risk of Alzheimers disease by aerobic exercise, eating healthy, and being socially active

    Key Questions:

    Q: No one in my family history had Alzheimers disease. That means I wont get it, right?

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    What Are The Key Risk Factors For Alzheimers Disease

    Although medical researchers have not yet found the exact cause of Alzheimers disease, they were able to pinpoint a series of factors that increase the risk of developing this form of dementia. When the condition starts developing in a person, multiple changes occur in the brain, which will eventually have fewer healthy cells and become considerably smaller. Moreover, the brain cells also create 2 types of flaws, namely:

    • neurofibrillary tangles, which are twisted fibers inside the brain that prevent nutrients and other essential substances from traveling from one side of the cell to another
    • beta-amyloid plaques, which are sticky clumps of protein that form between nerve cells instead of breaking down as it happens in healthy brains

    Because plaque and tangles cause damage to the nearby healthy brain cells, they will eventually die, which results in the shrinkage of the brain. It is actually these changes that lead to the development of symptoms such as memory loss and speech problems in people with Alzheimers disease.

    When it comes to risk factors, medical researchers have found several for this form of dementia, namely:

    Good News Drinking Coffee May Lower Your Risk Of Alzheimers Disease

    Get the Alzheimers Disease Treatment in Jaipur by Dr ...

    Good news for those of us who cant face the day without their morning flat white: a long-term study has revealed drinking higher amounts of coffee may make you less likely to develop Alzheimers disease.

    Good news for those of us who cant face the day without their morning flat white: a long-term study has revealed drinking higher amounts of coffee may make you less likely to develop Alzheimers disease.

    As part of the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study of aging, researchers from Edith Cowan University investigated whether coffee intake affected the rate of cognitive decline of more than 200 Australians over a decade.

    Lead investigator Dr. Samantha Gardener said results showed an association between coffee and several important markers related to Alzheimers disease.

    We found participants with no memory impairments and with higher coffee consumption at the start of the study had lower risk of transitioning to mild cognitive impairment which often precedes Alzheimers disease or developing Alzheimers disease over the course of the study, she said.

    Drinking more coffee gave positive results in relation to certain domains of cognitive function, specifically executive function which includes planning, self-control, and attention.

    Dr. Samantha Gardener. Credit: Edith Cowan University

    Its a simple thing that people can change, she said.

    Make it a double

    More than just caffeine

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    The Early Symptoms Of Alzheimers Disease You Should Look Out For

    Since Alzheimers disease is a progressive condition, meaning that it worsens over the years, there are symptoms that are specific to every stage of the disease. Family members should be aware of the early signs of Alzheimers disease if they have a relative who is elderly and at high risk of developing it. It is important to know that how fast the disease advances varies from individual to individual. During the early stage of Alzheimers disease, the primary symptom is memory lapses. Nevertheless, the person will experience other symptoms as well, such as:

    • forgetting recent conversations and events
    • having difficulty finding the right words
    • misplacing objects
    • forgetting the names of objects and places
    • asking the same question over and over
    • displaying poor judgment
    • having a hard time making decisions
    • becoming less flexible and increasingly hesitant to try new things

    The symptoms above are generally signs of mood changes such as agitation, confusion, and anxiety. During the middle stage of Alzheimers disease, the person will find it more and more difficult to remember the names of their loved ones and may also struggle to recognize their family members and friends. This stage of Alzheimers disease is usually accompanied by symptoms such as:

    What Are The Warning Signs Of Alzheimers Disease

    Watch this video play circle solid iconMemory Loss is Not a Normal Part of Aging

    Alzheimers disease is not a normal part of aging. Memory problems are typically one of the first warning signs of Alzheimers disease and related dementias.

    In addition to memory problems, someone with symptoms of Alzheimers disease may experience one or more of the following:

    • Memory loss that disrupts daily life, such as getting lost in a familiar place or repeating questions.
    • Trouble handling money and paying bills.
    • Difficulty completing familiar tasks at home, at work or at leisure.
    • Misplacing things and being unable to retrace steps to find them.
    • Changes in mood, personality, or behavior.

    Even if you or someone you know has several or even most of these signs, it doesnt mean its Alzheimers disease. Know the 10 warning signs .

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    The Basics Of Alzheimers Disease

    Scientists are conducting studies to learn more about plaques, tangles, and other biological features of Alzheimers disease. Advances in brain imaging techniques allow researchers to see the development and spread of abnormal amyloid and tau proteins in the living brain, as well as changes in brain structure and function. Scientists are also exploring the very earliest steps in the disease process by studying changes in the brain and body fluids that can be detected years before Alzheimers symptoms appear. Findings from these studies will help in understanding the causes of Alzheimers and make diagnosis easier.

    One of the great mysteries of Alzheimers disease is why it largely affects older adults. Research on normal brain aging is exploring this question. For example, scientists are learning how age-related changes in the brain may harm neurons and affect other types of brain cells to contribute to Alzheimers damage. These age-related changes include atrophy of certain parts of the brain, inflammation, blood vessel damage, production of unstable molecules called free radicals, and mitochondrial dysfunction .

    Am I At Risk For Alzheimer’s

    Reducing your risk of Alzheimer’s disease

    Whether we have seen early signs in ourselves or not, many of us want to know what our chances of getting this disease may be. Research has shown a number of possible factors that can impact your chances of getting Alzheimer’s disease, although none of these are a cause in and of themselves.

    Some ages are more at risk

    Old age is one of the most obvious risk factors. The vast majority of people develop the disease after the age of 65, and once you reach 65, your risk of getting Alzheimer’s doubles every five years. But Alzheimer’s doesn’t only affect people over 65 it has been known to affect people half that age, although this is much rarer.

    Alzheimer’s is hereditary

    A family history will also increase your risk of getting the disease. The risk increases even more if you have multiple family members who have suffered from the disease.

    Whilst this may be due to the hereditary genetic factors we will look at in more depth later, there may be other factors at play. These could include environmental factors that impact both yourself and your family.

    Gender predisposition

    Gender is another significant risk factor. The first discovery of the disease back in 1906 was in a woman, and about twice as many women as men over 65 have Alzheimer’s. This may be in part to the fact that women have a longer lifespan or may even possibly be linked to menopause.

    Genetic factors of Alzheimer’s

    Other risk factors

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