Duration Of Illness From Diagnosis To Death
Studies indicate that people age 65 and older survive an average of four to eight years after a diagnosis of Alzheimer’s dementia, yet some live as long as 20 years with Alzheimer’s dementia., – This reflects the slow, insidious and uncertain progression of Alzheimer’s. A person who lives from age 70 to age 80 with Alzheimer’s dementia will spend an average of 40% of this time in the severe stage. Much of this time will be spent in a nursing home. At age 80, approximately 75% of people with Alzheimer’s dementia live in a nursing home compared with only 4% of the general population age 80. In all, an estimated two-thirds of those who die of dementia do so in nursing homes, compared with 20% of people with cancer and 28% of people dying from all other conditions.
Incidence And Prevalence Of Ad
The Korean population aged 40 or older has increased gradually, from 19,732,425 in 2006 to 26,219,849 in 2015. The age-standardized incidence of AD during this timeframe has increased from 1.83 per 1,000 persons in 2006 to 5.21 per 1,000 in 2015. The age-standardized prevalence of AD increased from 3.17 to 15.75 per 1,000 persons between 2006 and 2015, respectively . Both the incidence and prevalence of AD showed an annual increasing trend during this timeframe . The highest annual increase in both incidence and prevalence occurred in 2009. The annual increase in the incidence and prevalence rates with regard to AD tended to be lower during the later study period .
Table 1. Age-standardized annual prevalence and incidence of Alzheimer’s disease.
The State Of Disparity In Alzheimer’s And Dementia Health Care: Adult And Caregiver Surveys
To better understand racial and ethnic attitudes and experiences regarding Alzheimer’s and dementia care in the United States, the Alzheimer’s Association commissioned Versta Research to conduct surveys of U.S. adults and current or recent caregivers of adults age 50 or older with cognitive issues. Respondents were asked about access to care and support services, trust in providers and the health care system, participation in clinical trials and research, and caregiver experiences. This is the first Alzheimer’s Association survey to ask and report the views of Asian Americans and Native Americans on these issues. It is also one of the few reports to investigate the experiences of diverse caregivers.
7.4.1 Key findings
While the majority of both White and non-White Americans trust health care providers generally, trust is somewhat weaker among Hispanic, Black and Native Americans. Asian Americans are most likely to say they trust health care providers , followed by White Americans , with lower numbers for Black Americans , Hispanic Americans and Native Americans .
Perhaps related to this, Hispanic, Black and Native Americans are twice as likely as White Americans to say they would not see a doctor if they were experiencing thinking or memory problems. Almost 1 in 10 Hispanics , Blacks and Native Americans say they would not see a health care provider, versus 1 in 25 White Americans . Six percent of Asian Americans say they would not see a health care provider.
Stage : Moderate Dementia Moderately Severe Decline
The fifth stage of Alzheimer’s disease is known as moderate dementia. Clinical evaluation and interviews in these cases are able to root out memory and cognitive deficits. Those in this stage of Alzheimer’s disease may have:3
- Trouble remembering important aspects of their life, such as their address, the names of close friends or family members, or the name of their hometown and schools
- Difficulty identifying the current date, day of the week, or season
- The inability to count down from 20 by twos or fours
- Difficulty getting dressed by themselves
Some people in this stage may retain long-term memories of major life events or the names of their spouse and children. Motor tasks such as using the restroom or eating independently may also come with ease.
Bridging Racial And Ethnic Barriers In Alzheimer’s And Dementia Care: A Path Forward
Findings from the Alzheimer’s Association surveys indicate that despite ongoing efforts to address health and health care disparities in Alzheimer’s and dementia care, there is still much work to do.
Current efforts to reduce health disparities, address social determinants of health, build diversity in the health care profession, and train health care providers to meet the needs of a growing population of older adults from different racial and ethnic groups must be accelerated. Amid broader calls for social justice, greater strides must be made to eliminate discrimination and other forms of bias to ensure all Americans have access to high quality dementia care and support services, as well as opportunities to participate in and benefit from Alzheimer’s research.
- Preparing the workforce to care for a racially and ethnically diverse population of older adults.
- Increasing diversity in dementia care.
- Engaging, recruiting and retaining diverse populations in Alzheimer’s research and clinical trials.
7.5.1 Preparing the workforce to care for a racially and ethnically diverse population of older adults
Current and future health care providers need to be prepared to screen, diagnose and treat Alzheimer’s and dementia in this expanding racially and ethnically diverse population of older adults so that disparities are not perpetuated.
7.5.2 Increasing diversity in dementia care
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About 5%6% Of Alzheimers Patients Get It Before 65 As Per Alzheimers Stats
Its called young-onset Alzheimers, and its an uncommon form of dementia. According to Alzheimers disease statistics, of 6 million Americans with Alzheimers, approximately 300,000360,000 have the young-onset form. In addition, these people develop symptoms of the disease between the ages of 30 and 60.
Alzheimers Is The Most
- Retirees are more fearful of Alzheimers than infectious diseases such as COVID-19, as well as cancer, strokes or heart attacks.
- Findings showed one-in-three of retirees listed Alzheimers as the chronic disease they feared most, 11 points higher than cancer and 13 points more than contagious diseases such as COVID-19.
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High Costs And Effects Of Caregiving
- The estimated number of caregivers for people with Alzheimers and other dementias in 2020 is 11.2 million.
- Caregivers provided 15.3 billion hours of unpaid care in 2020, valued at almost $257 billion, to people living with Alzheimers and other dementias.
- Two-thirds of dementia caregivers are women.
- The prevalence of depression is higher among dementia caregivers than other caregivers, such as those who provide help to individuals with schizophrenia or stroke .
Stage : Mild Dementia Moderate Cognitive Decline
With stage 4 Alzheimer’s disease, physicians are able to detect clear signs of Alzheimer’s disease in clinical interviews and after careful evaluation. Those with this stage of Alzheimer’s disease may experience difficulty remembering aspects of their personal life experiences and display reduced comprehension of current events. Other defining signs of this stage include:3
- Reduced understanding of current events or news
- Difficulty remembering aspects of personal history and life experiences
- Inability to repeatedly subtract by 7 starting from 100, which is found through a cognitive test
- Inability to travel independently, handle finances, or perform complicated tasks
- Denial of memory problems
- Lack of emotional expression
- Frequent withdrawal from challenging or stressful social situations
People with stage 4 Alzheimer’s disease are generally able to remember what time and day it is, where they are, and recognize familiar faces.
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Looking To The Future
With the discovery that Alzheimer’s may begin 20 years or more before the onset of symptoms, a substantial window of time has been opened to intervene in the progression of the disease. During this window of time, advances in the identification of biomarkers for Alzheimer’s will enable earlier detection of the disease, giving those affected the opportunity to address modifiable risk factors that may delay cognitive decline and participate in clinical studies of potential new treatments. Biomarker advances will also accelerate the development of these new treatments by enabling clinical trials to specifically recruit individuals with the brain changes experimental therapies target. In addition, biomarker, basic science and other research advances offer the potential to expand the field’s understanding of which therapies may be most effective at which points in the Alzheimer’s disease continuum.
Stage : Moderately Severe Dementia
A person in the sixth stage of Alzheimer’s disease has noticeable difficulty with memory and thinking. General characteristics of stage 6 include:3
- Occasional inability to remember the names of a spouse, partner, or caregiver
- Difficulty or inability to recall recent life experiences or events
- Difficulty counting down from 10.
- Needing assistance for basic daily activities, such as bathing, using the bathroom, or getting dressed
- Disrupted sleep/wake cycles, insomnia, or other sleep problems
In addition, the sixth stage is marked by changes in personality and behavioral symptoms, such as:3
- Delusional behaviors, such as the belief that spouses or caregivers are imposters, or talking to imagined people or their image in the mirror
- Obsessive symptoms, such as compulsively cleaning the same area
- Feelings of anxiety, agitation, increased irritability, or violence
- Cognitive abulia, or a loss of desire or ability to carry out an action due to the inability to focus on a thought
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What Is Alzheimers Disease
- Alzheimers disease is the most common type of dementia.
- It is a progressive disease beginning with mild memory loss and possibly leading to loss of the ability to carry on a conversation and respond to the environment.
- Alzheimers disease involves parts of the brain that control thought, memory, and language.
- It can seriously affect a persons ability to carry out daily activities.
Disproportionate Impact On Women
Globally, dementia has a disproportionate impact on women. Sixty-five percent of total deaths due to dementia are women, and disability-adjusted life years due to dementia are roughly 60% higher in women than in men. Additionally, women providethe majority of informal care for people living with dementia, accounting for 70% of carer hours.
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Alzheimers Disease In Women
Rates of Alzheimers disease are significantly higher in women, according to a report from the Alzheimers Association. The report, which grouped participants into men and women, estimated that the lifetime risk of developing Alzheimers disease is 1 in 5 for women. For men, the rate is half of that, at 1 in 10.
One of the reasons for higher rates in women is that women tend to live longer. Age is considered the biggest risk for developing Alzheimers disease. Another theory is that women born before 1950 didnt typically have as much formal education as men. Lower levels of education are associated with higher rates of Alzheimers disease.
Alzheimers disease seems to progress more quickly in women than it does in men. Research suggests that women often receive a diagnosis at later stages. Typically, women have an advantage over men when it comes to memory and recall. Its possible that changes in memory are because they could still be within a normal range on standard tests.
There may be some associations between hormonal changes over the life cycle and Alzheimers disease. Several have shown a link between earlier menopause and greater odds of developing Alzheimers disease.
Its also possible that theres something else at play that puts people at risk of both hypertensive disorders during pregnancy and Alzheimers disease in later life.
Support For Family And Friends
Currently, many people living with Alzheimers disease are cared for at home by family members. Caregiving can have positive aspects for the caregiver as well as the person being cared for. It may bring personal fulfillment to the caregiver, such as satisfaction from helping a family member or friend, and lead to the development of new skills and improved family relationships.
Although most people willingly provide care to their loved ones and friends, caring for a person with Alzheimers disease at home can be a difficult task and may become overwhelming at times. Each day brings new challenges as the caregiver copes with changing levels of ability and new patterns of behavior. As the disease gets worse, people living with Alzheimers disease often need more intensive care.
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Racial And Ethnic Disparities Exist In Alzheimer’s And Dementia Care
Racial and ethnic disparities in health and health care, such as those observed during the pandemic, extend to dementia care. Stigma, cultural differences, awareness and understanding, and the ability to obtain a diagnosis, manage the disease, and access care and support services for dementia vary widely depending on race, ethnicity and socioeconomic status. These disparities reach beyond clinical care to include uneven representation of Black, Hispanic, Asian, and Native Americans in Alzheimer’s research in clinical trials.
As discussed in the Prevalence section, health and socioeconomic disparities and systemic racism contribute to increased Alzheimer’s and dementia risk in communities of color., , , , -, , Older Black and Hispanic Americans are also disproportionately more likely to have Alzheimer’s and other dementias, as well as more likely to have missed diagnoses, than older White Americans.-, –
Caregiving for individuals with Alzheimer’s or other dementias differs between racial and ethnic groups too. These differences include the time spent on caregiving, cultural perceptions of the burden of caregiving, whether social networks provide support, and the psychological well-being of the caregiver.-,
Growing Numbers Of People With Alzheimers In The Us
About 6.2 million people in the United States are living with Alzheimers disease. Of the total U.S. population, more than 1 in 9 people age 65 and older has Alzheimers. The percentage of people with Alzheimers increases with age: 5.3% of people ages 65 to 74, 13.8% of people ages 75 to 84, and 34.6% of people 85 and older.
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What Does Alzheimers Society Do To Support Dementia Research
Alzheimers Society is a vital source of support and a powerful force for change for everyone affected by dementia.
Alzheimers Societys funded research aims to improve diagnosis, develop new treatments, and improve care and support for people living with dementia.
As a founding funder of the UK Dementia Research Institute , Alzheimer’s Society remains a proud funding partner of the Institute.
A Costly And Growing National Crisis
- In 2021, the total national cost of caring for people living with Alzheimers and other dementias is projected to reach $355 billion. This number does not include the estimated $257 billion price of unpaid caregiving.
- Medicare and Medicaid are expected to cover $239 billion, or 67%, of the total health care and long-term care payments for people with Alzheimers or other dementias. Out-of-pocket spending is expected to be $76 billion, or 22% of total payments.
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Incidence And Prevalence Of Ad By Age
The age-specific, sex-standardized incidence of AD showed an annual increase from 2006 to 2015 in all age groups. In the 6569-year age group, the incidence of AD increased from 0.25 to 0.41 per 1,000 persons between 2006 and 2010, respectively, and further increased to 0.46 per 1,000 persons in 2015. In the 7579-year age group, the incidence of AD increased from 1.00 to 1.88 per 1,000 persons between 2006 and 2010, respectively. A further increase to 2.54 per 1,000 persons was noted in 2015. In the 8589-year age group, AD incidence increased from 1.46 to 4.12 per 1,000 persons between 2006 and 2010, respectively. A further increase to 6.88 per 1,000 persons was seen in 2015. The annual increase in the incidence rate of AD was higher in older age groups and during the early study period .
Figure 1. Sex standardized age-specific annual trends in the prevalence and incidence of AD. Incidence of AD. Prevalence of AD. AD, Alzheimer’s disease.
Based on the highest Youden’s index value , the cut-off value for the diagnosis of AD was 69 years with an area under the curve of 0.92. The sensitivity, specificity, and Youden’s index values for AD with respect to specific age groups are shown in Table 2.
Table 2. Sensitivity and specificity in predicting AD by the different age cut-off.
Bonus: About Alzheimers Disease Facts
Alzheimers disease facts- history and hope.
Alzheimers disease was named based on the work of Alois Alzheimer. In the year of 1906, Dr. Alzheimer noticed usual brain lesions and clumps taken from a mentally ill woman.
Following her death, an autopsy was conducted.
Dr. Alzheimer found many abnormal clumps and tangled bundles of fibers .
These were the foundation elements that now represent the widely accepted scientific biomarkers for Alzheimers disease.
The brain is something that even researchers agree there is much they just dont yet understand.
However, through decades of active clinical trials, patient-case anomalies, and advanced technology, the knowledge base is ever-expanding.
We should even be encouraged by this.
Every notable clinical finding serves to introduce new avenues for treatment and early diagnostic techniques.
More importantly, it gives way to enhanced potential for genetic interventions.
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Progress Is Continuously Made In Finding The Best Alzheimers Disease Treatment
Alzheimers current treatments improve symptoms of memory loss, as well as thinking and reasoning issues, but only temporarily. With this in mind, future Alzheimers treatments might involve a combination of medications. Some of the ongoing treatment studies are focused on plaques, keeping tau from tangling, reducing inflammation, and researching insulin resistance.