Causes Of Frontotemporal Dementia
This is an important cause of dementia in younger people. It’s most often diagnosed between the ages of 45 and 65.
It’s caused by an abnormal clumping of proteins, including tau, in the frontal and temporal lobes at the front and sides of the brain.
The clumping of these proteins damages nerve cells in the frontal and temporal lobes, causing brain cells to die. This leads to shrinking of these areas of the brain.
Frontotemporal dementia is more likely to run in families than other, more common causes of dementia.
Read more about frontotemporal dementia.
Stage : Mild Dementia
The mild dementia stage is the point at which doctors typically diagnose Alzheimers disease. If people use a three-stage description of Alzheimers disease, this will be the early stage.
Problems with memory and thinking may become more noticeable to friends and family and also begin to affect daily life.
Symptoms of mild dementia due to Alzheimers disease include:
- having difficulty remembering newly learned information
- asking the same question repeatedly
- having trouble solving problems and completing tasks
- exhibiting reduced motivation to complete tasks
- experiencing a lapse in judgment
- becoming withdrawn or uncharacteristically irritable or angry
- having difficulty finding the correct words to describe an object or idea
- getting lost or misplacing items
Barbara Windsor: Danniella Westbrook Recalls Star Forgetting Lines
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Actress Dame Barbara Windsor has died at the age 83 after battling Alzheimers disease for several years. Her husband Scott said in a tribute: It was not the ending that Barbara or anyone else living with this very cruel disease deserves. I will always be immensely proud of Barbaras courage, dignity and generosity dealing with her own illness and still trying to help others by raising awareness for as long as she could. Alzheimers disease is a common condition in the UK and in most cases affects older people.
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How Does Alzheimer’s Kill
Alzheimer’s is a progressive, irreversible neurodegenerative disease that affects the brain gradually. Amyloid plaques and tanged fibers damage the brain, affecting different areas responsible for things like memory, language, and behavior. Eventually, as more of the brain is affected patients become unable to take care of themselves and the body starts to shut down as the brain is significantly impacted.
As for specific causes of death, that’s where things get a little tricky. Alzheimer’s is the underlying cause of death in older dementia patients, but it is not always the recorded cause of death.
A study by James, B.D., Leurgans, S.E., Hebert, L.E., et al. found that deaths resulting from complications from Alzheimer’s are often underreported. According to researchers, “An estimated 503,400 deaths in Americans aged 75 years and older were attributable to AD dementia in 2010.” This is much larger than the approximately 84,000 deaths reported on death certificates that year.
The reason for this is that Alzheimer’s is a progressive and fatal disease which leaves people unable to care for themselves. The result is that things like malnutrition, pneumonia, and even swallowing disorders can be the cause of death, but these things are a consequence of the progression of Alzheimer’s.
According to the National Institute on Aging new estimates show that, when considering underreporting, Alzheimer’s could, in fact, be the third leading cause of death for the elderly .
Causes Of Agitation And Aggression
Most of the time, agitation and aggression happen for a reason. When they happen, try to find the cause. If you deal with the causes, the behavior may stop. For example, the person may have:
Look for early signs of agitation or aggression. If you see the signs, you can deal with the cause before problem behaviors start. Try not to ignore the problem. Doing nothing can make things worse.
A doctor may be able to help. He or she can give the person a medical exam to find any problems that may cause agitation and aggression. Also, ask the doctor if medicine is needed to prevent or reduce agitation or aggression.
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What Causes Alzheimers Disease
The causes of Alzheimers disease are unknown. Scientists believe that Alzheimer’s disease may be caused by an abnormal buildup of proteins: beta-amyloid and tau. Beta-amyloid buildup forms plaques around brain cells. Tau deposits form twisted fibers called tangles within brain cells. As these proteins accumulate in and around the brain cells, the brain starts to lose its ability to function properly, this leads to loss of brain tissue, and eventually, the brain dies. The tissue damage also causes the affected parts of the brain to shrink .
Initially plaques and tangles damage parts of the brain that control memory, thought, and language. Later they spread and damage other parts of the brain, leading to neuronal degeneration and progressive cognitive decline.
Risk factors for developing Alzheimer’s disease:
The factors that increase the risk are:
- Age: Risk increases with age, affecting 15% of people older than 65 years and 50% of people older than 85 years.
- Family history: Family member with the disease increases the risk. Inherited gene mutations also increase the probability of developing the disease.
- Gender: Women have a higher risk than men.
Gene Wilder’s Death: How Do People Die From Alzheimer’s
29 August 16
Legendary comedic actor Gene Wilder has died at age 83 from complications of Alzheimer’s disease, his family announced today. But what exactly does it mean to die from Alzheimer’s?
Although Alzheimer’s disease shortens people’s life spans, it is usually not the direct cause of a person’s death, according to the Alzheimer’s Society, a charity in the United Kingdom for people with dementia. Rather, people die from complications from the illness, such as infections or blood clots.
Alzheimer’s is a progressive brain disease in which abnormal protein deposits build up in the brain, causing brain cells to die. The illness is best known for causing memory loss, but it also has other debilitating effects on the body, and can affect people’s ability to move and eat by themselves. There is no cure for the illness.
Alzheimer’s patients may have difficulty swallowing, and they may inhale food, which can result in aspiration pneumonia, Dr. Marc L. Gordon, chief of neurology at Zucker Hillside Hospital in Queens, New York, who was not involved in Wilder’s care, told Live Science in a 2014 interview. Pneumonia is listed as the cause of death in as many as two-thirds of deaths of patients with dementia, according to the Alzheimer’s Society.
Alzheimer’s patients may also become bedridden, which can increase their risk of fatal blood clots, Gordon said.
Editor’s note: Portions of this article were previously published on LiveScience.
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Stage : Moderate Decline
During this period, the problems in thinking and reasoning that you noticed in stage 3 get more obvious, and new issues appear. Your friend or family member might:
- Forget details about themselves
- Have trouble putting the right date and amount on a check
- Forget what month or season it is
- Have trouble cooking meals or even ordering from a menu
- Struggle to use the telephone
- Not understand what is said to them
- Struggle to do tasks with multiple steps like cleaning the house.
You can help with everyday chores and their safety. Make sure they aren’t driving anymore, and that no one tries to take advantage of them financially.
Can You Die From Dementia
The answer to Can dementia kill you? is complicated.
Dementia in and of itself rarely causes someone to pass away. It isnt an acute disease that immediately and heavily affects someones life, like a heart attack or stroke. If you have a loved one showing early signs of dementia, youll still have time to enjoy them.
Instead, as we mentioned above, dementia can slowly progress over time from mild to severe symptoms. As dementia progresses, it can start to affect different parts of the brain and an individuals ability to perform daily tasks. In more advanced stages, a person with dementia may be unable to walk or eat independently. Eventually, the individual will pass away either from age or complications as a result of dementia.
But is immediately dying from dementia likely? No, people who start to show signs of dementia can live joyfully for many more years with the proper care and patience from loved ones.
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Which Infections Are Thought To Be Linked To Alzheimers Disease
Some of the infections that are thought to be linked to Alzheimers include oral herpes, pneumonia and infection with spirochete bacteria .
There have also been links between Alzheimers disease and other infections that cause a long-term activation of the immune system, a process known as chronic inflammation.
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What Is Parkinsons Disease
The disease predominantly affects the basal ganglia, a group of nuclei at the base of the brain, and the substantia nigra. Nerve cells in the substantia nigra produce the neurotransmitter dopamine. They are responsible for relaying messages that plan and control body movement.
Furthermore, body movement is controlled by a complex chain of decisions involving many groups of nerve cells. These are the ganglia. Information comes to the striatum, a central area of the brain that works with the substantia nigra to send impulses back and forth from the spinal cord to the brain.
When dopamine receptors in the striatum receive an inadequate stimulus, parts of the basal ganglia are under or over-stimulated. Depending on the stimulation, this can cause movement symptoms like tremor or rigidity.
In Parkinsons disease patients, the nerve cells that produce dopamine are dying. Parkinsons disease symptoms occur when the nerve cells emit an impulse, and there is not enough dopamine to transmit it.
The 2 significant body findings in Parkinsons disease are the loss of pigmented dopaminergic nerve cells of the substantia nigra and the presence of Lewy bodies in the brain. Before the movement or motor signs of Parkinson disease emerge, approximately 60-80% of dopaminergic neurons are already lost.
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What Are The Signs Of Dementia
Common signs and symptoms of dementia include:
- Problems with short-term memory
- Trouble keeping track of personal items
- Disorientation in familiar places
Dementia affects each person uniquely, so symptoms start and progress differently from individual to individual. If you suspect that your loved one is showing signs of dementia, it may be best to take them to see a doctor for an initial screening and check-up.
Because dementia heavily affects the brain, people often wonder, Is dementia fatal? Below weve compiled some of the top questions and answers about dementias effect on an individuals physical health.
What Is The Mortality Rate For Parkinsons
Parkinsons disease is the most common movement disorder. It represents the second most common degenerative disease of the central nervous system.
Studies show that this disease affects around 1-2 people out of 1000. 1% of the population over 60 years old suffers from this disease. Nonetheless, Parkinsons is very rare before 50 years old.
The diseases appearance varies considerably on different reports, probably due to discrepancies in methodological concerns or diagnostic criteria. There is an appearance of approximately 5 to 21 new cases every year per 100.000 people. Also, statistics show that there are from 18 to 328 people with this condition per 100,000 population. Still, most of the studies estimate 120 cases per 100,000 people. Parkinsons disease is about 1.5 times more common in men than in women.
Before introducing Levodopa, Parkinsons disease caused severe disability or death in 25% of patients within five years of onset, 65% within ten years, and 90% within 15 years. After introducing levodopa, the mortality rate drops approximately 50%, and longevity extends by many years.
Nonetheless, statistics from 1999 to 2017 reveal there is an increase in deaths from this cause. In adults over 65 years, old death rates increased from 42 to 65 per 100,000 population from 1999 to 2017.
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Does Alzheimer’s Make The Brain More Susceptible To Infection
The blood-brain barrier protects the brain by controlling what substances can pass from the blood into brain tissue. In Alzheimer’s disease, the blood-brain barrier is damaged, particularly in the brain region affected by Alzheimer’s.
Evidence suggests that inflammation, the Alzheimer’s hallmark amyloid protein and the ApoE4 gene, which are all linked to Alzheimer’s disease, can contribute to the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier. Once it has been weakened, bacteria, viruses, and other harmful substances can get through into the brain more easily. This may explain why certain viruses and bacteria, such as herpes and spirochetes, are more common in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s.
Is Parkinsons Disease Fatal
It is important to understand that PD is not considered a fatal condition. As is the case with Alzheimers disease and other forms of dementia, complications and a patients comorbid conditions are more life-threatening than PD itself. For example, because Parkinsons affects movement, balance and coordination, a patients risk of falling increases as the disease progresses. Falls are notoriously dangerous and a leading cause of injury and death among older adults. Difficulty swallowing, known as dysphagia, is another complication that can develop at any point throughout ones journey with PD, and this can cause aspiration pneumoniaanother leading cause of death in patients.
Because a persons overall health is an important factor in how Parkinsons progresses, lifestyle choices are vitally important for prolonging both functionality and longevity. Regular exercise, a healthy diet, careful management of preexisting conditions and prevention of new medical issues is crucial.
It is important to work with a well-rounded medical team to understand PD symptoms, explore treatment options and devise a personalized care plan for improving ones overall health, maintaining a high quality of life, and preventing complications.
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Prevention Of Alzheimers Disease
- Stop smoking.
- Keep alcohol to a minimum by following a healthy, balanced diet that includes at least 5 servings of fruits and vegetables per day.
- At least 150 minutes of exercise per week with moderate-intensity aerobic exercise .
- The extent to which blood pressure can be checked and controlled with regular health check-ups.
It can prevent cardiovascular disease and it can take care of your cardiovascular health and minimize the risk for stroke and heart attacks
Staying mentally and socially active is one of the best ways to prevent Alzheimers disease Social connections help you stay mentally connected. Research shows that people who regularly interact with other people keep their brains working better than those who dont. Socialization has protective effects that help reduce the risk of developing Alzheimers.
- Participating in group sports such as bowling
- Finding new activities or hobbies
- Maintaining an active community
Symptoms Of Alzheimer’s Disease
In the early stages the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease can be very subtle. However, it often begins with lapses in memory and difficulty in finding the right words for everyday objects.
Other symptoms may include:
- Persistent and frequent memory difficulties, especially of recent events
- Vagueness in everyday conversation
- Apparent loss of enthusiasm for previously enjoyed activities
- Taking longer to do routine tasks
- Forgetting well-known people or places
- Inability to process questions and instructions
- Deterioration of social skills
- Emotional unpredictability
Symptoms vary and the disease progresses at a different pace according to the individual and the areas of the brain affected. A person’s abilities may fluctuate from day to day, or even within the one day, becoming worse in times of stress, fatigue or ill-health.
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Do Symptoms Get Worse
PD does not affect everyone the same way. The rate of progression and the particular symptoms differ among individuals.
PD symptoms typically begin on one side of the body. However, the disease eventually affects both sides, although symptoms are often less severe on one side than on the other.
Early symptoms of PD may be subtle and occur gradually. Affected people may feel mild tremors or have difficulty getting out of a chair. Activities may take longer to complete than in the past. Muscles stiffen and movement may be slower. The persons face may lack expression and animation . People may notice that they speak too softly or with hesitation, or that their handwriting is slow and looks cramped or small. This very early period may last a long time before the more classical and obvious motor symptoms appear.
As the disease progresses, symptoms may begin to interfere with daily activities. Affected individuals may not be able to hold utensils steady or they may find that the shaking makes reading a newspaper difficult.
People with PD often develop a so-called parkinsonian gait that includes a tendency to lean forward, taking small quick steps as if hurrying , and reduced swinging in one or both arms. They may have trouble initiating movement , and they may stop suddenly as they walk .
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Signs And Stages Of Dementia
In the early stages of dementia, subtle signs begin to present themselves. The person might lose their keys more often, forget directions when driving, or show mood swings. It can often be overlooked and unnoticed as simple ditziness or having an off day.
It can be hard to diagnose dementia in the earlier stages. According to the Global Deterioration Scale , dementia experts express the need for updated testing as its much better for the individual, caregivers, and family members to catch dementia earlier on. It can be confusing to pinpoint the onset of dementia as it often occurs with co-existing conditions, such as a stroke or physical disease.
Top traits of the early phase of dementia include:
- Confusion when trying to arrange difficult thoughts or tasks
As dementia progresses, the middle stage shows more severe signs of the beginning stage. The person will likely begin forgetting peoples names, faces, and their relationship to them. This relationship memory gap can come and go at different times, depending on the day.
They may also get easily lost in places like their local grocery store, nursing home, or even their own house. Communication can become an issue as they struggle to find the right words to express what they want to say. Major behavioral changes can occur, such as an introvert becoming suddenly extroverted and risk-seeking, or a nurturing friend becoming hostile toward peers.
Characteristics of mid-stage dementia: