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Is Dementia Related To Alzheimer’s

Preserving Your Loved Ones Independence

Alzheimer’s Disease-Related Dementias: Research Challenges and Opportunities

Take steps to slow the progression of symptoms. While treatments are available for some symptoms, lifestyle changes can also be effective weapons in slowing down the diseases progression. Exercising, eating and sleeping well, managing stress, and staying mentally and socially active are among the steps that can improve brain health and slow the process of deterioration. Making healthy lifestyle changes alongside your loved one can also help protect your own health and counter the stress of caregiving.

Help with short-term memory loss. In the early stages, your loved one may need prompts or reminders to help them remember appointments, recall words or names, keep track of medications, or manage bills and money, for example. To help your loved one maintain their independence, instead of simply taking over every task yourself, try to work together as a partnership. Let your loved one indicate when they want help remembering a word, for example, or agree to check their calculations before paying bills. Encourage them to use a notebook or smartphone to create reminders to keep on hand.

Isnt Dementia Part Of Normal Aging

No, many older adults live their entire lives without developing dementia. Normal aging may include weakening muscles and bones, stiffening of arteries and vessels, and some age-related memory changes that may show as:

  • Occasionally misplacing car keys
  • Struggling to find a word but remembering it later
  • Forgetting the name of an acquaintance
  • Forgetting the most recent events

Normally, knowledge and experiences built over years, old memories, and language would stay intact.

Phil Thompson Discusses His Fears Of Dementia

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Dr Marilyn Glenville a leading nutritionist spoke exclusively to Express.co.uk to share her expertise on balancing blood sugars, as 70 percent of diabetics go on to develop dementia. “Certain nutrients can be helpful in keeping your brain healthy,” Dr Glenville began. “Omega-3 fish oils are particularly helpful as DHA one of the major omega-3 fatty acids in the brain seems to have the most protective effect against Alzheimers.”

Causes And Risk Factors

The cause depends on the type, but the exact causes of many forms of dementia are currently unclear.

Dementia is not an inevitable part of aging, but age is one of the main risk factors. In fact, up to of people aged 85 years and older may have a type of dementia.

Also, in the United States, around 11.3% of people aged over 65 years currently have Alzheimers disease, according to the Alzheimers Association. This number rises to 34.6% in those aged 85 years and older. Symptoms tend to worsen with age.

It is possible to develop dementia at a younger age, but the condition is more common among older adults.

The Alzheimers And Dementia Care Journey

Dementia: The Basics

Caring for someone with Alzheimers disease or another type of dementia can be a long, stressful, and intensely emotional journey. But youre not alone. In the United States, there are more than 16 million people caring for someone with dementia, and many millions more around the world. As there is currently no cure for Alzheimers or dementia, it is often your caregiving and support that makes the biggest difference to your loved ones quality of life. That is a remarkable gift.

However, caregiving can also become all-consuming. As your loved ones cognitive, physical, and functional abilities gradually diminish over time, its easy to become overwhelmed, disheartened, and neglect your own health and well-being. The burden of caregiving can put you at increased risk for significant health problems and many dementia caregivers experience depression, high levels of stress, or even burnout. And nearly all Alzheimers or dementia caregivers at some time experience sadness, anxiety, loneliness, and exhaustion. Seeking help and support along the way is not a luxury; its a necessity.

Just as each individual with Alzheimers disease or dementia progresses differently, so too can the caregiving experience vary widely from person to person. However, there are strategies that can aid you as a caregiver and help make your caregiving journey as rewarding as it is challenging.

A Brief Look At Dementia

Dementia is the loss of mental functions such as thinking, memory, and reasoning that is severe enough to interfere with a person’s daily functioning. Dementia is not a disease itself, but rather a group of symptoms that are caused by various diseases or conditions. Symptoms can also include changes in personality, mood, and behavior. In some cases, the dementia can be treated and cured because the cause is treatable. Examples of this include dementia caused by substance abuse (illicit drugs and

Risk Factors For Dementia

Researchers have identified several risk factors that affect the likelihood of developing one or more kinds of dementia. Some of these factors are modifiable, while others are not.

Age. The risk of Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, and several other dementias goes up significantly with advancing age.

Genetics/family history. Researchers have discovered a number of genes that increase the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. Although people with a family history of Alzheimer’s disease are generally considered to be at a heightened risk of developing the disease themselves, many people who have relatives with Alzheimer’s disease never develop the disease, and many without a family history of the disease do get it.

In most cases, it is impossible to predict a specific person’s risk of the disorder based on family history alone. Some families with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome, or fatal familial insomnia have mutations in the prion protein gene, although these disorders can also occur in people without the gene mutation. Individuals with these mutations are at significantly higher risk of developing these forms of dementia.

Abnormal genes are also clearly implicated as risk factors in Huntington’s disease, FTDP-17, and several other kinds of dementia.

Many people with Down’s syndrome show neurological and behavioral signs of Alzheimer’s disease by the time they reach middle age.

Specific Information In This Report

Alzheimer’s Disease Facts and Figures

  • Brain changes that occur with Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Risk factors for Alzheimer’s dementia.
  • Number of Americans with Alzheimer’s dementia nationally and for each state.
  • Lifetime risk for developing Alzheimer’s dementia.
  • Proportion of women and men with Alzheimer’s and other dementias.
  • Number of deaths due to Alzheimer’s disease nationally and for each state, and death rates by age.
  • Number of family caregivers, hours of care provided, and economic value of unpaid care nationally and for each state.
  • The impact of caregiving on caregivers.
  • National cost of care for individuals with Alzheimer’s or other dementias, including costs paid by Medicare and Medicaid and costs paid out of pocket.
  • Medicare payments for people with dementia compared with people without dementia.
  • Number of geriatricians needed by state in 2050.

The Appendices detail sources and methods used to derive statistics in this report.

When possible, specific information about Alzheimer’s disease is provided; in other cases, the reference may be a more general one of âAlzheimer’s or other dementias.â

Mental Illnesses Among Older Adults

Alzheimer’s Disease or Related Dementia

Prevention & National Association of Chronic Disease Directors, 2008) Mental illnesses are very common among older adults and many times will go undiagnosed or will be misdiagnosed. This can happen because the signs of mental illnesses can be easily mistaken for the normal process of aging. Throughout this paper I will focus on the three most common types of mental illnesses among older adults, the facts of mental illnesses, how to recognize the symptoms, and properly treat/care for and older adult

More Useful Links And Resources

Risk factors.Alzheimer Society of Canada, 2021. Read about risk factors for dementia in our downloadable, print-friendly infosheet. This sheet also contains strategies and lifestyle changes that can help you reduce your risk of developing dementia.

Understanding genetics and Alzheimer’s disease.Alzheimer Society of Canada, 2018.In our downloadable, print-friendly infosheet, learn more about the role that genetics plays as a risk factor for dementia, and find out whether you should pursue genetic testing.

Risk factors and prevention. Alzheimer’s Society UK. This comprehensive webpage from the Alzheimer’s Society UK has some helpful nuggets of research and advice related to reducing your risk of dementia.

Tobacco use and dementia. World Health Organization , 2014. This report from the WHO details the evidence behind smoking tobacco as a risk factor for dementia.

Women and Dementia: Understanding sex/gender differences in the brain. brainXchange, 2018. This webinar discusses understandings of sex and gender, sex differences in Alzheimerâs disease, how the higher number of women with Alzheimer’s may be due to both, and a discussion of the role of estrogen in the health of brain regions associated with Alzheimerâs disease. In partnership with the Alzheimer Society of Canada and the Canadian Consortium of Neurodegeneration in Aging .

Common Forms Of Dementia

There are many different forms of dementia. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form and may contribute to 6070% of cases. Other major forms include vascular dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies , and a group of diseases that contribute to frontotemporal dementia . The boundaries between different forms of dementia are indistinct and mixed forms often co-exist.

What Is Alzheimers Disease Stigma

In medicine, stigma describes how a persons social status and sense of self may be tainted and devalued after being linked with a disease that has negative social connotations.1 A disease label links the person and the discrediting characteristics.1 When a clinician diagnoses a person with AD, the label implies what signs and symptoms the person may have and be expected to develop. These ideas often inform stereotypes, which are oversimplified, exaggerated, or otherwise inaccurate generalizations about individuals with the disease, and as a result, the ways people feels about themselves and how others feel about and treat them.1 Three types of stigma affect persons with AD dementia.

Public stigma describes how members of the general public have negative or pejorative beliefs that cause them to act in discriminatory, exclusionary, or patronizing ways toward either patients or persons closely associated with the patient.2 Public stigma can be overt, like discrimination, although other times it may be subtler, like a prejudicial belief that a patient is incompetent.

Treatment Of Alzheimer’s Dementia

Dementia: What Is Dementia

2.5.1 Pharmacologic treatment

None of the pharmacologic treatments available today for Alzheimer’s dementia slow or stop the damage and destruction of neurons that cause Alzheimer’s symptoms and make the disease fatal. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved five drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer’s â rivastigmine, galantamine, donepezil, memantine, and memantine combined with donepezil. With the exception of memantine, these drugs temporarily improve cognitive symptoms by increasing the amount of chemicals called neurotransmitters in the brain. Memantine blocks certain receptors in the brain from excess stimulation that can damage nerve cells. The effectiveness of these drugs varies from person to person and is limited in duration.

Many factors contribute to the difficulty of developing effective treatments for Alzheimer’s. These factors include the slow pace of recruiting sufficient numbers of participants and sufficiently diverse participants to clinical studies, gaps in knowledge about the precise molecular changes and biological processes in the brain that cause Alzheimer’s disease, and the relatively long time needed to observe whether an investigational treatment affects disease progression.

2.5.2 Non-pharmacologic therapy

Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy/brain Injury

Initial symptoms: Symptoms of brain injury include loss of consciousness, memory loss, personality and behavior changes, and slow, slurred speech.

Progression: While symptoms from a single concussion are often temporary and resolve with appropriate treatment, chronic traumatic encephalopathy typically develops over time from repeated head injuries and is generally not reversible. Later symptoms include poor decision-making ability, aggression, impaired motor function and inability to communicate effectively.

Prognosis: Life expectancy varies according to the severity of injuries.

Lifetime Risk Of Alzheimer’s Dementia

Lifetime risk is the probability that someone of a given age who does not have a particular condition will develop the condition during his or her remaining life span. Data from the Framingham Heart Study were used to estimate lifetime risks of Alzheimer’s dementia by age and sex., As shown in Figure , the study found that the estimated lifetime risk for Alzheimer’s dementia at age 45 was approximately one in five for women and one in 10 for men. The risks for both sexes were slightly higher at age 65.

FIGURE 4

Early Signs Of A Progressive Dementia

progressive dementia often bring discord to families, because siblings disagree on what is really wrong and chalk up the changes they are seeing to depression, boredom, a recent illness or even allergies. One of the family members usually suspects something like Alzheimers but the other disagree thus diagnosis is delayed.Early dementia is also known as MCI and only about half of those with this diagnosis move on to one of the more progressive dementias. So, it is

Dementia Vs Alzheimer’s: Differences And Similarities

ARTZ Yoga Program for Alzheimer’s & Related Dementia
  • Dementia vs. Alzheimer’s: Differences and Similarities Center
  • The terms dementia and Alzheimers are often used interchangeably. They, however, are not completely synonymous. Dementia is a group of symptoms characterized by a decline in memory, thinking, and reasoning. Dementia is not simply the age-related forgetfulness; it is associated with other changes as well. It hinders a person from performing their routine tasks. They find it difficult to focus, understand, concentrate, and have a conversation besides other complaints. There are several causes of dementia:

    Although dementia is a cluster of symptoms, Alzheimers is a disease. It is the commonest type of dementia consisting of around 60-80% of dementia cases. Alzheimers disease is an irreversible, slowly progressive disorder of the brain that destroys memory and thinking skills which eventually makes a person unable to carry out the most basic tasks. Most people develop this disease in their mid-60s while for some the symptoms first appear between their 30s and mid-60s. There are seven stages of Alzheimers, dementia occurs in the mid to late stages of the disease. 

    Alzheimer’s Vs Dementia Essay

    Alzheimer’s Vs. Dementia – What Is The Difference?By Carrie RobertsOct 27, 2013Alzheimer’s vs. dementia is easy to distinguish. In the early 1900s, Alois Alzheimer looked at abnormal plaques in the brain. This was the first recorded case of the possible disease. In the century that followed, scientists have made many more discoveries about Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. Unfortunately, not all is known, and there is a lot of research to go before researchers find possible cures for the illnesses

    Use And Costs Of Long

    An estimated 70% of older adults with Alzheimer’s or other dementias live in the community, compared with 98% of older adults without Alzheimer’s or other dementias. Of those with dementia who live in the community, 74% live with someone and the remaining 26% live alone. As their disease progresses, people with Alzheimer’s or other dementias generally receive more care from family members and other unpaid caregivers. Many people with dementia also receive paid services at home; in adult day centers, assisted living facilities or nursing homes; or in more than one of these settings at different times during the often long course of the disease. Medicaid is the only public program that covers the long nursing home stays that most people with dementia require in the late stages of their illnesses.

    6.3.1 Use of long-term care services by setting

    Long-term care services provided at home and in the community

    Transitions between care settings

    6.3.2 Costs of long-term care services

    Affordability of long-term care services

    Long-term care insurance

    Medicaid costs

    State

    Risk Factors For Alzheimer’s Dementia

    The vast majority of people who develop Alzheimer’s dementia are age 65 or older. This is called late-onset Alzheimer’s. Experts believe that Alzheimer’s, like other common chronic diseases, develops as a result of multiple factors rather than a single cause. Exceptions are cases of Alzheimer’s related to uncommon genetic changes that increase risk.

    2.7.1 Age, genetics and family history

    The greatest risk factors for late-onset Alzheimer’s are older age,, genetics, and having a family history of Alzheimer’s.-

    Age

    Age is the greatest of these three risk factors. As noted in the Prevalence section, the percentage of people with Alzheimer’s dementia increases dramatically with age: 3% of people age 65-74, 17% of people age 75-84 and 32% of people age 85 or older have Alzheimer’s dementia. It is important to note that Alzheimer’s dementia is not a normal part of aging, and older age alone is not sufficient to cause Alzheimer’s dementia.

    Genetics

    APOE Pair
    • One in 10 people age 65 and older has Alzheimer’s dementia.,,
    • The percentage of people with Alzheimer’s dementia increases with age: 3% of people age 65-74, 17% of people age 75-84, and 32% of people age 85 and older have Alzheimer’s dementia. People younger than 65 can also develop Alzheimer’s dementia, but it is much less common and prevalence is uncertain.

    3.1.1 Underdiagnosis of Alzheimer’s and other dementias in the primary care setting

    3.1.2 Prevalence of subjective cognitive decline

    Is There Treatment Available

    What is Dementia, What is Alzheimer

    At present there is no cure for Alzheimer’s disease. However, one group of drugs called cholinergeric drugs appears to be providing some temporary improvement in cognitive functioning for some people with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease.

    Drugs can also be prescribed for secondary symptoms such as restlessness or depression or to help the person with dementia sleep better.

    Community support is available for the person with Alzheimer’s disease, their families and carers. This support can make a positive difference to managing dementia. Dementia Australia provides support, information and counselling for people affected by dementia. Dementia Australia also aims to provide up-to-date information about drug treatments.

    Further help

    For more information contact the National Dementia Helpline on 1800 100 500.

    For a range of books and videos contact our Library.

    For advice, common sense approaches and practical strategies on the issues most commonly raised about dementia, read our Help Sheets.

    Are There Medicines To Treat Dementia

    There is no cure for dementia yet, but there are medicines that can help treat some of the symptoms of dementia. There are medications that may improve memory for a period of time. There are also medications that are effective for treating mood disorders, such as anxiety and depression, which commonly occur in people with dementia. It is also important that your provider carefully evaluates any medicine someone with dementia is taking, because some medications may make memory symptoms worse.

    How Are They Different

    When a person is diagnosed with dementia, they are being diagnosed with a set of symptoms. This is similar to someone who has a sore throat. Their throat is sore but it is not known what is causing that particular symptom. It could be allergies, a common cold or strep throat. Similarly, when someone has dementia they are experiencing symptoms without being told what is causing those symptoms.

    Another major difference between the two is that Alzheimers is not a reversible disease. It is degenerative and incurable at this time. Some forms of dementia, such as a drug interaction or a vitamin deficiency, are actually reversible or temporary.

    Once a cause of dementia is found, appropriate treatment and counseling can begin. Until a proper diagnosis is made, the best approach to any dementia is communication, engagement and loving care.

    Linking Pain And Dementia Stroke Risk

    In an interview with Medical News Today, Dr. Rebecca Edelmayer, senior director of scientific engagement for the Alzheimers Association, called the Chongqing Medical University study a very first step in trying to understand whether theres any relationship between pain and increased risk for developing all types of dementia and having a stroke.

    I was actually excited to read this paper because I was hoping to see a really in-depth study looking at the different types of pain that might put people at more risk for dementia, said Dr. Edelmayer, who completed her Ph.D. and postdoctoral training in medical pharmacology with a focus on neuropharmacology. I think this paper brings up more questions actually than answers.

    Dr. Edelmayer also pointed out that widespread pain is a broad category. She told MNT:

    What causes pain is very different across the body. It could be cancer-induced pain, inflammatory pain like arthritis, bone pain like osteoarthritis, neuropathic pain, which is sort of abnormal pain signaling and damaged nerves. Theres so many different reasons for people to be in pain.

    Additionally, one type of pain may play more of a role in changing cognition than other types of pain, according to Edelmayer. I think much more research is still needed, she said.

    Caregiving In The Late Stages Of Alzheimers Or Dementia

    What is dementia with Lewy bodies?

    As Alzheimers or another dementia reaches the late stages, your loved one will likely require 24-hour care. They may be unable to walk or handle any personal care, have difficulty eating, be vulnerable to infections, and no longer able to express their needs. Problems with incontinence, mood, hallucinations, and delirium are also very common.

    In your role as caregiver, youll likely be combining these new challenges with managing painful feelings of grief and loss and making difficult end-of-life decisions. You may even be experiencing relief that your loved ones long struggle is drawing to an end, or guilt that youve somehow failed as a caregiver. As at the other stages of your caregiving journey, its important to give yourself time to adjust, grieve your losses, and gain acceptance.

    Since the caregiving demands are so extensive in the later stages, it may no longer be possible for you to provide the necessary care for your loved one alone. If the patient needs total support for routine activities such as bathing, dressing, or turning, you may not be strong enough to handle them on your own. Or you may feel that youre unable to ease their pain or make them as comfortable youd like. In such cases, you may want to consider moving them to a care facility such as a nursing home, where they can receive high levels of both custodial and medical care.

    Connecting in the late stages of care

    Social And Economic Impact

    Dementia has significant social and economic implications in terms of direct medical and social care costs, and the costs of informal care. In 2015, the total global societal cost of dementia was estimated to be US$ 818 billion, equivalent to 1.1% of global gross domestic product . The total cost as a proportion of GDP varied from 0.2% in low- and middle-income countries to 1.4% in high-income countries.

    What Increases The Risk For Dementia

    • AgeThe strongest known risk factor for dementia is increasing age, with most cases affecting those of 65 years and older
    • Family historyThose who have parents or siblings with dementia are more likely to develop dementia themselves.
    • Race/ethnicityOlder African Americans are twice more likely to have dementia than whites. Hispanics 1.5 times more likely to have dementia than whites.
    • Poor heart healthHigh blood pressure, high cholesterol, and smoking increase the risk of dementia if not treated properly.
    • Traumatic brain injuryHead injuries can increase the risk of dementia, especially if they are severe or occur repeatedly.

    Aluminum In The Environment

    Aluminum has a non-metallic form that makes up eight per cent of the earth’s surface. In small amounts, aluminum is referred to as “trace elements”, and occur naturally in the foods we eat, in our drinking water and are even added to the water treatment process in some municipalities.

    Trace elements of aluminum may also be found in:

    • Many processed foods
    • Cosmetics and personal hygiene products, such as deodorants and nasal sprays
    • Some drugs in order to make them more effective or less irritating
    • The air we breathe from dry soil, cigarette smoke, pesticide sprays and aluminum-based paint.

    How To Understand The Difference And Why It Matters

    Dementia

    Doctors usually rely on observation and ruling out other factors to diagnose Alzheimer’s.

    En español | The terms dementia and Alzheimers have been around for more than a century, which means people have likely been mixing them up for that long, too. But knowing the difference is important.  In the simplest terms, one is broader than the other. If the two were nesting dolls, Alzheimers would fit inside dementia, but not the other way around. While Alzheimers disease is the most common form of dementia , there are several other types. The second most common form, vascular dementia, has a very different cause namely, high blood pressure. Other types of dementia include alcohol-related dementia, Parkinsons dementia and frontotemporal dementia; each has different causes as well. In addition, certain medical conditions can cause serious memory problems that resemble dementia.

    A correct diagnosis means the right medicines, remedies and support. For example, knowing that you have Alzheimers instead of another type of dementia might lead to a prescription for a cognition-enhancing drug instead of an antidepressant. Finally, you may be eligible to participate in a clinical trial for Alzheimers if youve been specifically diagnosed with the disease. 

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