Oxidative Stress In Aging Mci And Ad
Oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance of free radicals levels and antioxidant defense in the body . Increased levels of free radicals are toxic, and if not removed, they react with lipids, protein, and nucleic acids in the cell and damage cellular functions. As a result, oxidative stress affects membrane properties such as fluidity, enzymes activities, ion transport, and cross-linking of proteins. Enhanced oxidative damage eventually leads to cell death. The brain is particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress because it consumes 20% of the total body intake of oxygen , and it has limited antioxidant capacity and higher amounts of unsaturated lipids.
Several studies with human and experimental models suggest increased oxidative stress and inflammation to be important features in the aging process and in AD, which can cause neuronal dysfunction and death. Enhanced oxidative damage as evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and DNA oxidation has been demonstrated in the brain, cerebrospinal fluid , and blood samples of individuals with AD. Increased oxidative damage is also reported in the brains and blood samples of individuals with MCI, and in the CSF of individuals with early signs of dementia . Several reports suggest that A induces neuronal death by increasing oxidative stress . A generation is also increased because of oxidative stress, which then causes more oxidative damage.
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Researchers at the National University of Singapore followed almost 17,000 people from 1993 to 2016, assessing first their diets and, later, their cognitive function.
People who began eating nuts in their 40s twice a week or more were more than a fifth less likely to have problems with memory when they were over 60, compared with those who ate nuts less than around once a month.
The study, published in the journal Age and Ageing, also suggested those who ate nuts once a week experienced nearly the same benefit, as they were 19 per cent less likely to have impaired cognitive function in their 60s, 70s and 80s.
Colorful Fruits And Vegetables
The expression, eat the rainbow, remains popular for people of all ages, and for good reason. Consuming a variety of colorful fruits and vegetables provides an array of nutrients that promote optimal health.
By following a healthy rainbow plan for eating, one can ensure they are eating a more balanced diet full of all sorts of foods good for dementia. Older adults who eat three servings of vegetables and two servings of fruits have a lower risk of dementia as they are getting an array of important nutrients critical to brain health. Eating the rainbow can help seniors eat enough vegetables and fruits each day without repeating the same foods over and over, ensuring a range of nutrients are included in the diet.
The following are examples of rainbow eating, with DVs of vitamins and minerals from the NIH:
- White: A baked russet potato features 14% of the DV of vitamin B3, and a 1/2 cup serving of raw cauliflower has 29% of the DV of vitamin C.
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Are There Particular Foods And Nutrients That You Recommend Consuming On A Regular Basis
Middle-aged and elderly people or those showing early signs of memory loss should eat a variety of fresh vegetables, fruits, whole grains and cold-water fatty fish. This eating pattern resembles the Mediterranean Diet. Here are a list of foods that we recommend in our book:
- One or more servings of leafy greens per day
- Four or more servings of other vegetables per day
- Three servings of fruit per day
- One serving of legumes per day
- At least three servings of whole grains per day
- At least 1 serving of nuts or seeds per day
- Use olive oil daily
- 3-4 servings of fish per week
- One fermented food daily
- Daily green tea or coffee
Benefits Of A Diet With Walnuts In Alzheimers Disease
Alzheimers disease is a severe neurodegenerative disorder, responsible for 60-70% of cases of dementia. The most common symptoms are memory loss, disorientation and loss of cognition. To date, there is no known cure for this disease, but Dr Abha Chauhan, based at the New York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, New York, USA, has shown how supplementation with walnuts in the diet can help Alzheimers mice slow down the development of the disease. Her research demonstrates that walnuts can limit the oxidative stress characteristic of this condition, as well as promote the bodys natural antioxidant defence mechanisms.
Alzheimers disease is a severe neurodegenerative disease that primarily affects the elderly. Over the course of 5 to 20 years, patients experience gradual loss of memory, language skills and cognitive functions, with great impact on their quality of life. Although Alzheimers disease affects more than five million Americans, there is currently no known cure.
This condition develops in the brain when toxic amyloid beta-protein accumulates as amyloid plaques, which surround brain cells, leading to cell death. Although the exact mechanisms have not yet been fully uncovered, there is some evidence to point in the direction of increased oxidative stress induced by amyloid beta-protein as one of the culprits.
Although Alzheimers disease affects more than five million Americans, there is currently no known cure.
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Low To Moderate Amounts Of Alcohol
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This is a somewhat controversial one since there are some risks associated with drinking alcohol, but multiple research studies demonstrated a cognitive benefit for those who drank light to moderate amounts of alcohol. Some of this may be related to the resveratrol in red wine, but other research found this benefit in other kinds of alcohol as well.
Keep in mind that there are some people who should never drink alcohol, such as alcoholics, those with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, and those for whom it will interact with their medications.
Some Types Of Cocoa/chocolate
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Chocolate may be one of the tastiest ways to reduce the risk of dementia. Multiple studies have associated cocoa and dark chocolate with a lower chance of cognitive decline, according to a 2017 review. The important clarification is that dark chocolate, not milk chocolate, generally is going to provide the most boost to your brain.
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Nuts Can Be Good For Your Brain Unless You’re Making These 5 Mistakes
Nuts are packed with nutrients that can support the health of your noggin. But certain noshing habits could be shortchanging you.
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“Nuts have an optimal fatty acid profile for the brain, including generally high concentrations of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids. And walnuts in particular have omega-3 fatty acids,” which are excellent for your brain, explains Wendy Bazilian, DrPH, RDN, author of the âEat Clean, Stay Leanâ series and âThe Superfood Rx Dietâ.
They’re also rich in vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals that can support your health from head to toe, including fiber, vitamin E, magnesium, thiamin and zinc. And when your body as a whole is healthy, your brain will reap the benefits.
Before you go nuts with eating them though, take a look at these common mistakes. Making them could mean you’re getting less brain bang for your buck.
Why Diet Is Currently The Best Weapon Against Dementia
Population aging is one of the most substantial challenges of the twenty-first century. Not only are people living longer, but as they age, they require additional health support which is placing unprecedented pressure on aged-care and health services, said Dr. Ming Li, lead researcher.
In China, this is a massive issue, as the population is aging far more rapidly than almost any other country in the world, he added. By 2050, its predicted that 330 million Chinese will be over age 65, and 90.4 million will be over age 80, representing the worlds largest population of this most elderly age group. Worldwide, the number of people aged 60 years and older will outnumber children younger than five years old by 2020, according to the World Health Organization.
Improved and preventative health careincluding dietary modificationscan help address the challenges that an aging population presents, said Li.
One of those diet modifications, it turns out, could be adding a daily handful of nuts to your diet.
By eating more than 10 grams of nuts per day, older people could improve their cognitive function by up to 60 percent compared to those not eating nuts, effectively warding off what would normally be experienced as a natural two-year cognition decline, said Li.
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Can Eating Nuts Reverse Alzheimer’s And Dementia
Is it possible that eating nuts can help reverse cognitive loss symptoms that are already present? One study conducted with mice bred to develop a form of Alzheimer’s disease seems to suggest this possibility.
While the study was conducted using mice and not human subjects, research using mice often helps us understand how the human brain works. Some studies with mice have been replicated in humans and have achieved similar results, although it’s important to note that this does not always hold true.
In this study, the mice with Alzheimer’s disease developed memory loss, spatial disorientation, physical motor declines, anxious behaviors and a decreased ability to learnall symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease. They were divided into three groups one was fed a typical diet, a second group was given a diet that contained 6% walnuts and a third group was fed a diet with 9% walnuts.
How much is this for humans? According to the authors of the study, this would be equivalent to about 1-1.5 oz. of walnuts daily for us.
The mice were fed these diets beginning at 4 months and then were tested approximately 9-10 months later. Tests included measures of motor coordination, learning ability, memory, and anxious behavior.
Cruciferous Vegetables And Leafy Greens
Vegetables are not only tasty, but they also have essential vitamins, like B9 and folate, which have proven to reduce depression and boost cognition.
Green vegetables have more vitamins with options like collard greens, kale, spinach, cauliflower, and broccoli being some of the best choices.
Vegetables are also known to be high in carotenoids that can reduce homocysteine levels. This is an amino acid that is linked to dementia, brain atrophy, and cognitive decline.
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Alzheimers Vs Dementia: Whats The Difference
Both Alzheimers disease and dementia involve cognitive decline, but not all dementia patients have Alzheimers. Dementia is one of the main symptoms of Alzheimers, and Alzheimers is the most common type of dementia.
Alzheimers disease is caused by misshapen protein structures in the brain . Over time, the malformations kill the brain cells theyre in, limiting cognitive function.
Because Alzheimers is defined by these microscopic changes in the brain, doctors cant say for certain whether a person has Alzheimers without performing an autopsy.
The early symptoms of Alzheimers disease include:
- Difficulty finding the right words when speaking or writing
- Getting lost easily
When a patient starts to develop noticeable symptoms, Alzheimers medications may help. However, making diet and lifestyle changes seems to be just as effective, if not more so.
Mediterranean Diet Dash Diet And Mind Diet
MIND stands for Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay. Its also called the Alzheimers diet, a combined formula of the primary two diets, Mediterranean and DASH.
The Mediterranean diet and DASH diet are both known to be excellent in their own way. Their benefits go far beyond just brain-related problems they are known to help with heart disease, blood pressure, diabetes, and many other chronic problems.
However, the MIND diet used ideas from both these diet forms and created a new amalgam that was focused more on brain health. The diet has shown significant health benefits for the mind.
In Alzheimers patients, the problem of brain is common, and this diet has been designed especially for preventing or lowering its risks in profitable amounts. For Alzheimers patients, its a must-follow diet.
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Which Foods Cause The Most Greenhouse Gas Emissions
The climate impact of food is measured in terms of greenhouse gas emissions intensity. The emissions intensity is expressed in kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalents which includes not only CO2 but all greenhouse gases per kilogram of food, per gram of protein or per calorie.
Animal-based foods, especially red meat, dairy, and farmed shrimp, are generally associated with the highest greenhouse gas emissions. This is because:
- Meat production often require extensive grasslands, which is often created by cutting down trees, releasing carbon dioxide stored in forests.
- Cows and sheep emit methane as they digest grass and plants.
- The cattles waste on pastures and chemical fertilizers used on crops for cattle feed emit nitrous oxide, another powerful greenhouse gas.
- Shrimp farms often occupy coastal lands formerly covered in mangrove forests which absorb huge amounts of carbon. The large carbon footprint of shrimp or prawns is mainly due to the stored carbon that is released into the atmosphere when mangroves are cut down to create shrimp farms.
Plant-based foods such as fruits and vegetables, whole grains, beans, peas, nuts, and lentils generally use less energy, land, and water, and have lower greenhouse gas intensities than animal-based foods.
Choosing Overly Salty Or Sugary Nuts
Salt and sugar are often used to give nuts a flavor boost. But regularly getting too much sodium or added sugar can have a negative effect on cognitive health.
High sodium intake is tied to a higher dementia risk, per a May 2020 âJournal of Alzheimer’s Diseaseâ review. And excessive sugar consumption has been shown to up the odds for Alzheimer’s, dementia and stroke, found an August 2021 study in the âJournal of the Prevention of Alzheimer’s Diseaseâ.
âFix it:â One option is to stick with plain, unsalted nuts â they’re typically made without added salt or sugar. But if you like your nuts salted, it’s also fine to look for lower-sodium options made with 50 percent less salt, Bazilian says.
Try to limit your consumption of candied nuts, which are often packed with sugar.
Another idea? Experiment with flavoring plain nuts at home, so you can control the amount of salt and sugar that gets added. Try tossing them with herbs or spices, chopped fresh garlic, citrus zest or even a dusting of cocoa powder.
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Not Eating Them Often Enough
Nuts will do your brain the most good when you eat them regularly. Followers of the MIND diet, a low-sodium Mediterranean-style diet, had the lowest rates of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia when they consumed nuts, seeds and legumes five or more times per week, according to findings in the February 2015 issue of âAlzheimer’s & Dementiaâ.
âFix it:â Make it a point to work nuts into your diet most days. A simple handful makes for a satisfying snack, but that’s not your only option. Bazilian recommends:
- Adding chopped nuts to oatmeal or yogurt
- Tossing nut butter or whole soaked nuts into the blender when making a smoothie
- Using crumbled or pulverized walnuts as a meatless taco filling
- Spreading nut butters on sandwiches or toast
What Are Some Of Your Favorite Plant
I know this sounds typical of a dietitian, but I truly love salads, especially in the summer. There are so many different ways to serve saladAsian salad, César salad, cabbage salad, cucumber and tomato salad, fruit salad. They are so fresh, cool and delicious in the summer time and they are ever changing depending upon what is in season. I try to stay with local produce and base my organic purchases around the Dirty Dozen list. In the winter, I still eat salads, but they are a little heartier, I will add roasted squash or brussels sprouts, nuts and feta to salads for a bit of fall flavors.
SeAnne shared one of her favorite plant-based recipes with us.
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Discouraged Foods For Alzheimers Disease
Sugar is the primary item that should be taken off an Alzheimers patients diet, since studies have tied sugar to a chain reaction that leads to the illness symptoms. Proper diet should also be observed on all fronts, so no fatty and salty foods.
Alzheimers may be a dreaded illness, but at best it is manageable. It is possible to improve a patients quality of life, with both an effective medical regimen and care in ones diet.
*If you have any concerns or questions about your health, you should always consult your doctor before making any changes to your diet or nutrition program.
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Foods That Help With Dementia
Those researching Alzheimers and other types of dementia should spend time exploring the connection between diet and brain changes. The best foods for dementia patients to eat typically have beneficial effects on the brain and the persons overall health.
Its possible that eating a certain diet affects biological mechanisms, such as oxidative stress and inflammation that underlie Alzheimers. Or, perhaps diet works indirectly by affecting other Alzheimers risk factors, such as diabetes, obesity and heart disease, as explained by the National Institute on Aging.
Learn more about these nine types of foods that help with dementia and how to incorporate them into daily meals and senior-friendly recipes.
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