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How Do People Get Dementia

What Diagnosis Falls Under Alzheimer’s Disease

How to get dementia help without needing a nursing home

Alzheimers disease is a diagnosis in itself. When it is noticeable clinically and identified early on, the formal diagnosis may be Mild Cognitive Impairment due to Alzheimers disease which may later develop into a diagnosis of dementia due to Alzheimers disease.

  • Alzheimers Association. Stages of Alzheimers. Accessed May 27, 2021.
  • National Institute on Aging. Alzheimers Disease Fact Sheet. Content reviewed May 2019. Accessed May 27, 2021.
  • Risk Factors With Dementia

    There are different personal risk factors that cause people to fall, however, people with dementia are at greater risk because they:

    • are more likely to experience problems with mobility, balance and muscle weakness
    • can have difficulties with their memory and finding their way around
    • can have difficulties processing what they see and reacting to situations
    • may take medicines that make them drowsy, dizzy or lower their blood pressure
    • are at greater risk of feeling depressed
    • may find it difficult to communicate their worries, needs or feelings

    Each person will experience dementia in their own way, and may experience all or none of these risk factors.

    Specific Issues Of Early Onset Dementia

    As symptoms of dementia occur before the age of 65 and can, very rarely, be as early as the mid-thirties, younger people with dementia have a number of very specific issues. Most, if not all, will be employed and will have financial commitments such as mortgages. They may have young families. They will probably be fit and active. Specifically, they may struggle to find a specialist service that is equipped for the needs of early-onset dementia.

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    While At Home What Can I Do To Help My Loved One With Symptoms Of Dementia

    Many people with dementia in the early and intermediate stages are able to live independently.

    • With regular checks by a local relative or friend, they are able to live without constant supervision.
    • Those who have difficulty with activities of daily living require at least part-time help from a family caregiver or home health aide.
    • Visiting nurses can make sure that these individuals take their medications as directed.
    • Housekeeping help is available for those who cannot keep up with household chores.

    Other affected individuals require closer supervision or more constant assistance.

    • Round-the-clock help in the home is available, but it is too expensive for many.
    • Individuals who require this level of assistance may need to move from their home to the home of a family caregiver or to an assisted-living facility.
    • Many families prefer these options because they give the individual the greatest possible independence and quality of life.

    For individuals who are able to remain at home or to retain some degree of independent living, maintaining a familiar and safe environment is important.

    Individuals with dementia should remain physically, mentally, and socially active.

    A balanced diet that includes low-fat protein foods and plenty of fruits and vegetables helps maintain a healthy weight and prevents malnutrition and constipation. An individual with dementia should not smoke, both for health and for safety reasons. As a caregiver, make sure to take care of yourself.

    Social And Economic Impact

    What is Dementia?

    Dementia has significant social and economic implications in terms of direct medical and social care costs, and the costs of informal care. In 2015, the total global societal cost of dementia was estimated to be US$ 818 billion, equivalent to 1.1% of global gross domestic product . The total cost as a proportion of GDP varied from 0.2% in low- and middle-income countries to 1.4% in high-income countries.

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    Early Symptoms Of Dementia

    Overview

    Dementia is a collection of symptoms that can occur due to a variety of possible diseases. Dementia symptoms include impairments in thought, communication, and memory.

    If you or your loved one is experiencing memory problems, dont immediately conclude that its dementia. A person needs to have at least two types of impairment that significantly interfere with everyday life to receive a dementia diagnosis.

    In addition to difficulty remembering, the person may also experience impairments in:

    • language
    • reasoning

    Understanding The Causes And Finding Ways To Cope

    While some people living with Alzheimer’s disease or other types of dementia remain pleasant and easy-going throughout their lives, others develop intense feelings of anger and aggression.

    When someone with dementia lashes out at you for seemingly no reason, it’s normal to feel surprised, discouraged, hurt, irritated, and even angry at them. Learning what causes anger in dementia, and how best to respond, can help you cope.

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    At What Age Can You Test Someone For The Signs Of Dementia

    There is no one particular age that someone must meet before they can be assessed for signs of dementia, although dementia is more common in people over 65. Early-onset dementia can begin in people who are in their 30s, 40s, and 50s. Diagnosing dementia in its early stages is important as early treatment can slow the progression of symptoms and help to maintain mental functions.

    Conditions With Symptoms Similar To Dementia

    Why do people with dementia lie?

    Remember that many conditions have symptoms similar to dementia, so it is important not to assume that someone has dementia just because some of the above symptoms are present. Strokes, depression, excessive long-term alcohol consumption, infections, hormonal disorders, nutritional deficiencies and brain tumours can all cause dementia-like symptoms. Many of these conditions can be treated.

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    What Is The Clock Test For Dementia

    The clock test is a non-verbal screening tool that may be used as part of the assessment for dementia, Alzheimers, and other neurological problems. The clock test screens for cognitive impairment. The individual being screened is asked to draw a clock with the hour and minute hands pointing to a specific time. Research has shown that six potential errors in the clock testthe wrong time, no hands, missing numbers, number substitutions, repetition, and refusalcould be indicative of dementia.

    Is Dementia A Mental Illness

    Dementia is a mental health disorder as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association changed the name to Major Neurocognitive Disorder, which is a mouthful. The change was made in order to provide a clearer description of the problem. Whats most important to know is that dementias can involve changes to emotions, behaviors, perceptions, and movements in addition to memory and thinking.

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    Common Forms Of Dementia

    There are many different forms of dementia. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form and may contribute to 6070% of cases. Other major forms include vascular dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies , and a group of diseases that contribute to frontotemporal dementia . The boundaries between different forms of dementia are indistinct and mixed forms often co-exist.

    Knowing The Stages Of Dementia Helps You Plan

    Nine things that can affect whether you get dementia  and ...

    Even if the stages arent exact and symptoms can still be unpredictable, being able to plan ahead is essential.

    The truth is that Alzheimers and dementia care is expensive and time-consuming. Being financially prepared for increasing care needs is a necessity.

    On an emotional level, having an idea of what symptoms to expect helps you find ways to cope with challenging behaviors.

    It also gives you a chance to mentally prepare yourself for the inevitable changes in your older adult.

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    What Are The Symptoms Of Early

    For most people with early-onset Alzheimer disease, the symptoms closely mirror those of other forms of Alzheimer disease.

    Early symptoms:

    • Withdrawal from work and social situations

    • Changes in mood and personality

    Later symptoms:

    • Severe mood swings and behavior changes

    • Deepening confusion about time, place, and life events

    • Suspicions about friends, family, or caregivers

    • Trouble speaking, swallowing, or walking

    • Severe memory loss

    Changes In Behaviour Judgement And Moods

    Becoming quiet, withdrawn or restless or frustrated or angry can be early signs of dementia. Someone may develop repetitive behaviour for example, they ask the same question over and over again, do the same thing repeatedly or make multiple phone calls to the same person. They may become insecure and anxious or start hiding and losing items. They may withdraw from social activities or give up hobbies and interests they have enjoyed.

    They may show poor judgement, for example putting summer clothes on in cold winter months, not knowing when a kettle is full or overfilling cups when making cold and hot drinks, putting a kettle on the hob or leaving a cooker on or tap running. Someone with dementia may become very emotional and experience rapid mood swings or become quieter and less emotional than usual.

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    Annual Report To Parliament On Canada’s Dementia Strategy

    Each year the federal Minister of Health prepares a report to Parliament on the national dementia strategy.

    The 2020 Report to Parliament shares a Canada-wide overview of some of the many dementia-related efforts underway across the country. This report highlights how many different organizations, including the federal government, are supporting the strategy’s national objectives and reflects the variety of those efforts.

    How Does A Doctor Test For Dementia

    How to Talk to Someone With Dementia

    There is no single diagnostic test for Alzheimers disease and other causes of dementia. Dementias are diagnosed by evaluating and understanding a persons memory and thinking patterns. Doctors will consider a persons memory, grasp of language, mood states, problem-solving skills, ability to maintain focus and perform complex tasks. Evaluation may include in-office cognitive screening , physical examination, and review of labs. Labwork helps to determine whether there are vitamin deficiencies or hormonal changes at play. In some cases, evaluation may require neuropsychological testing, brain imaging , and genetic testing.

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    Who Is This Dementia Quiz For

    Below is a list of 10 questions designed for people who are concerned about memory loss. The questions relate to life experiences common among people who have been diagnosed with dementia, a neurocognitive disorder, and are based on criteria in the DSM-5 .

    Please read each question carefully, and indicate how often you have experienced the same or similar challenges in the past few months.

    Dementia Stages: How Fast Dementia Progresses Stages Of Dementia And More

    Dementia is a progressive impairment of cognitive function caused by damage to the brain. Over time, a person with dementia will have increased difficulty with memory, understanding, communication, and reasoning.

    Healthcare providers frequently speak about a persons dementia in terms of stages. This can be helpful for communicating with family or other healthcare providers regarding the persons illness, and it is important for determining an appropriate care plan.

    How Fast Does Dementia Progress?

    It is important to note that dementia progresses at different speeds for every person, and for different types of dementia. The most well-known form of dementia, Alzheimers disease, is just one specific type of dementia, and tends to have the slowest progression of all types. Some factors that affect the rate of progression include:

    • Age
    • Repeated infections

    What are the Stages of Dementia?

    There are a few different systems used to grade dementia — at the most basic there is early, moderate, and end. Many providers use the system developed by Dr. Barry Reisberg of New York University which includes 7 stages. The Reisberg scale is also known as the GDS or Global Deterioration Scale for Assessment of Primary Degenerative Dementia. This scale focuses primarily on cognitive abilities.

    Dementia Stages in the Reisberg Scale

    Dementia Stages in the FAST Scale

    Dementia Stages in the CDR Scale

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    Are Dementia Senility And Alzheimer’s Disease The Same Things

    • Dementia occurs most commonly in elderly people it used to be called senility and/or senile dementia, and was considered a normal part of aging. Affected people were labeled as demented. The term “senile dementia” is infrequently used in the current medical literature and has been replaced by the term “dementia.”
    • “Senile dementia,””senility,” and “demented” are older outdated terms that incorrectly label people with memory loss, confusion and other symptoms as a normal part of aging.
    • Dementia, as defined above, is a constellation of ongoing symptoms that are not part of normal aging that have a large number of different causes, for example, Alzheimer’s disease is the major cause of dementia in individuals but it is only one of many problems that can cause dementia.

      Symptoms of dementia vary considerably by the individual and the underlying cause of the dementia. Most people affected by dementia have some of these symptoms. The symptoms may be very obvious, or they may be very subtle and go unrecognized for some time. The first sign of dementia is usually loss of short-term memory. The person repeats what he just said or forgets where she put an object just a few minutes ago. Other symptoms and signs are as follows:

      Early dementia symptoms and signs

      Theres A Connection Between Heart Health And Dementia

      Pin on Top Caregiving Tips &  Advice

      Lots of evidence shows that heart health and brain health are related. This makes sense because our brains need blood, which pumps out of our hearts, to keep functioning. Conditions that can damage your heart, like coronary artery disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure, can also raise your risk of developing Alzheimers disease.

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      Understand Why Someone With Dementia Says Mean Things

      First, its important to understand why this hurtful behavior is happening.

      Dementia is a brain disease that causes parts of the brain to shrink and lose their function, resulting in cognitive impairment.

      These different parts control functions like memory, personality, behavior, and speech. Dementia also damages the ability to control impulses, which means actions arent intentional.

      Even though its difficult, do your best to remember that they truly dont intend the mean things they say.

      These mean comments and hurtful accusations often happen because the person is unable to express whats actually bothering them.

      It could be triggered by something in their environment that causes discomfort, pain, fear, anxiety, helplessness, confusion, or frustration.

      Working to accept the fact that theyre not doing this on purpose helps reduce stress and makes their behavior easier to manage.

      The overall strategy is to take a deep breath, remind yourself that its not personal, take care of immediate discomfort or fear, and try to find the cause behind the behavior.

      Next, look for long-term solutions that will help you get the support and rest you need to keep your cool in challenging situations like these.

      Causes Of Dementia With Lewy Bodies

      Lewy bodies are tiny clumps of a protein called alpha-synuclein that can develop inside brain cells.

      These clumps damage the way the cells work and communicate with each other, and the brain cells eventually die.

      Dementia with Lewy bodies is closely related to Parkinson’s disease and often has some of the same symptoms, including difficulty with movement and a higher risk of falls.

      Read more about dementia with Lewy bodies.

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      Current Practice In Diagnosing Dementia

      The remainder of this information will provide an overview of the diagnosis process and a guide to what happens after diagnosis.

      It is important to remember that there is no definitive test for diagnosing Alzheimers disease or any of the other common causes of dementia. Findings from a variety of sources and tests must be pooled before a diagnosis can be made, and the process can be complex and time consuming. Even then, uncertainty may still remain, and the diagnosis is often conveyed as possible or probable. Despite this uncertainty, a diagnosis is accurate around 90% of the time.

      People with significant memory loss without other symptoms of dementia, such as behaviour or personality changes, may be classified as having a Mild Cognitive Impairment . MCI is a relatively new concept and more research is needed to understand the relation between MCI and later development of dementia. However, MCI does not necessarily lead to dementia and regular monitoring of memory and thinking skills is recommended in individuals with this diagnosis.

      Is Dementia Inherited

      How Can You Help Someone with Dementia

      This is a question we are often asked by family members caring for a parent or grandparent. In rare cases, someone might inherit a gene from one of their parents that doesnt work properly. Having one of these rare mutations makes someone almost certain to develop early-onset Alzheimers, or frontotemporal dementia, during their lifetime. However much more commonly, people can carry risk genes. There are now over 20 risk genes linked to an altered risk of developing typical late-onset Alzheimers, but having one or more of these risk genes does not mean that developing the disease is a certainty.

      The most well-known Alzheimers risk gene is called APOE and makes a protein important for keeping our brain cells healthy. There are three different versions of this gene in the population APOE2, APOE3 and APOE4 and we inherit two copies, one from each parent.

      While having a risk gene may increase the likelihood of getting dementia, it doesnt mean a person will definitely develop it because there are many factors at play.

      People who have one copy of APOE4 are around three times more likely to be affected by Alzheimers and develop the disease at a younger age. A small number of people inherit two copies of APOE4 one from each parent. They may be more than eight times more likely to develop Alzheimers. However, due to the number of other factors that can influence Alzheimers risk, they still may never develop the disease.

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      Talking With A Doctor

      After considering the persons symptoms and ordering screening tests, the doctor may offer a preliminary diagnosis or refer the person to a Cognitive Dementia and Memory Service clinic, neurologist, geriatrician or psychiatrist.Some people may be resistant to the idea of visiting a doctor. In some cases, people do not realise, or else they deny, that there is anything wrong with them. This can be due to the brain changes of dementia that interfere with the ability to recognise or appreciate the changes occurring. Others have an insight of the changes, but may be afraid of having their fears confirmed.One of the most effective ways to overcome this problem is to find another reason for a visit to the doctor. Perhaps suggest a check-up for a symptom that the person is willing to acknowledge, such as blood pressure, or suggest a review of a long-term condition or medication.Another way is to suggest that it is time for both of you to have a physical check-up. Any expressed anxiety by the person is an excellent opportunity to suggest a visit to the doctor. Be sure to provide a lot of reassurance. A calm, caring attitude at this time can help overcome the person’s very real worries and fears.Sometimes, your friend or family member may refuse to visit the doctor to ask about their symptoms. You can take a number of actions to get support including:

      • talking with other carers who may have had to deal with similar situations
      • contacting your local Aged Care Assessment Team

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