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How Does Multi Infarct Dementia Progress

Is There Treatment Available

What is vascular dementia?

While no treatment can reverse damage that has already been done, treatment to prevent additional strokes is very important. To prevent strokes, medicines to control high blood pressure, high cholesterol, heart disease and diabetes can be prescribed. A healthy diet, exercise and avoidance of smoking and excessive alcohol also lessen the risk of further strokes. Sometimes aspirin or other drugs are prescribed to prevent clots from forming in the small blood vessels.

Drugs can also be prescribed to relieve restlessness or depression or to help the person with dementia to sleep better. In some cases surgery known as carotid endarterectomy may be recommended to remove blockage in the carotid artery, the main blood vessel to the brain. Recent research suggests that cholinesterase inhibitor medications such as Donepezil and Galantamine , which are helpful for some people with Alzheimer’s disease, may also be of some benefit to some people with Vascular dementia. However, the evidence is not yet as clear or compelling as that for the use of these medications with Alzheimer’s disease.

Support is available for the person with Vascular dementia, their families and carers. This support can make a positive difference to managing the condition. Dementia Australia provides support, information, education and counselling for people affected by dementia. Up-to-date information about drug treatments is also available from Dementia Australia.

The Progression And Stages Of Dementia

Dementia is progressive. This means symptoms may be relatively mild at first but they get worse with time. Dementia affects everyone differently, however it can be helpful to think of dementia progressing in ‘three stages’.

  • You are here: The progression and stages of dementia
  • The progression and stages of dementia

    Key Drivers Restraints And Opportunities Of Global Multi

    • Increase in the global geriatric population is the major driver of the global multi-infract dementia market. Increase in cases related to heart failure, high blood pressure, diabetes, and atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries contribute to the growth of the global market.
    • However, high cost of research and drug development for the treatment of multi-infract dementia acts as a restraint of the global multi-infract dementia market. Moreover, failure rates of clinical studies related to diagnosis and treatment are projected to hamper the growth of the global multi-infract dementia market.
    • Pipeline drug development and non-pathological treatment methods which have shown positive signs in the treatment of multi-infract dementia are anticipated to create opportunities in the global multi-infract dementia market.

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    What Happens In Vascular Dementia

    When a TIA occurs, you may notice symptoms like slurring or weakness, which resolve spontaneously after a short time. However, the acute effects can often be unnoticeable. Unfortunately, there is cumulative brain damage leading to the progressive forgetfulness, confusion and communication problems of dementia.

    Can I Have Two Different Types Of Dementia

    Dementia prof. fareed minhas

    Yes, you can. This is called mixed dementia and occurs when someone has more than one type of dementia. In many cases this might be Alzheimers disease and vascular dementia.

    Thanks to incredible supporters like you, were currently funding a range of projects that are investigating the mechanisms in the brain that cause Alzheimers disease and vascular dementia to occur alongside each other. So far, these projects have shown that a reduction in blood flow in the brain can lead to disease processes relating to both types of dementia.

    A group in Edinburgh have found that specific immune cells in the brain, microglia, are affected by a reduction in blood flow, and then go on to affect learning and memory. Meanwhile a group in London have identified that many people with Alzheimers have blood vessel damage consistent with that seen in vascular dementia, as well as having a build-up of amyloid protein, which is a key hallmark of Alzheimers disease.

    Despite many older people having both Alzheimers disease and vascular problems, relatively few are diagnosed with mixed dementia. Doctors can only diagnose mixed dementia where there are clear signs of both types of disease directly contributing to dementia symptoms.

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    What Are The Symptoms Of Vascular Dementia

    The symptoms of vascular dementia depend on the location and amount of brain tissue involved. Vascular dementia symptoms may appear suddenly after a stroke, or gradually over time. Symptoms may get worse after another stroke, a heart attack, or major surgery. These are signs and symptoms of vascular dementia

    • Increased trouble carrying out normal daily activities because of problems with concentration, communication, or inability to carry out instructions
    • Memory problems, although short-term memory may not be affected
    • Confusion, which may increase at night
    • Stroke symptoms, such as sudden weakness and trouble;with speech
    • Personality changes
    • Mood changes, such as depression or irritability
    • Stride changes when walking too fast, shuffling steps
    • Problems with movement and/or balance
    • Urinary problems, such as urgency or incontinence
    • Tremors

    Key Players Operating In Global Multi

    • The global multi-infract dementia market is highly fragmented, with the presence of large number of key players. These players hold a major share in their respective regions. Leading players operating in the global multi-infract dementia market are:
    • Accelerys, Inc.
    • Latin America
    • The Middle East and Africa

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    Early Attempts At Clinical Differentiation

    In tandem with this mechanistic differentiation of MID from AD-type dementias, accepted differences in clinical presentation of the disorders also emerged. It was established that both led to a substantial deterioration of intellectual function . However, the diverse functions of the cerebral cortex and subcortical projection nuclei in cognition left the door open for more definitive classifications. Perez et al. conducted one of the initial studies attempting to clinically delineate MID from AD by comparing scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Test with postmortem diagnosis. They found evidence that AD patients scored worse than age-matched VaD patients, but they also observed a near-chance level of misdiagnosis with MID patients . Moreover, the number, size, and location of the infarcts all impacted the degree of cognitive deficits in the MID patients , thus providing some of the earliest evidence for the heterogeneity of VaD.

    What Is The Prognosis

    Vascular dementia causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

    The prognosis for individuals with MID is generally poor. The symptoms of the disorder may begin suddenly, often in a step-wise pattern after each small stroke. Some people with MID may even appear to improve for short periods of time, then decline after having more silent strokes. The disorder generally takes a downward course with intermittent periods of rapid deterioration. Death may occur from stroke, heart disease, pneumonia, or other infection.

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    How Is This Disease Detected

    Multi-infarct dementia develops slowly. The first sign can be impaired memory, but equally could be reduced speed of thinking and confusion. Eventually this impairment becomes so serious that something is obviously wrong.

    Dementia starts to show and everyday tasks become more difficult and sometimes impossible.

    At first, the patient may suspect that something is wrong and this can be an extremely unpleasant experience. Someone with vascular dementia is at particular risk of developing anxiety or depression.

    But as the disease continues to evolve, this awareness will usually disappear. The problem is then the concern of the patient’s family and doctor, acting in the patient’s best interests.

    Renewed Hope For Treatment

    Despite the disappointments with MID treatments in prior decades, the new century brought renewed hope for efficacious pharmacological interventions . Though no treatment has yet moved beyond clinical trials to meet regulatory approval, the research communitys improved understanding of the disease raises the prospect of finding a viable intervention . A few of the drugs that initially seemed the most promising included ace tylcholinesterase inhibitors and the antihypertensive calcium channel blocker nimodipine .

    Several acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are approved for the symptomatic management of moderate AD . Among these, galantamine and donepezil showed only mild improvements in executive function, no improvement in any other clinical measures, and some deleterious side effects in early MID clinical trials .

    Nimodipine was the subject of several therapeutic trials of MID at the start of the 21st century by Pantoni et al. . As nimodipine has a vasodilatory effect on small vessels, it was thought that it would be helpful in maintaining perfusion in areas most sensitive to ischemic events . These patients showed improvement versus controls in measures of neuropsychological and executive function but not motor functions . Subsequently, it was discovered that these improvements were limited to the subgroup with subcortical lesions only . However, nimodipine has since seen little attention in further clinical trials .

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    Where To From Here

    What Is Multi

    Limited awareness of frontotemporal dementia and the diversity of its symptoms often lead to misdiagnosis or delays in diagnosis. Behavioural changes tend to be mistaken for symptoms of depression or psychiatric disorders.

    Educating the general public and health professionals about the different types of dementia and the variety of symptoms is an important step in reducing the time it takes to reach a diagnosis.

    In the absence of a cure, a major challenge is to develop appropriate and effective management strategies for those living with dementia. We hope this new research can help us find interventions for these often misunderstood symptoms.

    If you know someone with frontotemporal dementia or would like to get involved in our research, you can find more information here or contact frontier@sydney.edu.au.

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    Treatments For Vascular Dementia

    There’s currently;no cure for vascular dementia and there’s no way to reverse any loss of brain cells that happened before;the condition;was diagnosed.

    But treatment can sometimes help slow down vascular dementia.

    Treatment aims to tackle the underlying cause, which;may reduce the speed at which brain cells are lost.

    This will often involve:

    Other treatments,;including physiotherapy, occupational therapy, dementia activities and;psychological therapies,;can;help reduce the impact of any existing problems.

    North America To Capture Major Share Of Global Multi

    • North America accounted for the largest share of the global multi-infract dementia market in 2020. Unhealthy lifestyle is a major driver of the multi-infract dementia market in the region. Unhealthy lifestyle leads to diseases such as high blood pressure and diabetes, which are the primary risk factors for multi-infract dementia. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Diabetes Statistics Report for 2020, cases of diabetes have risen to an estimated 34.2 million.
    • Asia is expected to be the most lucrative market for multi-infract dementia treatment during the forecast period. The region has the largest geriatric population compared to other regions. The population is highly susceptible to multi-infract dementia. This is likely to boost the growth of the multi-infract dementia market in the region.

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    How Is Vascular Dementia Diagnosed

    In addition to a complete medical history and physical exam, your healthcare provider may order some of the following:

    • Computed tomography . This imaging test;uses X-rays and a computer to make;horizontal, or axial images of the brain. CT scans are more detailed than general X-rays.
    • FDG-PET scan. This is a PET scan of the brain that uses a special tracer to light up regions of the brain.
    • Electroencephalogram . This;test measures electrical activity in the brain
    • Magnetic resonance imaging . This;test;uses large magnets, radiofrequencies, and a computer to make;detailed images of the brain.
    • Neuropsychological assessments. These tests can help sort out vascular dementia from other types of dementia and Alzheimer’s.
    • Neuropsychiatric evaluation. This may be done to rule out a psychiatric condition that may resemble dementia.

    Outlook For Vascular Dementia

    Four Stages of Dementia: The Final Stage

    Vascular dementia will usually get worse over time. This can happen in sudden steps, with periods in between where the symptoms do not change much, but it’s difficult to predict when this will happen.

    Home-based help;will usually be needed, and some people will eventually need care in a nursing home.

    Although treatment can help, vascular dementia can significantly shorten life expectancy.

    But this is highly variable, and many people live for several years with the condition, or die from some other cause.

    If you or a loved one has been diagnosed with dementia, remember that you’re not alone. The NHS and social services,;as well as voluntary organisations, can provide advice and support for you and your family.

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    Vascular Dementia Prognosis And Life Expectancy

    Now that you have a better idea of what a vascular dementia diagnosis could look like, I am sure you are wondering, what is vascular dementia life expectancy? It is hard to accept, but there is no cure right now for vascular dementia. Treatment can slow the progression of symptoms, but the damage done to the brain cant be reversed.

    Life expectancy with vascular dementia can be hard to talk about, but the truth is that it does appear to shorten life. The most common cause of death is usually complications of dementia linked to cardiovascular disease. It is also important to know that life expectancy for someone with vascular dementia can be cut even shorter if the person has another stroke or heart attack in addition to the brain damage.

    We cant say for certain what stroke dementia life expectancy is because the symptoms vary from person-to-person, and as you can tell from the stages outlined above, the outcome can depend on how far the disease is in each sufferer. If there are other health conditions, it could have a significant impact on life expectancy. Age also plays a large role in each case. Depending on the stage of dementia, both medications and lifestyle adjustments can be applied to help prevent the disease from worsening.

    • 85 89
    • 95 99
    • 100 -106

    If you are concerned about end-stage vascular life expectancy, you should discuss it with a qualified healthcare professional.

    Symptoms And Disease Course

    Symptoms differ depending on what part and how much of the brain is affected, and can overlap with those of other types of dementia. Symptoms are likely to be more gradual and less dramatic in multi-infarct than in post-stroke dementia. For example, in multi-infarct dementia a gradual decline in some aspects of speech and language may be noticed, whereas immediately following a stroke there can be a sudden change in speech.

    Vascular dementia does generally progress, but the speed and pattern of cognitive decline, motor skills slowing, and mood changes can vary. Some individuals may experience memory loss, whereas others may exhibit changes primarily in mood and behavior.

    Like all dementias, individuals in later stages will show overall cognitive changes and will depend on others for care. Symptoms common in both post-stroke and multi-infarct type dementia can include:

    • confusion and difficulty problem-solving
    • changes in mood including loss of interest in regular activities
    • trouble finding the right word
    • motor symptoms including clumsiness and slow or unsteady gait disturbance.

    Family caregivers may find it difficult to know how to provide help when symptoms are so variable. Getting a definitive diagnosis will make it easier to provide care now and in the future.

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    Caring For Someone With Vascular Dementia

    There is no cure for . Controlling the underlying cause of the disease may help slow the decline in mental and physical abilities. Drugs for the treatment of Alzheimers disease may also work to treat symptoms and slow the progression of vascular dementia. But eventually, people with vascular dementia will lose their independence because symptoms will interfere with their ability to care for themselves.

    At first, family members will likely be able to offer the necessary care for someone with vascular dementia. Simple reminders, structured routines, and simplified tasks can help them with daily functions. Providing cues and context can be helpful for recall. But caregivers often find behavioral and personality changes difficult to deal with because they can be distressing.

    If youre caring for a loved one with vascular dementia, support is vital. There are several types of resources available to assist caregivers. Respite care and adult daycare programs are examples. Support groups can also help caregivers work through their feelings and find comfort from those in similar situations.

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