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What Type Of Memory Is Affected By Dementia

Social And Economic Impact

What is vascular dementia?

Dementia has significant social and economic implications in terms of direct medical and social care costs, and the costs of informal care. In 2015, the total global societal cost of dementia was estimated to be US$ 818 billion, equivalent to 1.1% of global gross domestic product . The total cost as a proportion of GDP varied from 0.2% in low- and middle-income countries to 1.4% in high-income countries.

What Is The Burden Of Alzheimers Disease In The United States

  • Alzheimers disease is one of the top 10 leading causes of death in the United States.2
  • The 6th leading cause of death among US adults.
  • The 5th leading cause of death among adults aged 65 years or older.3

In 2020, an estimated 5.8 million Americans aged 65 years or older had Alzheimers disease.1 This number is projected to nearly triple to 14 million people by 2060.1

In 2010, the costs of treating Alzheimers disease were projected to fall between $159 and $215 billion.4 By 2040, these costs are projected to jump to between $379 and more than $500 billion annually.4

Death rates for Alzheimers disease are increasing, unlike heart disease and cancer death rates that are on the decline.5 Dementia, including Alzheimers disease, has been shown to be under-reported in death certificates and therefore the proportion of older people who die from Alzheimers may be considerably higher.6


Dementia Vs Dementia Alzheimers Disease Different Types Of Dementia

In everyday conversation, it is common for the terms Alzheimers and dementia to be used as if they mean the same thing. A lot of people think they are interchangeable, but there are differencesClaire Sexton, Phil D.Director of Scientific and Awareness Programs in the Arab Republic of EgyptAlzheimers Association, pointing to. Knowing the difference can help you navigate the world of brain health more easily and get the right diagnosis.

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Tips For Keeping Your Memory Sharp

As yet, there is no prevention or cure for dementia. However, here are a few tips for keeping your brain fit and memory sharp:

  • Avoid harmful substances. Excessive drinking and drug abuse damages brain cells.;
  • Challenge yourself. Reading widely, keeping mentally active, and learning new skills strengthens brain connections and promotes new ones.;
  • Trust yourself more. If people feel they have control over their lives, their brain chemistry actually improves.;
  • Relax. Tension may prolong a memory loss.;
  • Make sure you get regular and adequate sleep.;
  • Eat a well balanced diet.;
  • Pay attention. Concentrate on what you want to remember.;
  • Minimise and resist distractions.;
  • Use a notepad and carry a calendar. This may not keep your memory sharp, but does compensate for any memory lapses.;
  • Organise belongings. Use a special place for unforgettables, such as car keys and glasses.;
  • Repeat names of new acquaintances in conversation.;;

How Is Amnesia Diagnosed

The Difference Between Alzheimers Disease and Dementia

Your healthcare provider may assess your memory through talking with you and observing how well you encode information they give you or how well you can recall past information. They may consult with people who know you to find out how your memory works in daily life. They may also refer you for formal memory testing, called a Neuropsychological evaluation.

To determine the cause of amnesia, your provider may order blood tests to check vitamin B1 levels, B12 levels and thyroid hormones. They may order imaging tests, such as an MRI or computed tomography scan to look for signs of brain damage, such as brain tumors or stroke. An EEG may be ordered to check for seizure activity. A spinal tap may be ordered to check for brain infections as a cause of the memory loss.

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What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Late Or Severe Dementia

  • Worsening of symptoms seen in early and intermediate dementia
  • Complete dependence on others for activities of daily living
  • May be unable to walk or move from place to place unassisted
  • Impairment of other movements such as swallowing: Increases risk of malnutrition, choking, and aspiration
  • Complete loss of short- and long-term memory: May be unable to recognize even close relatives and friends
  • Complications: Dehydration, malnutrition, problems with bladder control, infections, aspiration, seizures, pressure sores, injuries from accidents or falls

The person may not be aware of these problems, especially the behavior problems. This is especially true in the later stages of dementia.

Depression in elderly people can cause dementia-like symptoms. About 40% of people with dementia are also depressed. Common symptoms of depression include depressed mood, loss of interest in activities once enjoyed, withdrawal from others, sleep disturbances, weight gain or loss, suicidal thoughts, feelings of worthlessness, and loss of ability to think clearly or concentrate.

People with irreversible or untreated dementia present a slow, gradual decline in mental functions and movements over several years. Total dependence and death, often from infection, are the last stages.

Your Vision Is Patchy

Problems with spatial awareness can be caused by cataracts or glaucoma, but theyre also one of the early signs of dementia. This was the case with Chow, whose first Alzheimers symptoms were caused by a shrinkage of the area of the brain crucial to his ability to accurately perceive the world three-dimensionally.

A patient with posterior cortical atrophy may see the world in a patchy visual field, explains Hsiung. If the person is focusing in front while driving, he cant see things off to the side. And if hes changing lanes, he cant see other cars beside him. Meanwhile, when Chow made mistakes typing, he was having trouble seeing the whole keyboard.

Tartaglia notes that visual-spatial processing problems are especially prevalent as an early sign of Lewy body dementia, which can affect a similar area of the brain.

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What Is Known About Alzheimers Disease

Scientists do not yet fully understand what causes Alzheimers disease. There likely is not a single cause but rather several factors that can affect each person differently.

  • Age is the best known risk factor for Alzheimers disease.
  • Family historyresearchers believe that genetics may play a role in developing Alzheimers disease. However, genes do not equal destiny. A healthy lifestyle may help reduce your risk of developing Alzheimers disease. Two large, long term studies indicate that adequate physical activity, a nutritious diet, limited alcohol consumption, and not smoking may help people. To learn more about the study, you can listen to a short podcast.
  • Changes in the brain can begin years before the first symptoms appear.
  • Researchers are studying whether education, diet, and environment play a role in developing Alzheimers disease.
  • There is growing scientific evidence that healthy behaviors, which have been shown to prevent cancer, diabetes, and heart disease, may also reduce risk for subjective cognitive decline. Heres 8 ways.

How Can I Reduce My Risk Of Amnesia

What is dementia?

You can reduce your risk of the symptoms by reducing your risk for related diseases. Always wear protective equipment like a seat belt when youre in a vehicle, a helmet when youre bicycling and playing sports, and sturdy shoes to keep yourself from falling, etc. Research suggests that you can reduce your risk of developing diseases like Alzheimers with lifestyle choices:

  • Exercising. Cardiovascular exercise and strength training may be beneficial.
  • Eating a healthy, balanced diet. The Mediterranean diet is highly recommended.
  • Staying mentally active. Take a class and break out the crossword puzzles.
  • Getting plenty of sleep. Treat your insomnia and sleep apnea.
  • Stopping smoking. Theres evidence that shows that smoking increases your risk of cognitive decline.
  • Staying in touch with loved ones. Your social well-being is important just like your physical well-being.
  • Managing stress. Get treatment if you have symptoms of depression and anxiety.
  • Protecting your heart by losing weight, lowering your blood pressure and managing your diabetes.

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How Common Is Dementia

Research shows there are more than 850,000 people in the UK who have dementia. One in;14 people over the age of 65 have dementia, and the condition affects 1 in 6 people over 80.

The number of people with dementia is increasing because people are living longer. It is estimated that by 2025, the number of people with dementia in the UK will be more than 1 million.

Further information:

How Does Dementia Progress

Typically, symptoms of dementia tend to develop slowly, often over several years. In the early stages of the disease, many people with mild dementia cope with just a small amount of support and care. As the disease progresses more care is usually needed.

In the later stages of dementia, speech may be lost and severe physical problems may develop, including problems with mobility, incontinence and general frailty. This can make people more susceptible to other health problems such as infections. Often, people with dementia die from another health problem such as a severe chest infection. So, the dementia isn’t the cause of their death but has contributed to it.

Some people can live for many years after dementia has been diagnosed. However, the condition does shorten lifespan. On average, once diagnosed with dementia, people are:

  • In the mild early stage for one or two years.
  • In the moderate stage, needing help looking after themselves for another two or three years.
  • In a severe stage by four to five years after diagnosis, being completely dependent on carers and more or less completely inactive.

The average survival after diagnosis is 3-9 years, but people can survive for up to 20 years after being diagnosed with dementia.

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Where To Get Help

  • Your local community health service
  • Your local council
  • National Dementia Helpline Dementia Australia;Tel. 1800 100 500
  • Aged Care Assessment Services Tel. 1300 135 090
  • My Aged Care Tel. 1800 200 422
  • Cognitive Dementia and Memory Service clinics Tel. 1300 135 090
  • Carers Victoria Tel. 1800 242 636
  • Commonwealth Respite and Carelink Centres Tel 1800 052 222
  • Dementia Behaviour Management Advisory Service Tel. 1800 699 799 for 24-hour telephone advice for carers and care workers

Different Kinds Of Long

Memory Loss in Dementia

There are several different types of long-term memories stored in your brain. These include:

  • Semantic Memory
  • Semantic memories are part of the declarative memory and refer specifically to knowing the meaning of words and actions. An example of a semantic memory is understanding what the word “memory” means.
  • Episodic Memory
  • Episodic memories are also part of your declarative memory and encompass specific events and the information related to that experience. The memory of your best friend’s wedding, including the people who were there and the dress you wore, is an example of an episodic memory.
  • Procedural Memory
  • Procedural memories consist of how to do something, including the specific steps required to accomplish a task. Procedural memories are often more difficult to explain in words, and are known as non-declarative memories. For example, you may “just know how” to ride a bike, but find it challenging to describe every step or explain how your body balances and how your brain makes your legs work to push the pedals.
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    How To Prevent Dementia

    Just because your mother or brother has some form of dementia, it doesnt mean youre destined to have it, too. The good news is that there is Things we can do in our lives to reduce our riskSexton says. Keep active physically active, cognitively active, socially active and reduce risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Other known risk factors for dementia include obesity, high blood pressure, and diabetes, so monitoring and managing these conditions can help. Of course, theres no guarantee, but its smart to do everything you can now to reduce your chance of developing dementia later on.

    This is a very active area of research, Sexton says. She says major discoveries are on the horizon in the areas of diagnostic blood tests for dementia, modifiable risk factors such as air pollution, and risk factors that differ between different populations. So keep an eye on the news and check these sites to see if you or a loved one qualifies to participate in research studies.

    Are Dementia Senility And Alzheimer’s Disease The Same Things

    • Dementia occurs most commonly in elderly people; it used to be called senility and/or senile dementia, and was considered a normal part of aging. Affected people were labeled as demented. The term “senile dementia” is infrequently used in the current medical literature and has been replaced by the term “dementia.”
    • “Senile dementia,””senility,” and “demented” are older outdated terms that incorrectly label people with memory loss, confusion and other symptoms as a normal part of aging.
    • Dementia, as defined above, is a constellation of ongoing symptoms that are not part of normal aging that have a large number of different causes, for example, Alzheimer’s disease is the major cause of dementia in individuals but it is only one of many problems that can cause dementia.

    Symptoms of dementia vary considerably by the individual and the underlying cause of the dementia. Most people affected by dementia have some of these symptoms. The symptoms may be very obvious, or they may be very subtle and go unrecognized for some time. The first sign of dementia is usually loss of short-term memory. The person repeats what he just said or forgets where she put an object just a few minutes ago. Other symptoms and signs are as follows:

    Early dementia symptoms and signs

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    How Is Alzheimers Disease Different

    Early onset Alzheimers tends to affect learning and memory more than other types of dementia, which are likely to affect your planning or language. In the brain of a person with Alzheimers disease there are accumulations of beta-amyloid protein fragments between neurons as well as intracellular tau tangles. Scientists dont know exactly how these plaques and tangles contribute to Alzheimers disease, but some believe they sever communication between nerve cells and interfere with normal cell processes, according to Alzheimers Association. As the disease progresses and a larger part of the brain is affected, a person may experience behavioral changes, confusion, delusions, and difficulty speaking or walking. Other types of dementia can develop differently, depending on which parts of the brain are affected.

    Four Different Types Of Dementia

    Chapter 3: The different types of dementia

    Think of dementia as a tree. Dementia is the tree trunk and the branches are the various forms of dementia that extend from the trunk, each with their own set of leaves, representing the signs and symptoms. Each branch is slightly different from one another, but they still belong to the same tree.

    This guide will look at four different types of dementia: Alzheimers disease , Vascular Dementia , Lewy Body Dementia , and Frontotemporal Dementia . Youll notice that these types of dementia share similar symptoms, but there are differences in the number of cases, signs, and treatments for each.

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    Memory Loss Or Dementia

    In short, dementia, whatever the type, is characterized by various symptoms like memory losses, learning difficulties, language troubles, confusion, mood and personality changes, bad decisions, difficulty in thinking, depression, loss of interest for some activities, etc. Thus, we cant only consider memory disorders to determine if a parent is affected by Alzheimers disease or another type of dementia. In fact, cognitive problems associated with memory may, sometimes, have another origin, like drugs interaction, drinking alcohol, depression, thyroid problems or a lack of vitamins.

    If you think one of your parents suffers from Alzheimer of dementia, it is better to visit a doctor, specialized in geriatrics for example. Tell them about the behaviours and troubles that seem to touch the concerned person, in this way the doctor will be able to determine if it actually is dementia, and what type it is. Then they will direct you towards adapted treatments or approaches.

    About Visavie Home Care Services

    Since 1994, Visavie offers seniors in-home care services to preserve their autonomy and especially, continue to take advantage of the comfort of their home.

    Besides, researches have shown that for a person with Alzheimers disease, remaining in a familiar surrounding helps manage the challenges related to memory loss.

    You Forget Where Youve Put Things

    Its not unusual to occasionally forget where you stashed your keys. But if you find that youre doing this regularly, leaving the stove burner on or frequently forgetting recent events and conversations, this could be a warning sign. Commonly, says Hsiung, people with this type of memory loss will ask loved ones the same questions over and over again.

    Families can help a lot in recognizing these early symptoms, because if the persons memory is poor, they wont remember the problems they have in remembering, he says.

    This sign is one that often points to Alzheimers disease. In this type of dementia, the hippocampusthe brain area involved in forming, storing and retrieving memoriesmay be affected first. In fact, short-term memory loss is the most common symptom among people with Alzheimers disease, whereas its less often an early sign in vascular dementia and Lewy body dementia, and rarely in FTD.

    Medications and depression can also affect memory, so its important to check with your doctor, who might recommend a screening test, such as the Montreal Cognitive Assessment30 questions which quickly identify abnormal brain function.

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    What Are The Early And Later Signs And Symptoms Of Dementia

    Early signs of dementia may include:

    • Simple forgetfulness
    • Problems performing tasks or activities that were previously done without effort.
    • Difficulty with learning new material is frequently one of the earliest signs of dementia.

    Many patients with early Alzheimer’s disease or other types of dementia are unaware that they have any problem. As the disease progresses, behavioral changes can become evident.

    • Patients have difficulty performing basic tasks, such as getting dressed or using the bathroom.
    • Some patients begin to forget pieces of information about themselves, including their address or telephone number, or even their date of birth.
    • They may have difficulty understanding what is occurring around them.
    • Some patients have problems remembering to eat and may develop pronounced weight loss.
    • In the late stages of dementia, patients often cannot recognize family members and their ability to communicate effectively is markedly impaired.
    • They are no longer able to effectively care for themselves and require assistance for all activities of daily living.
    • Over time, patients can forget how to walk or even how to sit up.

    The stages of dementia are loosely grouped into mild, moderate, and severe categories by some doctors. However, there is another system of staging for dementia.


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