Understanding The Effect Of Oestrogen
Women have a lifelong relationship with the female hormone called oestrogen. Oestrogen affects the brain, mental health, the cardiovascular system, the liver and more. There have been some studies that show oestrogen might protect brain cells.
Some researchers have suggested that if a woman has more oestrogen throughout her life, she might be less likely to develop dementia.
For example, if she starts her periods at a younger age, has at least one child or goes through menopause later.
Yet, before we can think of oestrogen as a wonder drug, it has some hurdles to overcome.
Why Are More People Getting Alzheimers Disease
Have you ever wondered why there is an increase in the number of Alzheimers disease cases being diagnosed? Why is it happening? How is it happening? What is causing the increase?
There is certainly enough research going on around the world in the search for a cure or a magic pill. And many of us have been hoping for years that a cure would have been found. I was hoping they would have found a cure in 1996 when my mother had Alzheimers disease. She passed away in 2000. Its now 2015. How many peoples hopes and lives have been shattered and broken over those years.
Did you know that one of the earliest symptoms of Alzheimers disease is memory problems?
If memory problems are one of the earliest symptoms of Alzheimers disease, then we need to find out what is causing these memory problems in the first place. There always has to be a cause it just does not happen on its own. So, if you have noticed that your memory is slipping a little bit here and there, dont ignore it or pretend it is not happening. This is the time when you should be very aware and start to do something about it.
There may be a number of reasons why it is increasing. Here is one example of why there is an increase in Alzheimers disease.
Lets look at one section of the community, the 60 years and over age group. There is not a day goes by without someone having a fall. So why are falls of any interest or importance and what has it got to do with the increase in Alzheimers disease?
Can Dementia Be Prevented
Although dementia cannot be prevented, living a health-focused life might influence risk factors for certain types of dementia. Keeping blood vessels clear of cholesterol buildup, maintaining normal blood pressure, controlling blood sugar, staying at a healthy weight basically, staying as healthy as one can can keep the brain fueled with the oxygen and nutrients it needs to function at its highest possible level. Specific healthful steps you can take include:
- Follow a Mediterranean diet, which is one filled with whole grains, vegetables, fruits, fish and shellfish, nuts, beans, olive oil and only limited amounts of red meats.
- Exercise. Get at least 30 minutes of exercise most days of the week.
- Keep your brain engaged. Solve puzzles, play word games, and try other mentally stimulating activities. These activities may delay the start of dementia.
- Stay socially active. Interact with people discuss current events keep your mind, heart, and soul engaged.
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Impact On Families And Carers
In 2019, informal carers spent on average 5 hours per day providing care for people living with dementia. This can be overwhelming . Physical, emotional and financial pressures can cause great stress to families and carers, and support is required from the health, social, financial and legal systems. Fifty percent of the global cost of dementia is attributed to informal care.
Medications To Maintain Mental Function In Alzheimer’s Disease
Several medications are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat symptoms of Alzheimers. Donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine are used to treat the symptoms of mild to moderate Alzheimers. Donepezil, memantine, the rivastigmine patch, and a combination medication of memantine and donepezil are used to treat moderate to severe Alzheimers symptoms. All of these drugs work by regulating neurotransmitters, the chemicals that transmit messages between neurons. They may help reduce symptoms and help with certain behavioral problems. However, these drugs dont change the underlying disease process. They are effective for some but not all people and may help only for a limited time.
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Related Research Is Also Telling
This isnt the first time that womens hormones have been studied in relation to Alzheimers disease. Fargo brings up research presented at the 2018 Alzheimers Association International Conference in Chicago, which examined a connection between reproductive history and . Women who had three or more children were found to be at lower dementia risk than women with one child, and miscarriages were also associated with higher dementia risk. In addition, researchers studied the total number of months women had spent pregnant, as well as the ages their periods started and began.
Fargo explains that this research is still new but promising. The physical and hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy are considerable, and its important to understand what impact, if any, these changes may have on future brain health, he says. The potential link between reproduction history and brain health is intriguing, but still very much in its early stages. Much more study in this area is needed.
What Role Do Our Genes Play In Dementia
As dementia is so common, many of us will have a relative living with the condition but this does not mean we will develop it too.
Dementia is caused by diseases that affect the brain, such as Alzheimers disease. The likelihood of developing dementia will usually depend on a complex mix of factors like our age, medical history and lifestyle, as well as our genes. Most cases of dementia are not directly caused by genes we inherit from our parents.
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Icipating In Alzheimer’s Disease Clinical Trials
Everybody those with Alzheimers disease or MCI as well as healthy volunteers with or without a family history of Alzheimers may be able to take part in clinical trials and studies. Participants in Alzheimers clinical research help scientists learn how the brain changes in healthy aging and in Alzheimers. Currently, at least 270,000 volunteers are needed to participate in more than 250 active clinical trials and studies that are testing ways to understand, diagnose, treat, and prevent Alzheimers disease.
Volunteering for a clinical trial is one way to help in the fight against Alzheimers. Studies need participants of different ages, sexes, races, and ethnicities to ensure that results are meaningful for many people. To learn more about clinical trials, watch this video from NIH’s National Library of Medicine.
NIA leads the federal governments research efforts on Alzheimers. NIA-supported Alzheimers Disease Research Centers throughout the U.S. conduct a wide range of research, including studies of the causes, diagnosis, and management of the disease. NIA also sponsors the Alzheimers Clinical Trials Consortium, which is designed to accelerate and expand studies and therapies in Alzheimers and related dementias.
To learn more about Alzheimers clinical trials and studies:
- Talk to your health care provider about local studies that may be right for you.
Watch videos of participants in Alzheimers disease clinical trials talking about their experiences.
What Is Alzheimer Disease
Alzheimer disease, which affects some older people, is different from everyday forgetting. It is a condition that permanently affects the brain. Over time, the disease makes it harder to remember even basic stuff, like how to tie a shoe.
Eventually, the person may have trouble remembering the names and faces of family members or even who he or she is. This can be very sad for the person and his or her family.
It’s important to know that Alzheimer disease does not affect kids. It usually affects people over 65 years of age. Researchers have found medicines that seem to slow the disease down. And there’s hope that someday there will be a cure.
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Information About Genetic Testing
Having a test to look for a faulty gene that causes dementia is only appropriate for a very small number of people. This is because inherited dementia is rare.
If you are worried that you have a strong history family of early-onset Alzheimers disease or frontotemporal dementia, you can speak to your doctor about this.
Not all gene mutations that cause dementia have been identified, meaning that some families may have many affected members, but no mutation can be found. Therefore, a negative test result cannot always rule out a genetic cause of a disease.
If a test is appropriate, your doctor should be able to refer you to a genetic counsellor or specialist. This could be a cognitive neurologist or memory clinic psychiatrist. They will discuss with you the pros and cons of taking a test and what will be involved. They will also tell you where the results will be kept, who they will be shared with, and what the next steps would be. For people found to have a genetic mutation that causes dementia, these discussions will also cover the options available if you are considering starting a family.
To find out more about genetic testing and what support is available you can visit www.raredementiasupport.org or call 020 3325 0828. Leave a message and you will be referred to the most appropriate team member.
What Is Alzheimer’s Disease
Alzheimer’s disease is an irreversible brain disorder. It is a progressive condition that causes issues with memory, cognition, and behavior.
It was first discovered in 1906 by Dr. Alois Alzheimer, a German psychiatrist and neuropathologist. He examined the brain of a woman who had died following symptoms including memory loss, language problems, and altered behavior. He found unusual clumps in her brain, known as amyloid plaques, as well as tangles in her brain fibers that are some of the main features of Alzheimer’s disease.
Since this initial discovery, many other complex changes in the brain have been discovered among people suffering from disease, including the loss of connection between neurons.
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When Someone You Love Has Alzheimer Disease
You might feel sad or angry or both if someone you love has Alzheimer disease. You might feel nervous around the person, especially if he or she is having trouble remembering important things or can no longer take care of himself or herself.
You might not want to go visit the person, even though your mom or dad wants you to. You are definitely not alone in these feelings. Try talking with a parent or another trusted adult. Just saying what’s on your mind might help you feel better. You also may learn that the adults in your life are having struggles of their own with the situation.
If you visit a loved one who has Alzheimer disease, try to be patient. He or she may have good days and bad days. It can be sad if you can’t have fun in the same ways together. Maybe you and your grandmother liked to go to concerts. If that’s no longer possible, maybe bring her some wonderful music and listen together. It’s a way to show her that you care and showing that love is important, even if her memory is failing.
A New Theory For Alzheimer’s
Some researchers are pinning hopes on another protein called tau.
If amyloid beta is the trigger, tau may be the bullet.
“Tau is one of my favourite proteins, where there’s tau there’s cell death in the brain,” says Prof Spires-Jones.
“I think tau is very important for somehow causing the cells to get sick and die.”
However, again this is not 100% certain and there is no evidence in human trials that lowering levels of tau in the brain is going to stop neurones dying.
Focusing on neurones and dangerous proteins can miss the bigger picture of what is happening in the brain.
This is a lesson being learned from cancer, where understanding the role the immune system plays has led to a whole new branch of medicine – cancer immunotherapy.
The immune system is being heavily implicated in dementia too.
If you look at genetic mutations that increase the risk of developing dementia, then a good chunk of them are involved in the immune system.
While your brain is packed with neurones that do the “thinking” – they are ably assisted by special immune cells called microglia.
They do fight infections, but also keep the brain running smoothly by munching up anything that should not be there.
And the blood vessels in the brain are increasingly being seen as a key player, not just in vascular dementia, but other dementias too.
“That’s what at this moment is happening.”
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Stages Of Alzheimer Disease
The stages of Alzheimer disease usually follow a progressive pattern. But each person moves through the disease stages in his or her own way. Knowing these stages helps healthcare providers and family members make decisions about how to care for someone who has Alzheimer disease.
Preclinical stage. Changes in the brain begin years before a person shows any signs of the disease. This time period is called preclinical Alzheimer disease and it can last for years.
Mild, early stage. Symptoms at this stage include mild forgetfulness. This may seem like the mild forgetfulness that often comes with aging. But it may also include problems with concentration.
A person may still live independently at this stage, but may have problems:
Remembering a name
The person may be aware of memory lapses and their friends, family or neighbors may also notice these difficulties.
Moderate, middle stage. This is typically the longest stage, usually lasting many years. At this stage, symptoms include:
Increasing trouble remembering events
Problems learning new things
Trouble with planning complicated events, like a dinner
Trouble remembering their own name, but not details about their own life, such as address and phone number
Problems with reading, writing, and working with numbers
As the disease progresses, the person may:
Physical changes may occur as well. Some people have sleep problems. Wandering away from home is often a concern.
Confusion About Location And Time
The person may experience confusion about places or times. They may have difficulty keeping track of seasons, months, or times of day.
They may become confused in an unfamiliar place. As Alzheimers disease progresses, they may feel confused in familiar places or wonder how they got there. They may also start to wander and get lost.
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How Is Alzheimers Disease Treated
Alzheimers is complex, and it is therefore unlikely that any one drug or other intervention will successfully treat it in all people living with the disease.
Scientists are exploring many avenues to delay or prevent the disease as well as to treat its symptoms. In ongoing clinical trials, scientists are developing and testing several possible interventions. Under study are drug therapies aimed at a variety of disease interventions, as well as nondrug approaches such as physical activity, diet, cognitive training, and combinations of these. Just as we have many treatments for heart disease and cancer, we will likely need many options for treating Alzheimers. Precision medicine getting the right treatment to the right person at the right time will likely play a major role.
Current approaches to treating Alzheimers focus on helping people maintain mental function, treating the underlying disease process, and managing behavioral symptoms.
Symptoms Of Alzheimers Disease
Alzheimers disease typically starts slowly and the symptoms can be very subtle in the early stages. As the disease progresses, symptoms become more noticeable and interfere with daily life. The disease affects each person differently and the symptoms vary.Common symptoms include:
- persistent and frequent memory loss, especially of recent events
- vagueness in everyday conversation
- being less able to plan, problem-solve, organise and think logically
- language difficulties such as finding the right word and understanding conversations
- apparent loss of enthusiasm for previously enjoyed activities
- taking longer to do routine tasks
- becoming disoriented, even in well-known places
- inability to process questions and instructions
- deterioration of social skills
- emotional unpredictability
- changes in behaviour, personality and mood.
Symptoms vary as the disease progresses and different areas of the brain are affected. A persons abilities may fluctuate from day to day, or even within the one day, and can become worse in times of stress, fatigue or ill health.The stages of Alzheimers disease progress from mild Alzheimers disease to moderate Alzheimers disease and then severe Alzheimers disease. During severe Alzheimers disease, people need continuous care. The rate of progression between these stages differs between people.
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Alzheimers Is The Only Top
- 1 in 3 seniors dies with Alzheimers or another dementia, killing more than breast and prostate cancer combined.
- Alzheimers disease is listed as the sixth leading cause of death in the U.S. States, but it may cause more deaths than is recognized by official sources.
- The COVID-19 pandemic caused Alzheimers deaths to increase by approximately 16% more than expected.
- Deaths due to Alzheimers between 2000 and 2019 have more than doubled, increasing 145%. During the same time period, deaths from heart disease increased 7.3%.
What Are The Causes Of Young
The causes of young-onset dementia are similar to the diseases that usually cause dementia in older people. However, some causes, such as frontotemporal dementia , are more common in younger people. Dementia in younger people often has different symptoms, even when its caused by the same diseases as in older people.There is more information about some common causes of dementia, and how they can affect younger people, below.
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