Common Symptoms And Complications Treatment Options
As the disease progresses people with dementia become more and more dependent on other persons for almost all daily activities, care and treatment, t suffering considerable limitations in the last year . As shown above people with advanced dementia suffer a range of complex needs and symptoms, and symptom burden is similar to people with cancer or frailty . People with advanced dementia rarely express their needs and burdensome symptoms spontaneously, relying on their caregiversâ sensitive perception and interpretations of their verbal and nonverbal signs.
Signs Of Dying In The Elderly With Dementia
Dementia is a general term for a chronic or persistent decline in mental processes including memory loss, impaired reasoning, and personality changes. Alzheimers disease is the most common form of dementia, accounting for 60-80% of all cases of dementia. It is also the 6th leading cause of death in the United States, and over 5 million Americans are currently living with Alzheimers disease.
Alzheimers disease and most progressive dementias do not have a cure. While the disease inevitably worsens over time, that timeline can vary greatly from one patient to the next.
Caring for a loved one can be challenging and stressful, as the individuals personality changes and cognitive function declines. They may even stop recognizing their nearest and dearest friends and relatives. As dementia progresses, the individual will require more and more care. As a family caregiver, its important to be able to recognize the signs of dying in elderly with dementia. Hospice can help by offering care wherever the individual resides, providing physical, emotional and spiritual care to the patient and support their family.
Is Anger A Sign Of Dementia
Signs of dementia or other serious memory problems may also include:
- Asking the same questions or telling the same stories repeatedly.
- Becoming lost in places a person knows well.
- Not being able to follow directions.
- An impaired concept of time.
- Confusing or failing to recognize/remember people and places.
Myrian Alvarez De Eulate
Also Check: 7th Stage Of Alzheimer’s
What Happens In The Last Stage Of Dementia
A patient could spend between approximately one and three years in the last severe stage of Alzheimers. Approximately 1.8 million US adults are in the final stages of dementia at the time of writing.
As the disease progresses, a patient can do less. They become increasingly dependent on others for assistance.
Eating and swallowing become more difficult during this stage. Sometimes patients wont eat because they arent hungry or theyre simply confused.
Around the clock hospice care is usually administered to such patients.
Towards The End Of Life
It can be very difficult for family and carers to prepare for the end, but by thinking about it and making some plans, it may be a little easier. When someone reaches the final stages of life one of the main concerns is to ensure that they are comfortable and as pain free as possible. If you are concerned that the person with dementia may be in some pain or discomfort, discuss this with the doctor and nursing staff.
Also Check: Alzheimer’s Purple Ribbon
Are There Any Exceptions
While some dementia patients eat too little, others overeat. Some dementia patients may eat too much food at a time or consume meals too often.
Its also possible for patients to demonstrate excessive eating and other related eating behavioral changes because of changes in their dietary preferences.
They may even be obsessed with certain foods.
What Are The Warning Signs That Life Is Nearing An End
When an elderly person with dementia is almost bearing their end, it can be very traumatic especially for the loved ones. It is important to have an idea of what signs one needs to expect when the end comes as this can give you some sort of comfort.
When you think of a condition such as Alzheimers disease, a person can live for over 10 years with it. It is possible to make the person happy over those years. Since we are not immortals, at some point life does come to an end when you have dementia and it is something that one needs to be prepared for especially if they are caregivers.
Handling the final stage of dementia is much easier, especially when you are aware of the things that you should expect. It is important to give the person the kind of care that will award him or her dignified and peaceful death.
Usually, when a person is about to reach the end, the dementia symptoms usually get worse and this can be quite upsetting. Some of the things that you may notice include:
- Limited mobility so they may have to be bed bound
- Limited speech or no speech at all
- Double incontinence
- Difficulties swallowing and eating
It is important to note that the above symptoms do not really mean that the person will just die. There are people who can have such symptoms for quite some time. You should also remember that about two-thirds of dementia patients succumb to other ailments such as pneumonia.
Some of the other signs that can indicate that death is indeed close include:
Also Check: Quality Of Life Alzheimer’s Disease
What Are The Signs Of End
It is important for caregivers to know when an individual with dementia is close to the end of their life, because it helps ensure they receive the right amount of care at the right time. It can be difficult to know exactly when this time is due to the variable nature of dementias progression, but understanding common end-of-life symptoms of seniors with dementia can help. Below is a timeline of signs of dying in elderly people with dementia:
Final Six Months
- A diagnosis of another condition such as cancer, congestive heart failure or COPD
- An increase in hospital visits or admissions
Final Two-to-Three Months
- Speech limited to six words or less per day
- Difficulty in swallowing or choking on liquids or food
- Unable to walk or sit upright without assistance
- Hands, feet, arms and legs may be increasingly cold to the touch
- Inability to swallow
- Terminal agitation or restlessness
- An increasing amount of time asleep or drifting into unconsciousness
- Changes in breathing, including shallow breaths or periods without breathing for several seconds or up to a minute
Patients with dementia are eligible to receive hospice care if they have a diagnosis of six months or less to live if the disease progresses in a typical fashion. Once a patient begins experiencing any of the above symptoms, it is time to speak with a hospice professional about how they can help provide added care and support.
Why Do Dementia Patients Stop Talking
There are many signs that can tell you death is near for a dementia payment. Even though you may be prepared for the end, it is never easy. The ten signs that death is near include:
Also Check: Does Diet Coke Cause Memory Loss
How Many People Die From Dementia
Based onthe most recent research, nearly 6.2 million Americans over 65 suffer from dementia.
In 2019 alone, there were 121,499 deaths recorded as a result of this disease, earning it a top spot in the leading causes of death in Americans over 65.
These stark numbers likely underscore the reality of the issue. Unfortunately, as dementia progresses, people often die from infections or other secondary complications that official reports may not attribute to dementia.
Signs And Stages Of Dementia
In the early stages of dementia, subtle signs begin to present themselves. The person might lose their keys more often, forget directions when driving, or show mood swings. It can often be overlooked and unnoticed as simple ditziness or having an off day.
It can be hard to diagnose dementia in the earlier stages. According to the Global Deterioration Scale , dementia experts express the need for updated testing as its much better for the individual, caregivers, and family members to catch dementia earlier on. It can be confusing to pinpoint the onset of dementia as it often occurs with co-existing conditions, such as a stroke or physical disease.
Top traits of the early phase of dementia include:
- Confusion when trying to arrange difficult thoughts or tasks
As dementia progresses, the middle stage shows more severe signs of the beginning stage. The person will likely begin forgetting peoples names, faces, and their relationship to them. This relationship memory gap can come and go at different times, depending on the day.
They may also get easily lost in places like their local grocery store, nursing home, or even their own house. Communication can become an issue as they struggle to find the right words to express what they want to say. Major behavioral changes can occur, such as an introvert becoming suddenly extroverted and risk-seeking, or a nurturing friend becoming hostile toward peers.
Characteristics of mid-stage dementia:
Also Check: Alzheimer’s Purple Color Code
How Does A Person Die From Dementia
Can dementia kill? Alzheimer’s disease doesnt just make you forgetful. Its a serious, progressive condition which is, eventually, terminal. Alzheimers and other forms of dementia have now overtaken heart disease to become the leading cause of death in England and Wales.
The brain is responsible for more than thought, memory and understanding. It controls our bodily systems including breathing, circulation and digestion. Alzheimers kills cells in the brain. This damage initially leads to problems remembering things and communicating effectively. However, with time the brain damage affects the whole body, leading to death. This can be from a number of causes:
Dying From Dementia With Late
The death of your loved one can be a hard concept to wrap your head around and accept. But knowing what to expect can help you when your loved one has late-stage dementia. It might help to understand what’s coming in the future so you can prepare emotionally and practically.
This article explains how dementia progresses and what happens during late-stage dementia.
Read Also: Dementia Ribbon Colors
What Are The Early Signs Of Dementia
The onset of dementia is not obvious because the early signs can be vague and quite subtle. The early symptoms usually depend on the kind of dementia that one has and therefore can vary greatly from one person to the next.
Even though the signs can vary, there are some that are quite common and they include:
- Depression, apathy, and withdrawal
- Memory issues, especially when it comes to the most recent events
- Inability to handle the everyday tasks
At times, it is easy to miss to appreciate that the above symptoms could be an indication of something that is not right. Yet there are those who assume that the signs are normal and are associated with aging. It is also possible for one to develop the symptoms in a gradual manner and they may go unnoticed for quite some time.
People may not act even when they can tell that something is definitely wrong. It is important to have a checklist of all signs related to dementia and get the person the needed help when several of such signs are observed. It is important to get a more detailed assessment.
Memory loss and dementia: while it is normal to forget some things and remember later, persons with dementia tend to forget more frequently and they do not remember later.
Tasks: distractions can happen and you may forget to, say, serve one part of the family meal. For a person that has dementia, preparing the meal could be problematic and they may actually forget some of the steps that are involved.
Recognizing Approaching End Of Life
People with advanced dementia suffer from a number of distressing symptoms . In their last 12 months, nursing homes residents with dementia suffer most common from restrictions in mobility, pain, and sleeping disorder. Further frequent symptoms at the end-of-life could be identified problems with eating, trouble with breathing, apathy and anxiety. Contrary to this sleep disturbances, challenging behavior, agitation and depressive episodes occurred less frequently . Increases in distressing symptoms such as febrile infections and problems with eating and swallowing may be indicators for death in the next six months . Clinical complications such as respiratory infections are associated with highest symptom burden . Other results showed increased mortality coinciding with low body weight or low Body Mass Index . Prognostic assessment tools all include at least one criterion related to nutritional status, such as reduced appetite, inadequate food intake, malnutrition, or weight loss .
Physicians associated unexpected death with suffering and poor quality of life . Expecting death within the coming months showed positive effects on quality of end-of-life care. Prognosis estimation under six months was associated with fewer burdensome interventions in people with dementia . Among people with dementia explicitly expected to die a lower symptom burden was noticed and all of them received morphine .
Recommended Reading: What Color Ribbon For Dementia
Outlook For Vascular Dementia
Vascular dementia will usually get worse over time. This can happen in sudden steps, with periods in between where the symptoms do not change much, but it’s difficult to predict when this will happen.
Although treatment can help, vascular dementia can significantly shorten life expectancy.
But this is highly variable, and many people live for several years with the condition, or die from some other cause.
If you or a loved one has been diagnosed with dementia, remember that you’re not alone. The NHS and social services, as well as voluntary organisations, can provide advice and support for you and your family.
Comparison With Existing Literature
A recent systematic review of EOLC in dementia concluded that the literature is yet to address the particular challenges that dying with dementia poses and that there is a need for further investigation of interventions and outcome measures for EOLC in the settings where the majority of people with dementia live and die. This is consistent with the present review which has found very limited evidence concerning place of death and patient preferences for place of death in dementia.
It is of concern that one study of patient preferences found the family’s wishes to be met more often that those of patients. Studies of EOLC in the elderly have similarly found care provided to have been provided at locations different from that desired by patients . In dementia, advanced directives concerning EOLC are frequently used to restrict rather than request care .
Also Check: Smelling Farts Helps Prevent Cancer
More People Are Living Longer In The Uk
Due to medical advances, more people than ever are surviving heart disease, strokes and many cancers.
Age is the biggest risk factor for dementia, so as more people live longer, the number of people developing dementia is increasing.
Dementia is a life-limiting condition and more research is needed to find treatments that can slow or stop the diseases that cause dementia from worsening.
Where Would Patients With Dementia Prefer To Die
Only two small studies were identified that investigated dementia patients’ preferences for place of death: both studies were limited in the data provided. One did not report preferences for place of death per se, only that those enrolled with the home hospice for dementia were more likely to die at their location of choice and less likely to die in hospital . The second, a small study of group homes for people with dementia in Japan reported that 14 residents preferred to die in group home , 15 preferred home and none preferred hospital . The authors state that only six patients had died at their preferred place of death, although the authors do not report where these deaths occurred.
Don’t Miss: Alzheimer’s Ribbon Color
Check Their Advance Care Plan
You should find out if the person has an advance care plan. This document may record their preferences about the care theyd like to receive, including what they want to happen, what they dont want to happen and who they want to speak on their behalf. It may include an advance statement or an advance decision. We have information on planning ahead for patients and their families, which you might find useful.
Stage : Moderate Dementia
Patients in stage 5 need some assistance in order to carry out their daily lives. The main sign for stage 5 dementia is the inability to remember major details such as the name of a close family member or a home address. Patients may become disoriented about the time and place, have trouble making decisions, and forget basic information about themselves, such as a telephone number or address.
While moderate dementia can interfere with basic functioning, patients at this stage do not need assistance with basic functions such as using the bathroom or eating. Patients also still have the ability to remember their own names and generally the names of spouses and children.
Also Check: Does Medicare Cover Respite Care For Alzheimer’s
Other Complications Of Dementia
Dementia and pneumonia often go hand in hand. As the ability to properly swallow declines, liquids can tragically end up down the wrong pipe, often leading to infection in the lungs.
Other conditions that may lead to death include heart failure, blood clots, and dehydration. Additionally, individuals with pre-existing health conditions can be at higher risk of death with dementia.