Gender And Age Differences And The Trend In The Incidence And Prevalence Of Dementia And Alzheimers Disease In Taiwan: A 7
Susan C. Hu
1Department of Public Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan City 701, Taiwan
2Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan
3Department of Neurology, En Chu Kong Hospital, No. 399, Fuxing Road, Sanxia District, New Taipei City 23702, Taiwan
Dementia has been considered as a public health priority as it commonly leads to increase in terms of disability, mortality, and cost . The most common type of dementia is Alzheimers disease which accounts for nearly 50%70% of dementia in the world . More than 90% of dementia and AD onset occur in individuals aged 65 years and older . However, not all studies have distinguished AD from all type of dementia.
Due to the rapidly ageing population in the world, several studies have reported an increasing trend in the prevalence of dementia and AD over the past decades. Some studies have also reported increased trends in the incidence of dementia or AD over time, while other studies in high-income countries have shown no change or even a decrease in the past decades. These inconsistent results indicate the risk of dementia and AD is variable however, limited nationwide studies on the secular trend of the incidence and prevalence of dementia and AD have been conducted in Asia .
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Data Sources
2.2.1. Dementia Study
2.2.2. AD Study
Women Over 90 More Likely To Suffer Dementia Than Men
Women over 90 are much more likely to suffer dementia than men of the same age, according to a new study.
The chances of having dementia doubled every five years in women after reaching 90, but not in men, according to the findings published in the journal Neurology.
Researchers also found that better educated women appeared to be as much as 45 percent less likely to have dementia than women with less education.
The study, from the University of California, analysed 911 people in the over 90 group.
Of those, 45 percent of the women had dementia, as opposed to 28 percent of the men. The analysis did not determine when the subjects first experienced dementia or why more women developed dementia.
However, the findings revealed the chances of dementia in both men and women increased from the age of 65 to 85, from two percent for 65 to 69 year-olds, to more than 20 percent for 85 to 89 year-olds.
The most well-known type of dementia which includes several brain and body-wasting conditions- is Alzheimer’s disease and symptoms include memory loss, disorientation and changes in behaviour.
Around 700,000 people in the UK have the condition but it is estimated that this figure will reach more than one million by 2025.
Neil Hunt, chief executive of The Alzheimer’s Society said: “This comprehensive study provides new evidence that dementia affects men and women over 90 differently.
What Are The Main Reasons For Cheating
44% of men who cheated said they do it because they wanted more sex while 40% of men said they wanted more variety in sex. As for the women, 40% said they cheat out of wanting an emotional connection and 33% said they do it to feel that there are still desirable. Interestingly, 11% of women say they do it as an act of revenge.
Do you want answers to know if your relationship is part of the statistics above? We can help investigate a cheating spouse. Contact us if you?re thinking of hiring a private investigator to catch a cheating spouse today.
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Availability Of Data And Materials
The data that support the findings of this study are available from the Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology , but restrictions apply to the availability of these data, which were used under license for the current study, and so are not publicly available. Data are however available from the authors upon reasonable request and with permission of PI, Ingmar Skoog.
Does Heart Health Play A Role In Dementia Risk
We know that what is good for the heart is good for the head. Improving heart health seems to be a good way to lower dementia risk. The health of a heart affecting dementia risk might also be linked to sex. For example, high blood pressure in midlife is believed to increase risk in women but not men, even though it is more common in men.
Professor Patrick Kehoe is an Alzheimers Society funded researcher based at University of Bristol. He says:
‘It is possible that the complex relationship of oestrogen to the renin angiotensin system, which regulates blood pressure and has roles in cognitive function, influences a womans risk of developing Alzheimers. Following menopause with the influence of oestrogen on this system a woman is at greater risk of high blood pressure and so perhaps also dementia, but we need to test this in more detail.
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A Healthy Lifestyle May Offset Genetic Risk For Alzheimers
Using scans on more than 1,000 older adults, they found sex differences in how the brain uses sugar, its main energy source. Women metabolized sugar better, which may give them more ability to compensate for the damage from dementia and make them less likely to be diagnosed with it by tests that involve verbal skills.
The female advantage might mask early signs of Alzheimers and delay diagnosis, said study leader Erin Sundermann. Women are able to sustain normal verbal performance longer, partly because of better brain metabolism.
At the University of Miami, scientists analyzed genes in 30,000 people half with Alzheimers, half without it and found four that seem related to disease risk by sex.
One confers risk in females and not males and three confer risk in males but not females, said one study leader, Eden Martin.
Researchers dont know yet exactly how these genes affect risk or by how much.
Some of these look like theyre tied to the immune system and we know there are differences between males and females in how that works, said another study leader, Brian Kunkle.
Seven other genes seem to have different effect on risks in men versus women. The researchers have a National Institute on Aging grant to do an international study on nearly 100,000 people to try to validate and extend the results.
Why Is Dementia Different For Women
More women are affected by dementia than men. Worldwide, women with dementia outnumber men 2 to 1. Here we discuss the biology behind dementia risk.
Dementia risk is a complex puzzle. Understanding the differences of the sexes is one way that could help dementia researchers understand its causes and develop new treatments.
Dr Aoife Kiely, Research Communications Officer at Alzheimer’s Society, explores why being male or female could affect dementia risk and diagnosis.
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Looking To The Future
The G8 and the Prime Minister’s Challenge have committed to finding a disease modifying therapy for dementia by 2025.
With women being 65 per cent of the people affected by dementia, we must make sure that any new therapy works for them as well as men.
From lab to the pharmacy, it’s important dementia research, care and treatment can improve the lives of both men and women.
Facts About Women And Dementia
- More women are affected by dementia than men. Worldwide, women with dementia outnumber men 2 to 1.
- Brain scans tell us that the rate at which brain cells are dying in the brain is faster in women than in men.
- Women are more likely to live longer than men. However, although risk increases with age, dementia is caused by diseases of the brain not age alone.
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Anesthesia A Possible Culprit
In her study of post-operative cognitive dysfunction , Dr. Katie Schenning, an anesthesiologist at the Oregon Health & Science University in Portland, found that after receiving general anesthesia, womens brains shrunk more than mens and their cognitive abilities declined more rapidly. Schenning based her analysis on an average of seven years of follow-up data for each patient.
Most people do just fine after general anesthesia, Schenning says, and in those who develop POCD, the condition is usually temporary. But older adults have a greater risk for long-term POCD following general anesthesia, although the symptoms are sometimes mistakenly attributed to normal aging, she says.
Whether POCD is a forerunner of Alzheimers or other types of dementia is not clear, says Schenning, calling for more research.
While doctors dont know how to prevent POCD, minimizing exposure to general anesthesia could be a really great idea, Schenning says.
Common Forms Of Dementia
There are many different forms of dementia. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form and may contribute to 60-70% of cases. Other major forms include vascular dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies , and a group of diseases that contribute to frontotemporal dementia . Dementia may also develop after a stroke or in the context of certain infections such as HIV, harmful use of alcohol, repetitive physical injuries to the brain or nutritional deficiencies. The boundaries between different forms of dementia are indistinct and mixed forms often co-exist.
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Do Cheaters Tell Their Partner
According to a survey conducted in Michigan, 52.1% of their respondents who cheated came clean to their partner about their cheating while 47.9% admitted to cheating to a person other than their partner. For those who told their partners, 47.7% told their partner within a week while 26.6% fessed up within a month and 25.7% took 6 months or longer. Of those who told their partner about them cheating, 54.5% broke up immediately and 15.6% are still together.
Why Are Women More Susceptible To Alzheimers Disease
Researchers have long been aware that more women than men get Alzheimers disease, but we still are trying to understand why. The question at this point is not settled, but according to recent research, there may be biological, genetic and perhaps cultural factors in play.
More than five million people in the US have been diagnosed with Alzheimers and 2/3 of them are female. Age is considered to be the largest risk factor for getting the disease, so this has long been attributed to women just living longer than men. Women live an average of 81 years, compared to 76 for men.
However, even after we take age into account, women have a higher risk for the disease, says Richard Lipton, a physician who heads the Einstein Aging Study at Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York. More researchers are trying to understand why this is, as more female Alzheimers researchers are working in the field. These female experts say that scientific workforce diversity is critical because if women are working on the issue, it is more likely to influence the research agenda.
Current research shows that despite the traditional longevity argument, women are are 70-79 are two times as likely as men at that age to develop dementia. After 80, the risk level is about the same and remains so throughout the rest of life.
Researchers are working hard to understand why women 70-79 are twice as likely as men to develop dementia.
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Understanding The Effect Of Oestrogen
Women have a lifelong relationship with the female hormone called oestrogen. Oestrogen affects the brain, mental health, the cardiovascular system, the liver and more. There have been some studies that show oestrogen might protect brain cells.
Some researchers have suggested that if a woman has more oestrogen throughout her life, she might be less likely to develop dementia.
For example, if she starts her periods at a younger age, has at least one child or goes through menopause later.
Yet, before we can think of oestrogen as a wonder drug, it has some hurdles to overcome.
Why Women May Be More Likely To Get Alzheimers
More women than men get Alzheimers disease, in part because women tend to live longer than men and the chances of developing Alzheimers increases with age. But new research suggests there may be genetic reasons as well.
Researchers at Stanford University School of Medicine are reporting that women who carry the APOE-E4 gene, which increases the risk for Alzheimers, are more likely to develop the disease than men who have the same gene. More than one in seven people carries a copy of the APOE-E4 gene.
Everyone carries some version of the APOE gene, which plays a role in how cholesterol and fats are shuttled throughout the body. But certain variants of the gene affect Alzheimers risk. People who carry the APOE-E2 variant, for example, are less likely to develop Alzheimers, whereas those who carry the APOE-E4 variant are at increased risk.
Numerous studies going back to the early 1990s have confirmed that APOE-E4 is a key risk factor for Alzheimers disease. A single copy of APOE-E4 increases that risk twofold to fourfold, whereas carrying two copies of the gene, one from each parent, confers 10 times the risk of Alzheimers. While only about 15 percent of the general population carries the APOE-E4 gene, almost half of those with Alzheimers have the gene.
Still, carrying the APOE-E4 gene does not mean that you will develop Alzheimers. Many people who have the gene will never get the disease.
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Sex And Dementia: The Surprising Truth
Douglas Wornell MD, geriatric neuropsychiatrist and medical director, Behavioral Wellness Center, Auburn Regional Medical Center, Auburn, Washington. He also is director of Wornell Psychiatry and Associates in Fox Island, Washington, and author of Sexuality & Dementia: Compassionate & Practical Strategies for Dealing with Unexpected or Inappropriate Behaviors and Wandering Explorers: Practical Dementia for Families and Caregivers . DougWornell.com
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For a society in which the topic of sex is anything but taboo, we are shockingly silent on an aspect of sexuality that touches millions of lives. It has to do with sexuality and dementia, a condition that currently affects nearly seven million Americans and is expected to affect more and more in the future.
For some patients, dementia robs them of all sexual desire, leaving their partners feeling frustrated and bereft. For other dementia patients, sex becomes an obsession, so partners feel harassed or even afraidor perhaps guilty, because one has to ask the question of whether theres any such thing as consensual sex when one partner has dementia. And unfortunately, theres very little help available for people facing these quandaries.
Dr. Wornell, who has participated in the treatment of more than 20,000 dementia patients in the past 10 years, gave me straight and insightful answers to some difficult and delicate questions
Disproportionate Impact On Women
Globally, dementia has a disproportionate impact on women. Sixty-five percent of total deaths due to dementia are women, and disability-adjusted life years due to dementia are roughly 60% higher in women than in men. Additionally, women provide the majority of informal care for people living with dementia, accounting for 70% of carer hours.
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Is Emotional Infidelity More Common Than Sexual Infidelity
Studies show that emotional infidelity can be as dangerous as sexual infidelity more so now with the prevalence of dating sites and apps. The University of Wisconsin published a study in Evolutionary Psychology that says men and women have different perceptions regarding emotional infidelity and sexual infidelity. More men find sexual infidelity more upsetting than emotional infidelity and the opposite is true for women. With this said, 73% of women and 56% of men said they would be very upset to find out that their partner had an emotional affair with someone else.
Research Shines Light On Why Women More Likely To Develop Alzheimer’s
Protein tau may spread more rapidly in female brains than males, adding to range of factors
The reason women appear to be at greater risk of developing Alzheimers disease than men might be due to a number of genetic, anatomical and even social influences, researchers have suggested.
Recent figures show about 65% of those with living with dementia in the UK are women, with a similar statistic seen in the US for Alzheimers disease, while dementia is the leading cause of death for women in England. Alzheimers disease is only one of the types of dementia, but the most common form.
While one explanation is that dementia risk increases with age, and women have longer life expectancies than men, new research suggests there might be more to the matter, including that protein tangles found within neurons and linked to Alzheimers disease might spread differently in womens brains than mens.
The study, presented at the Alzheimers Association International Conference in Los Angeles by researchers from Vanderbilt University and which has not yet been peer-reviewed, used scans from a method called positron emission tomography. That allowed them to look at the way clumps of a protein called tau were spread in the brains of 123 men and 178 women without cognitive problems, as well as 101 men and 60 women with mild cognitive problems although not yet diagnosed with Alzheimers disease. Cognitively normal older people often have small amounts of tau in certain areas of their brain.
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Infidelity Statistics For 2020 Do Women Or Men Cheat More
Finding out that your partner is cheating hurts to the core and it may feel like you?ve got the worse luck in love, but the fact is that, around 25% of those who are married and around 40% of those in other romantic relationships experience at least one incident of cheating. In fact, a survey published in an issue of Marriage and Divorce says that 70% of all Americans get involved in some kind of affair at least once during their marriage. These numbers are no doubt, shocking. What makes them engage in infidelity? Is infidelity the norm these days? Find answers and insights on the latest infidelity statistics shared below.