Economic Impact Of Dementia
The total estimated worldwide cost of dementia was US$ 818 billion in 2015, which represents 1.09% of global GDP. The annual global cost of dementia is now above US$ 1 trillion.
This figure includes costs attributed to informal care , direct costs of social care and the direct costs of medical care .
Direct medical care costs account for roughly 20% of global dementia costs, while direct social sector costs and informal care costs each account for roughly 40%. The relative contribution of informal care is greatest in the African regions and lowest in North America, Western Europe and some South American regions, while the reverse is true for social sector costs.
This means that if global dementia care were a country, it would be the 18th largest economy in the world. More information is available in our World Alzheimer Report 2015.
Deaths Where Dementia And Alzheimers Disease Was A Contributory Factor
The following analysis will focus on deaths where dementia and Alzheimer’s disease was not the underlying cause of death but was mentioned on the death certificate as a contributory factor.
This has been carried out in line with the leading causes of death groupings, based on a list developed by the World Health Organization . This categorises causes of death using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition into groups that are epidemiologically more meaningful than single ICD-10 codes, for the purpose of comparing the most common causes of death in the population.
As mentioned previously, the number of deaths registered due to dementia and Alzheimer’s disease in England and Wales in 2019 was 66,424. However, when we consider the number of deaths involving dementia and Alzheimer’s disease , this number increases to 93,568 deaths registered .
Of the deaths where dementia and Alzheimer’s disease was mentioned on the death certificate but not as the underlying cause, the most common underlying cause for males was cerebrovascular diseases and Parkinson’s disease , and the most common underlying cause for females was cerebrovascular disease . Table 2a and 2b show what other causes were most common as underlying causes of death where dementia and Alzheimer’s disease was mentioned on the death certificate.
The Top 10 Causes Of Death
In 2019, the top 10 causes of death accounted for 55% of the 55.4 million deaths worldwide.
The top global causes of death, in order of total number of lives lost, are associated with three broad topics: cardiovascular , respiratory and neonatal conditions which include birth asphyxia and birth trauma, neonatal sepsis and infections, and preterm birth complications.
Causes of death can be grouped into three categories: communicable , noncommunicable and injuries.
Trends In Dementia Caregiving
There is some indication that families are now better at managing the care they provide to relatives with dementia than in the past. From 1999 to 2015, dementia caregivers were significantly less likely to report physical difficulties and financial difficulties related to care provision. In addition, use of respite care by dementia caregivers increased substantially . However, as noted earlier, more work is needed to ensure that interventions for dementia caregivers are available and accessible to those who need them. A 2016 study of the Older Americans Act’s National Family Caregiver Support Program found that over half of Area Agencies on Aging did not offer evidence-based family caregiver interventions.
Alzheimer’s Is The Only Leading Cause Of Death That Is Still On The Rise
- Alzheimer’s disease is the sixth-leading cause of death across all ages in the United States with a 5% increase in number of deaths in the US from 2015 to 2016. For those 65 and older, it is the fifth-leading cause of death.16
- Between 2000 and 2016, deaths attributed to Alzheimer’s disease increased 139%, while those attributed to the number one cause of death-heart disease-decreased 6%.16 This increase reflects changes in patterns of reporting deaths on death certificates over time as well as an increase in the actual number of deaths attributable to Alzheimer’s.
- Alzheimer’s disease is currently underreported as the underlying cause of deaththere is a difference between dying with Alzheimer’s and death from Alzheimer’s.17 Though the degree of underreporting varies.18
- A recent study found the Alzheimer’s mortality rate to be five to six times higher than official estimates, suggesting that AD may be responsible for more than 500,000 annual deaths in the United States.19 If applied to the general population, these findings would make Alzheimer’s the third leading cause of death in the United States, behind heart disease and cancer.Despite the recent increases in funding to Alzheimers disease, the United States Government could spend more to respond to this growing epidemic.For example, NIH’s FY18 funding for cancer research is roughly 2.75 times the level spent for Alzheimer’s disease research.20a,b
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The Most Expensive Disease In The Nation
A 2017 report from UsAgainstAlzheimers shows that the U.S. has vastly underestimated the public costs and consequences of the Alzheimers epidemic, and major social trends have direct and adverse implications for our capacity to cope with the Alzheimers epidemic in the years ahead.
- Total annual out-of-pocket payments in the U.S. for healthcare, long-term care, and hospice care for people with Alzheimers and other dementias are projected to reach $1.1 trillion by 2050, if we dont develop a treatment or cure.
- Medicare and Medicaid only cover $175 billion, or approximately 68% of the out-of-pocket healthcare costs.
- Medicaid payments are on average 23 times higher for those with Alzheimers compared to those without, and Medicare payments are three times greater on average. By 2050, Alzheimers is expected to increase Medicare and Medicaid costs by over 330%.
- More than $250 billion is spent annually in out-of-pocket healthcare for Alzheimers, which is more than 179 times the amount spent on finding a cure.
Something is Wrong
How Is Alzheimers Disease Treated
Medical management can improve quality of life for individuals living with Alzheimers disease and for their caregivers. There is currently no known cure for Alzheimers disease. Treatment addresses several areas:
- Helping people maintain brain health.
- Managing behavioral symptoms.
- Slowing or delaying symptoms of the disease.
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Highlights From The Canadian Chronic Disease Surveillance System
According to the World Health Organization, 47.5 million people live with dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease, worldwide.Footnote 1 As these conditions progress, they become highly debilitating for affected individuals and lead to major health impacts. With a growing and aging population, the number of Canadians living with dementiaFootnote i is expected to increase in future decades, with corresponding implications for health care needs and use. By 2031, it is projected that the total annual health care costs for Canadians with dementia will have doubled those from two decades earlier, from $8.3 billion to $16.6 billion.Footnote 2
Using data from the Canadian Chronic Disease Surveillance System , the Public Health Agency of Canada is able to conduct national surveillance for diagnosed dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease, to support the planning and evaluation of related policies, programs, and services. This fact sheet presents an overview of these new estimates on diagnosed dementia and highlights information on associated health impacts collected through the National Population Health Study of Neurological Conditions.Footnote 3
What To Do If You Suspect Alzheimers Disease
Getting checked by your healthcare provider can help determine if the symptoms you are experiencing are related to Alzheimers disease, or a more treatable conditions such as a vitamin deficiency or a side effect from medication. Early and accurate diagnosis also provides opportunities for you and your family to consider financial planning, develop advance directives, enroll in clinical trials, and anticipate care needs.
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Comorbidities Of Deaths Due To Dementia And Alzheimers Disease
This section looks at comorbidities where dementia and Alzheimer’s disease was the underlying cause of death. There are several ways to look at this, the following have been used here:
- pre-existing conditions any condition mentioned after dementia and Alzheimer’s disease on the death certificate
- immediate cause of death Part I of the death certificate
- contributory factors of death Part II of the death certificate
The death certificate ) used in England and Wales is compatible with that recommended by the World Health Organisation . It is set out in two parts: Part I gives the condition or sequence of conditions leading directly to death, while Part II gives details of any associated conditions that contributed to the death but are not part of the causal sequence.
The leading causes of death groupings have been used in this comorbidities section.
How To Learn More About Dementia Including Alzheimer’s Disease In Canada:
- Canada.ca and Search “Dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease, in Canada”
Box 1: What’s in the data?
Each data source has strengths and limitations. As such, dementia estimates vary among population-based studies, depending on factors like the definition of dementia, type of data, and methodology used. The data used in this publication are from the Canadian Chronic Disease Surveillance System , a collaborative network of provincial and territorial chronic disease surveillance systems, led by the Public Health Agency of Canada . The CCDSS identifies chronic disease cases from provincial and territorial administrative health databases, including physician billing claims and hospital discharge abstract records, linked to provincial and territorial health insurance registry records using a unique personal identifier. Data on all residents eligible for provincial or territorial health insurance are captured in the health insurance registries. Data on diagnosed dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease, from Saskatchewan are not included in the CCDSS due to a different utilisation pattern of the International Classification of Diseases codes that would lead to an underestimation of incidence and prevalence in that province.
Definition of diagnosed dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease, in the CCDSS
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Risk Factors For Alzheimer’s Dementia
The vast majority of people who develop Alzheimer’s dementia are age 65 or older. This is called late-onset Alzheimer’s. Experts believe that Alzheimer’s, like other common chronic diseases, develops as a result of multiple factors rather than a single cause. Exceptions are cases of Alzheimer’s related to uncommon genetic changes that increase risk.
2.7.1 Age, genetics and family history
The greatest risk factors for late-onset Alzheimer’s are older age,, genetics, and having a family history of Alzheimer’s.-
Age is the greatest of these three risk factors. As noted in the Prevalence section, the percentage of people with Alzheimer’s dementia increases dramatically with age: 3% of people age 65-74, 17% of people age 75-84 and 32% of people age 85 or older have Alzheimer’s dementia. It is important to note that Alzheimer’s dementia is not a normal part of aging, and older age alone is not sufficient to cause Alzheimer’s dementia.
- One in 10 people age 65 and older has Alzheimer’s dementia.,,
- The percentage of people with Alzheimer’s dementia increases with age: 3% of people age 65-74, 17% of people age 75-84, and 32% of people age 85 and older have Alzheimer’s dementia. People younger than 65 can also develop Alzheimer’s dementia, but it is much less common and prevalence is uncertain.
3.1.1 Underdiagnosis of Alzheimer’s and other dementias in the primary care setting
3.1.2 Prevalence of subjective cognitive decline
Alzheimer’s Is A Growing Epidemic
- More than 5.8 million Americans now have Alzheimer’s disease. By 2050, nearly 14 million Americans over age 65 could be living with the disease, unless scientists develop new approaches to prevent or cure it.1,2 However, estimates based on high-range projections of population growth provided by the U.S. Census suggest that this number may be as high as 16 million.1
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Clinical Trials And Research
- Important clinical trials that focus on potential prevention and treatment for Alzheimers are under way, but we must continue to urge that these trials be sped up and that participants reflect the diversity of all those with Alzheimers. See our clinical trial page for more information.
- It is important that our government officials make fighting Alzheimers a national priority and dedicate adequate resources to research. Go to our action centerfor concrete ways that you can help.
- UsAgainstAlzheimers Chairman and Co-Founder George Vradenburg serves on the World Dementia Council to tackle this problem globally. Find out more about their work here.
Common Forms Of Dementia
There are many different forms of dementia. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form and may contribute to 6070% of cases. Other major forms include vascular dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies , and a group of diseases that contribute to frontotemporal dementia . The boundaries between different forms of dementia are indistinct and mixed forms often co-exist.
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Differences Between Women And Men In The Prevalence And Risk Of Alzheimer’s And Other Dementias
More women than men have Alzheimer’s or other dementias. Almost two-thirds of Americans with Alzheimer’s are women., Of the 5.8 million people age 65 and older with Alzheimer’s in the United States, 3.6 million are women and 2.2 million are men., Based on estimates from ADAMS, among people age 71 and older, 16% of women have Alzheimer’s or other dementias compared with 11% of men.
The prevailing reason that has been stated for the higher prevalence of Alzheimer’s and other dementias in women is that women live longer than men on average, and older age is the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer’s.- But when it comes to differences in the actual risk of developing Alzheimer’s or other dementias for men and women of the same age, findings have been mixed. Most studies of incidence in the United States have found no significant difference between men and women in the proportion who develop Alzheimer’s or other dementias at any given age., , – However, some European studies have reported a higher incidence among women at older ages,, and one study from the United Kingdom reported higher incidence for men. Differences in the risk of dementia between men and women may therefore depend on age and/or geographic region.,
Alzheimer’s Is On The Rise Throughout The World
- Worldwide, at least 50 million people are believed to be living with Alzheimer’s disease or other dementias.4 According to the United Nations, that is more than the population of Columbia.5 If breakthroughs are not discovered, rates could exceed 152 million by 2050.4
- In the time it takes to read this sentence out loud, another person somewhere in the world has been diagnosed with dementia.6 Every 3 seconds, someone in the world develops dementia.4
Use And Costs Of Health Care Services
6.2.1 Use of health care services
People with Alzheimer’s or other dementias have twice as many hospital stays per year as other older people. Moreover, the use of health care services by people with other serious medical conditions is strongly affected by the presence or absence of dementia. In particular, people with coronary artery disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease , stroke or cancer who also have Alzheimer’s or other dementias have higher use and costs of health care services than people with these medical conditions but no coexisting dementia.
- * This table does not include payments for all kinds of Medicare services, and as a result the average per-person payments for specific Medicare services do not sum to the total per-person Medicare payments.
- Created from unpublished data from the National 5% Sample Medicare Fee-for-Service Beneficiaries for 2014.
Total Cost Of Health Care And Long
Table reports the average annual per-person payments for health care and long-term care services for Medicare beneficiaries age 65 and older with and without Alzheimer’s or other dementias. Total per-person health care and long-term care payments in 2019 from all sources for Medicare beneficiaries with Alzheimer’s or other dementias were over three times as great as payments for other Medicare beneficiaries in the same age group .,
|TOTAL* Payments from sources do not equal total payments exactly due to the effects of population weighting. Payments for all beneficiaries with Alzheimer’s or other dementias include payments for community-dwelling and facility-dwelling beneficiaries.
- * Payments from sources do not equal total payments exactly due to the effects of population weighting. Payments for all beneficiaries with Alzheimer’s or other dementias include payments for community-dwelling and facility-dwelling beneficiaries.
- Created from unpublished data from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey for 2011.
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Unpaid Caregivers Need Help
- Caring for a person with Alzheimer’s or another dementia is often extremely difficult, and many family and other unpaid caregivers experience high levels of emotional stress and depression as a result.14
- Caring for someone with Alzheimer’s disease has been found to have a negative impact on the health, employment, income, and financial security of many caregivers.15
What Are The Warning Signs Of Alzheimers Disease
Watch this video play circle solid iconMemory Loss is Not a Normal Part of Aging
Alzheimers disease is not a normal part of aging. Memory problems are typically one of the first warning signs of Alzheimers disease and related dementias.
In addition to memory problems, someone with symptoms of Alzheimers disease may experience one or more of the following:
- Memory loss that disrupts daily life, such as getting lost in a familiar place or repeating questions.
- Trouble handling money and paying bills.
- Difficulty completing familiar tasks at home, at work or at leisure.
- Misplacing things and being unable to retrace steps to find them.
- Changes in mood, personality, or behavior.
Even if you or someone you know has several or even most of these signs, it doesnt mean its Alzheimers disease. Know the 10 warning signs .
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