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How Many People Get Alzheimer’s Each Year

Use And Costs Of Health Care And Long

ALZHEIMER’S – CAN WE PREVENT IT?

Among Medicare beneficiaries with Alzheimer’s or other dementias, black/African Americans had the highest Medicare payments per person per year, while whites had the lowest payments . The largest difference in payments was for hospital care, with black/African Americans incurring 1.7 times as much in hospital care costs as whites .

Race/Ethnicity
2,756
  • Created from unpublished data from the National 5% Sample Medicare Fee-for-Service Beneficiaries for 2014.

In a study of Medicaid beneficiaries with a diagnosis of Alzheimer’s dementia that included both Medicaid and Medicare claims data, researchers found significant differences in the costs of care by race/ethnicity. These results demonstrated that black/African Americans had significantly higher costs of care than whites or Hispanics/Latinos, primarily due to more inpatient care and more comorbidities. These differences may be attributable to later-stage diagnosis, which may lead to higher levels of disability while receiving care delays in accessing timely primary care lack of care coordination duplication of services across providers or inequities in access to care. However, more research is needed to understand the reasons for this health care disparity.

Figure : Dementia And Alzheimers Disease Had The Highest Number Of Mentions For Deaths Due To Dementia And Alzheimers Disease In Part Ii Of The Death Certificate

Number of mentions in Part II of the death certificate, by leading cause, England and Wales, 2019

Notes:

Part II of the death certificate is where a cause can be noted on a death certificate as contributing to the death but not related to the disease or condition causing it. However, for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease, coding changes that took place in 2014 can mean this is not the case.

The coding changes included a change in the coding of chest infections which contributed to a reduction of 2.5% in deaths allocated an underlying cause of respiratory disease and an increase of 7.0% in those allocated to the mental and behavioural disorders chapter, which includes dementia.

Deaths given an underlying cause of dementia were also increased by a rule change to count aspiration pneumonia as being a consequence of one of a number of other conditions. The total percentage change in deaths attributed to an underlying cause of dementia was 7.1%.

This means that there are coding rules that state conditions like aspiration pneumonia and chest infections can be a consequence of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. This results in dementia and Alzheimer’s disease being selected as the underlying cause of death, even if it is recorded as a contributory factor in Part II. A plausible causal chain can be created by including dementia and Alzheimer’s disease even if it is recorded in Part II, which is why it is then selected as the underlying cause of death.

What Is The Burden Of Alzheimers Disease In The United States

  • Alzheimers disease is one of the top 10 leading causes of death in the United States.2
  • The 6th leading cause of death among US adults.
  • The 5th leading cause of death among adults aged 65 years or older.3

In 2020, an estimated 5.8 million Americans aged 65 years or older had Alzheimers disease.1 This number is projected to nearly triple to 14 million people by 2060.1

In 2010, the costs of treating Alzheimers disease were projected to fall between $159 and $215 billion.4 By 2040, these costs are projected to jump to between $379 and more than $500 billion annually.4

Death rates for Alzheimers disease are increasing, unlike heart disease and cancer death rates that are on the decline.5 Dementia, including Alzheimers disease, has been shown to be under-reported in death certificates and therefore the proportion of older people who die from Alzheimers may be considerably higher.6

Aging

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Trends In Dementia Caregiving

There is some indication that families are now better at managing the care they provide to relatives with dementia than in the past. From 1999 to 2015, dementia caregivers were significantly less likely to report physical difficulties and financial difficulties related to care provision. In addition, use of respite care by dementia caregivers increased substantially . However, as noted earlier, more work is needed to ensure that interventions for dementia caregivers are available and accessible to those who need them. A 2016 study of the Older Americans Act’s National Family Caregiver Support Program found that over half of Area Agencies on Aging did not offer evidence-based family caregiver interventions.

FIGURE 11

People Who Have Alzheimer’s Disease Need Others To Care For Them And Many Of Those Providing Care Are Not Paid For Their Time And Services

How many people (each year) upload a YouTube video that ...
  • More than 16 million Americans, usually family and friends, provide unpaid care for someone with Alzheimer’s disease or dementias.10 According to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics11, that would be just shy of a tenth of the entire US workforce. In 2017, these people provided an estimated 18.5 billion hours of unpaid care, a contribution valued at more than $234 billion.1 This would be about 46% of Walmarts total revenue in 2017 12 and 10 times the total revenue of McDonald’s in 2017 .13

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How Is Alzheimers Disease Treated

Medical management can improve quality of life for individuals living with Alzheimers disease and for their caregivers. There is currently no known cure for Alzheimers disease. Treatment addresses several areas:

  • Helping people maintain brain health.
  • Managing behavioral symptoms.
  • Slowing or delaying symptoms of the disease.

Differences Between Women And Men In The Prevalence And Risk Of Alzheimer’s And Other Dementias

More women than men have Alzheimer’s or other dementias. Almost two-thirds of Americans with Alzheimer’s are women., Of the 5.8 million people age 65 and older with Alzheimer’s in the United States, 3.6 million are women and 2.2 million are men., Based on estimates from ADAMS, among people age 71 and older, 16% of women have Alzheimer’s or other dementias compared with 11% of men.

The prevailing reason that has been stated for the higher prevalence of Alzheimer’s and other dementias in women is that women live longer than men on average, and older age is the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer’s.- But when it comes to differences in the actual risk of developing Alzheimer’s or other dementias for men and women of the same age, findings have been mixed. Most studies of incidence in the United States have found no significant difference between men and women in the proportion who develop Alzheimer’s or other dementias at any given age., , – However, some European studies have reported a higher incidence among women at older ages,, and one study from the United Kingdom reported higher incidence for men. Differences in the risk of dementia between men and women may therefore depend on age and/or geographic region.,

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Figure : Dementia And Alzheimers Disease Had The Highest Number Of Mentions For Deaths Due To Dementia And Alzheimers Disease In Part I Of The Death Certificate

Number of mentions in Part I, Line A of the death certificate, by leading cause, England and Wales, 2019

Notes:

For this section, Part I of the death certificate has been analysed in relation to comorbidities. This outlines the immediate cause of death.

The conditions mentioned on Part I of the death certificate showed that dementia and Alzheimerâs disease had the highest number of mentions .

Other top 10 causes mentioned on Part I for deaths due to dementia and Alzheimerâs disease also included: symptoms, signs and ill-defined conditions, influenza and pneumonia and acute respiratory infections other than influenza and pneumonia . This indicated that these diseases or conditions led directly to a personâs death and were preceded by dementia and Alzheimerâs disease.

Who Is Dementia Australia

What are the different stages of dementia? The 3 stage and 7 stage models explained

Dementia Australia is the source of trusted information, education and services for the estimated half a million Australians living with dementia, and the almost 1.6 million people involved in their care. We advocate for positive change and support vital research. We are here to support people impacted by dementia, and to enable them to live as well as possible.

No matter how you are impacted by dementia or who you are, we are here for you.

Dementia Australia, the new voice of Alzheimers Australia, is the national peak body for people, of all ages, living with all forms of dementia, their families and carers. It provides advocacy, support services, education and information.

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Incidence In The Uk And Globally

Dementia incidence refers to the number of new cases of dementia each year.

Page last reviewed: 05/07/2018

The incidence of dementia in the UK has fallen, possibly due to the improvement in male cardiovascular health over the last several decades, which is a risk factor for dementia.

This graph shows the incidence rate of dementia in the UK for men and women of different age groups.

As age is the greatest risk factor for dementia and life expectancy is rising, the likelihood of people born in 2015 of reaching older ages and developing dementia is increasing.

Source: Lifetime risk of being diagnosed with female breast cancer: The Lifetime Risk of Stroke: Estimates From the Framingham Study Seshadri, S. et al. Stroke. 2006 37:345-350

The graph below shows the incidence of dementia by age group in the major world regions. High variations across these regions are due to the different population sizes and population demographics such as age and health. For example a region with a larger population or an older population is more likely to have higher dementia incidence.

Alzheimers Statistics Amongst Americans

This year, 5.3 million Americans will live with Alzheimers in the United States, with an approximate 5.1 million people being 65 years and older. In terms of gender, 3.2 million are females and 1.9 million are male. Ethnicity also plays a role, as older African-American and Hispanic individuals are more likely to suffer from Alzheimers in comparison to older white individuals.

In terms of mortality rates, an estimated 700,000 people will die this year alone from Alzheimers. It is true that deaths from other major causes have decreased, however, deaths from Alzheimers have significantly increased. Between the years of 2000 and 2013, mortality rates increased by 71 percent.

Last, its important to focus on those who are caregivers and friends and family members provided an approximate 17.9 billion hours of unpaid care last year. This is emotionally taxing, as nearly 60 percent of Alzheimers caregivers report very high emotional stress.

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How Common Is Alzheimer’s Disease

    About 5.5 million Americans are living with Alzheimer’s disease. The disease is rapidly growing. By 2050, this number could potentially rise to 16 million. Every 66 seconds, someone in the United States is diagnosed. Soon, that number could increase to a diagnosis every 33 seconds. Let’s dive into these figures and how Alzheimer’s is impacting families across the world.

    Brain Changes Associated With Alzheimer’s Disease

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    A healthy adult brain has about 100 billion neurons, each with long, branching extensions. These extensions enable individual neurons to form connections with other neurons. At such connections, called synapses, information flows in tiny bursts of chemicals that are released by one neuron and detected by another neuron. The brain contains about 100 trillion synapses. They allow signals to travel rapidly through the brain’s neuronal circuits, creating the cellular basis of memories, thoughts, sensations, emotions, movements and skills.

    The accumulation of the protein fragment beta-amyloid outside neurons and the accumulation of an abnormal form of the protein tau inside neurons are two of several brain changes associated with Alzheimer’s.

    Plaques and smaller accumulations of beta-amyloid called oligomers may contribute to the damage and death of neurons by interfering with neuron-to-neuron communication at synapses. Tau tangles block the transport of nutrients and other essential molecules inside neurons. Although the complete sequence of events is unclear, beta-amyloid may begin accumulating before abnormal tau, and increasing beta-amyloid accumulation is associated with subsequent increases in tau.,

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    Social And Economic Impact

    Dementia has significant social and economic implications in terms of direct medical and social care costs, and the costs of informal care. In 2015, the total global societal cost of dementia was estimated to be US$ 818 billion, equivalent to 1.1% of global gross domestic product . The total cost as a proportion of GDP varied from 0.2% in low- and middle-income countries to 1.4% in high-income countries.

    Preventing Alzheimer’s In A Growing Senior Population

    As the population of the United States ages, Alzheimer’s is becoming a more common cause of death. It is the 6th leading cause of death in the U.S. overall and the 5th leading cause among elderly. The elderly population is anticipated to make up 20% of the overall population by 2030 hence, the growing number of diagnoses in the country. Among people age 70, 61% of those with Alzheimer’s are expected to die before the age of 80. For people without Alzheimer’s, only 30% are expected to die before 80.

    Although the statistics are alarming and there is no known cure for Alzheimer’s disease yet, there are things many experts believe you can do to lower the risks of development.

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    Risk Factors For Alzheimer’s Dementia

    The vast majority of people who develop Alzheimer’s dementia are age 65 or older. This is called late-onset Alzheimer’s. Experts believe that Alzheimer’s, like other common chronic diseases, develops as a result of multiple factors rather than a single cause. Exceptions are cases of Alzheimer’s related to uncommon genetic changes that increase risk.

    2.7.1 Age, genetics and family history

    The greatest risk factors for late-onset Alzheimer’s are older age,, genetics, and having a family history of Alzheimer’s.-

    Age

    Age is the greatest of these three risk factors. As noted in the Prevalence section, the percentage of people with Alzheimer’s dementia increases dramatically with age: 3% of people age 65-74, 17% of people age 75-84 and 32% of people age 85 or older have Alzheimer’s dementia. It is important to note that Alzheimer’s dementia is not a normal part of aging, and older age alone is not sufficient to cause Alzheimer’s dementia.

    Genetics

    APOE Pair
    • One in 10 people age 65 and older has Alzheimer’s dementia.,,
    • The percentage of people with Alzheimer’s dementia increases with age: 3% of people age 65-74, 17% of people age 75-84, and 32% of people age 85 and older have Alzheimer’s dementia. People younger than 65 can also develop Alzheimer’s dementia, but it is much less common and prevalence is uncertain.

    3.1.1 Underdiagnosis of Alzheimer’s and other dementias in the primary care setting

    3.1.2 Prevalence of subjective cognitive decline

    Alzheimer’s Is On The Rise Throughout The World

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    • Worldwide, at least 50 million people are believed to be living with Alzheimer’s disease or other dementias.4 According to the United Nations, that is more than the population of Columbia.5 If breakthroughs are not discovered, rates could exceed 152 million by 2050.4
    • In the time it takes to read this sentence out loud, another person somewhere in the world has been diagnosed with dementia.6 Every 3 seconds, someone in the world develops dementia.4

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    How Many People Have Dementia And What Is The Cost Of Dementia Care

    There are currently around 850,000 people living with dementia in the UK. Read projected figures until the year 2040, and find out what rising numbers will mean for the cost of dementia care.

    A new report commissioned by Alzheimers Society from the Care Policy and Evaluation Centre at the London School of Economics and Political Science sets out new estimates for the number of people with dementia and the cost of dementia care in the UK, in 2019, with projections to 2040.

    It shows the scale and impact of dementia, and the urgent need for action to be taken to meet current and future care needs and the associated costs.

    Read the key findings of the report below, or .

    More Support Needed Particularly In Low

    The report highlights the urgent need to strengthen support at national level, both in terms of care for people with dementia, and in support for the people who provide that care, in both formal and informal settings.

    Care required for people with dementia includes primary health care, specialist care, community-based services, rehabilitation, long-term care, and palliative care. While most countries reporting to WHOs Global Dementia Observatory say they provide some community-based services for dementia, provision is higher in high-income countries than in low- and middle-income countries. Medication for dementia, hygiene products, assistive technologies and household adjustments are also more accessible in high-income countries, with a greater level of reimbursement, than in lower-income countries.

    The type and level of services provided by the health and social care sectors also determines the level of informal care, which is primarily provided by family members. Informal care accounts for about half the global cost of dementia, while social care costs make up over a third. In low- and middle-income countries, most dementia care costs are attributable to informal care . In richer countries informal and social care costs each amount to approximately 40%.

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    What About Treatments And Research

    There is no cure for Alzheimer’s disease or any other type of dementia. Delaying the onset of dementia by five years would halve the number of deaths from the condition, saving 30,000 lives a year.

    Dementia research is desperately underfunded. For every person living with dementia, the annual cost to the UK economy is over £30,000 and yet only £90 is spent on dementia research each year.

    There are not enough researchers and clinicians joining the fight against dementia. Five times fewer researchers choose to work on dementia than on cancer.

    Alzheimer’s Society is committed to spending at least £150 million over the next decade on dementia research to improve care for people today and find a cure for tomorrow. This includes £50 million to develop the UKs first dedicated Dementia Research Institute.

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