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How Many People Will Get Dementia

Why Is It Important To Know How Many People Have Dementia

How to get dementia help without needing a nursing home

Understanding the number of people with dementia is vital to make sure the right support is available to help people with dementia to live well. It is important when planning the provision of support services, local and national health and care strategies, and dementia research

Not everyone with dementia has a diagnosis. This is why it is important to have an estimate of the total number of people with dementia, both with or without a diagnosis. In 2020 diagnosis rates for dementia fell below two thirds.

How Many People Die From Dementia

Based onthe most recent research, nearly 6.2 million Americans over 65 suffer from dementia.

In 2019 alone, there were 121,499 deaths recorded as a result of this disease, earning it a top spot in the leading causes of death in Americans over 65.

These stark numbers likely underscore the reality of the issue. Unfortunately, as dementia progresses, people often die from infections or other secondary complications that official reports may not attribute to dementia.

Health Environmental And Lifestyle Factors

Research suggests that a host of factors beyond genetics may play a role in the development and course of Alzheimers. There is a great deal of interest, for example, in the relationship between cognitive decline and vascular conditions such as heart disease, stroke, and high blood pressure, as well as conditions such as diabetes and obesity. Ongoing research will help us understand whether and how reducing risk factors for these conditions may also reduce the risk of Alzheimers.

A nutritious diet, physical activity, social engagement, and mentally stimulating pursuits have all been associated with helping people stay healthy as they age. These factors might also help reduce the risk of cognitive decline and Alzheimers. Researchers are testing some of these possibilities in clinical trials.

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Figure : Mortality Rates Due To Dementia And Alzheimers Disease Were Highest In Those Of The White Ethnic Background Aged Over 65 Years

Age standardised mortality rate for deaths due to dementia and Alzheimer’s disease by ethnic group, aged 65 years and over, England and Wales, 2019

Notes:
  • Include Office for National Statistics figures based on 2019 death registrations that could be linked to the 2011 Census.
  • Figures include deaths of non-residents of England and Wales.
  • Based on the date a death was registered rather than occurred.
  • Figures are based on boundaries as of August 2020.
  • Age-standardised rates were calculated for all ages. All rates are per 100,000 population, standardised to the 2013 European Standard Population.
  • In this section mortality data have been linked to Census data. The study population included all usual residents coded to an ethnic group in 2011 and not known to have died before 1 January 2019. Those enumerated in 2011 answering the “Intention to stay” question, because they had entered the UK in the year before the 2011 Census took place, were excluded from the analyses because of their high propensity to have left the UK before the analysis period under investigation.

    Who Can Diagnose Dementia

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    Visiting a primary care doctor is often the first step for people who are experiencing changes in thinking, movement, or behavior. However, neurologists doctors who specialize in disorders of the brain and nervous system are often consulted to diagnose dementia. Geriatric psychiatrists, neuropsychologists, and geriatricians may also be able to diagnose dementia. Your doctor can help you find a specialist.

    If a specialist cannot be found in your community, contact the nearest medical school neurology department for a referral. A medical school hospital also may have a dementia clinic that provides expert evaluation. You can also visit the Alzheimers Disease Research Centers directory to see if there is an NIA-funded center near you. These centers can help with obtaining a diagnosis and medical management of conditions.

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    Outlook For Vascular Dementia

    Vascular dementia will usually get worse over time. This can happen in sudden steps, with times between where the symptoms do not change much. But it’s difficult to know when this will happen.

    Home-based help will usually be needed. Some people will eventually need care in a nursing home.

    Although treatment can help, vascular dementia can significantly shorten life expectancy.

    But this varies, and many people live for several years with the condition, or die from some other cause.

    If you or a loved one has been diagnosed with dementia, remember that you’re not alone.

    Dementia Understand Together has a list of supports and services for each county. The Alzheimer Society of Ireland also has advice and support for you and your family.

    How Do I Care For Someone With Dementia

    Coordinate their care Your loved one will need more care as time goes on. It can be helpful to designate one person who coordinates care and helps them put together a care plan.

    Plan ahead It is wise to plan early for the future. Encourage them to arrange for a trusted person to manage their affairs through a power of attorney, and to draw up an advanced care directive explaining what treatments they would prefer if they become unable to give consent later on.

    Care for yourself Looking after a loved one with dementia can be tough and draining. Make sure you spend time socialising and meeting other people. Find activities and interests you can draw encouragement from. Give yourself space to rest, grieve and appreciate your loved one.

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    What Do Elderly People Think About Life And Death

    As we get older, death seems to be nearer than when we are younger. In as much as anyone can die regardless of age, for an older person, it seems like it is more likely to happen, especially when dealing with different health conditions that the body does not handle as it used to in the younger years.

    For older persons, death does not always spell sorrow and terror, as is the case with younger people. Many of the older people are contented with what the short-term future has for them. You may think that people may get anxious as they become older, but this is not the case. Older people do not have much sadness and anxiety, especially related to death. They are actually more positive about life and death.

    As we grow older, our perspective shifts. This is when you realize that things are not as they always seem. Most people fear death because they feel that they will lose the things that they have been working so hard to get over the years. However, for older people, this attachment to things acquired is not really pronounced. This is how some of the fear of death actually melts away.

    When you look around you and you realize that there are things that are a part of you that will outlive you actually help in a major way. This could be the legacy we have in children or gardens planted. There are yet others who place value on their country, their religion, or families that live on even after they are gone.

    How Does Alzheimer’s Disease Affect The Brain

    How is dementia diagnosed?

    Scientists continue to unravel the complex brain changes involved in Alzheimers disease. Changes in the brain may begin a decade or more before symptoms appear. During this very early stage of Alzheimers, toxic changes are taking place in the brain, including abnormal buildups of proteins that form amyloid plaques and tau tangles. Previously healthy neurons stop functioning, lose connections with other neurons, and die. Many other complex brain changes are thought to play a role in Alzheimers as well.

    The damage initially appears to take place in the hippocampus and the entorhinal cortex, which are parts of the brain that are essential in forming memories. As more neurons die, additional parts of the brain are affected and begin to shrink. By the final stage of Alzheimers, damage is widespread and brain tissue has shrunk significantly.

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    Forgetting The Steps In Dressing

    Sarah Stromsdorfer, an occupational therapist specializing in older adults, and the founder of the occupational therapy educational My OT Spot explains, “Dementia can impair motor planning, meaning the individual may have trouble processing and forget the steps needed to put on an article of clothing. Such as, forgetting the steps to put an arm through a jacket, or putting their clothes on backwards.”

    Differences Between Women And Men In The Prevalence And Risk Of Alzheimer’s And Other Dementias

    More women than men have Alzheimer’s or other dementias. Almost two-thirds of Americans with Alzheimer’s are women., Of the 5.8 million people age 65 and older with Alzheimer’s in the United States, 3.6 million are women and 2.2 million are men., Based on estimates from ADAMS, among people age 71 and older, 16% of women have Alzheimer’s or other dementias compared with 11% of men.

    The prevailing reason that has been stated for the higher prevalence of Alzheimer’s and other dementias in women is that women live longer than men on average, and older age is the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer’s.- But when it comes to differences in the actual risk of developing Alzheimer’s or other dementias for men and women of the same age, findings have been mixed. Most studies of incidence in the United States have found no significant difference between men and women in the proportion who develop Alzheimer’s or other dementias at any given age., , – However, some European studies have reported a higher incidence among women at older ages,, and one study from the United Kingdom reported higher incidence for men. Differences in the risk of dementia between men and women may therefore depend on age and/or geographic region.,

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    Use And Costs Of Long

    An estimated 70% of older adults with Alzheimer’s or other dementias live in the community, compared with 98% of older adults without Alzheimer’s or other dementias. Of those with dementia who live in the community, 74% live with someone and the remaining 26% live alone. As their disease progresses, people with Alzheimer’s or other dementias generally receive more care from family members and other unpaid caregivers. Many people with dementia also receive paid services at home in adult day centers, assisted living facilities or nursing homes or in more than one of these settings at different times during the often long course of the disease. Medicaid is the only public program that covers the long nursing home stays that most people with dementia require in the late stages of their illnesses.

    6.3.1 Use of long-term care services by setting

    Long-term care services provided at home and in the community

    Transitions between care settings

    6.3.2 Costs of long-term care services

    Affordability of long-term care services

    Long-term care insurance

    Medicaid costs

    State

    Young Onset Dementia Facts And Figures

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    As with dementia generally, there is conflicting information about the prevalence of young onset dementia. The low levels of awareness and the difficulties of diagnosing the condition at working-age mean popularly used statistics are likely to be inaccurate and do not reflect the true number of people who are affected. The facts and figures stated below relate to the UK.

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    What Causes Alzheimers Disease

    In recent years, scientists have made tremendous progress in better understanding Alzheimers and the momentum continues to grow. Still, scientists dont yet fully understand what causes Alzheimers disease in most people. In people with early-onset Alzheimers, a genetic mutation may be the cause. Late-onset Alzheimers arises from a complex series of brain changes that may occur over decades. The causes probably include a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. The importance of any one of these factors in increasing or decreasing the risk of developing Alzheimers may differ from person to person.

    Specific Information In This Report

    Alzheimer’s Disease Facts and Figures

    • Brain changes that occur with Alzheimer’s disease.
    • Risk factors for Alzheimer’s dementia.
    • Number of Americans with Alzheimer’s dementia nationally and for each state.
    • Lifetime risk for developing Alzheimer’s dementia.
    • Proportion of women and men with Alzheimer’s and other dementias.
    • Number of deaths due to Alzheimer’s disease nationally and for each state, and death rates by age.
    • Number of family caregivers, hours of care provided, and economic value of unpaid care nationally and for each state.
    • The impact of caregiving on caregivers.
    • National cost of care for individuals with Alzheimer’s or other dementias, including costs paid by Medicare and Medicaid and costs paid out of pocket.
    • Medicare payments for people with dementia compared with people without dementia.
    • Number of geriatricians needed by state in 2050.

    The Appendices detail sources and methods used to derive statistics in this report.

    When possible, specific information about Alzheimer’s disease is provided in other cases, the reference may be a more general one of âAlzheimer’s or other dementias.â

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    How Many Canadians Live With Dementia Including Alzheimer’s Disease And How Many Are Newly Diagnosed Each Year

    According to the most recent data available , more than 402,000 seniors are living with dementia in Canada . This represents a prevalence of 7.1%. About two-thirds of Canadian seniors living with dementia are women. Annually, there are approximately 76,000 new cases of dementia diagnosed in Canada. This represents an incidence of 14.3 new cases per 1,000 in the senior population . The incidence is higher among women than men. The prevalence and the incidence increase with age, as does the differential in prevalence and incidence estimates between men and women .

    Table 1:

    Prevalence and incidence of diagnosed dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease, among Canadians aged 65 years and older, by age group and sex, Canada, 20132014

    Age
    15.8 14.3

    Notes: Data do not include Saskatchewan’s data. The 95% confidence interval shows an estimated range of values which is likely to include the true value 19 times out of 20.

    Data source: Public Health Agency of Canada, using Canadian Chronic Disease Surveillance System data files contributed by provinces and territories, April 2017.

    Over a ten-year period , the age-standardized prevalence of dementia increased by 21.2%. During the same period, fluctuations in incidence have been observed. Drug data, one of the criteria used for case identification , became available in Alberta and Prince Edward Island in 20092010, which contributed to the temporary peak in incidence that year. Since then, incidence data suggest a decline .

    Sex
    6.114.3

    Brain Changes Associated With Alzheimer’s Disease

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    A healthy adult brain has about 100 billion neurons, each with long, branching extensions. These extensions enable individual neurons to form connections with other neurons. At such connections, called synapses, information flows in tiny bursts of chemicals that are released by one neuron and detected by another neuron. The brain contains about 100 trillion synapses. They allow signals to travel rapidly through the brain’s neuronal circuits, creating the cellular basis of memories, thoughts, sensations, emotions, movements and skills.

    The accumulation of the protein fragment beta-amyloid outside neurons and the accumulation of an abnormal form of the protein tau inside neurons are two of several brain changes associated with Alzheimer’s.

    Plaques and smaller accumulations of beta-amyloid called oligomers may contribute to the damage and death of neurons by interfering with neuron-to-neuron communication at synapses. Tau tangles block the transport of nutrients and other essential molecules inside neurons. Although the complete sequence of events is unclear, beta-amyloid may begin accumulating before abnormal tau, and increasing beta-amyloid accumulation is associated with subsequent increases in tau.,

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    Figure : People Aged 95 Years And Over Had Statistically Significantly Higher Rates Than All Other Age Groups For Deaths Due To Dementia And Alzheimers Disease

    Age-standardised and age-specific mortality rates for deaths due to dementia and Alzheimerâs disease, England and Wales, 2019

    Notes:

    The age group with the highest age-standardised mortality rate in England and Wales was those aged 95 years and over, with a rate of 7,306.4 per 100,000 people . The ASMR increased significantly throughout the five-year age groups for those over 65 years. The age group with the highest number of deaths was those aged 85 to 89 years with 18,981 deaths.

    It is important to note that 84.6% of all deaths registered in 2019 were from those aged 65 years and over, therefore the increase in mortality rates is to be expected in the older age groups. For deaths due to dementia and Alzheimer’s disease, the ASMR for those aged 65 years and under in 2019 was 0.6 .

    The following analysis will focus on England and Wales separately, allowing any difference in trends between the two countries to be identified.

    In 2019, the ASMR for deaths due to dementia and Alzheimer’s disease, for all ages, was significantly higher in England than in Wales . However, this difference was not prevalent among all age groups.

    The greatest proportion of deaths in England due to dementia and Alzheimer’s disease occurred in care homes this was 65.4% of all deaths due to dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. This is a much greater proportion of deaths than when considering all causes of death and any other leading cause of death in 2019.

    Prevalence By Age In The Uk

    The biggest risk factor for dementia is age the older you are the more likely you are to develop the condition, but it is not an inevitable part of ageing. About two in 100 people aged between 65 to 69 have dementia, and this figure rises to one in five for those aged between 85 to 89.

    Page last reviewed: 05/07/2018

    It is a common misconception that dementia is a condition of older age, over 42,000 people under 65 years old have dementia in the UK.

    Prevalence by age groups

    The estimated percentage of people living with dementia at different age groups is shown below. This shows the effect of age on your risk of developing dementia, and also how many more women there are living with dementia at older ages.

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