Hbot Increases Cerebral Blood Flow And Improves Cognitive Performances In Elderly Patients
To understand whether the ability of HBOT to change CBF and affect cognitive function also applied to elderly people, we performed a human study in which six elderly patients with significant memory loss at baseline were treated with HBOT . CBF and cognitive function were evaluated before and after HBOT. CBF was measured by MRI dynamic susceptibility contrast sequential imaging, while cognitive functions were evaluated using computerized cognitive tests. Following HBOT, there were significant CBF increases in several brain areas, including Brodmann areas 1, 2, 32, 34, 40, 42, 43, and 48 . At baseline, patients attained a mean global cognitive score similar to the average score in the general population normalized for age and education level , while memory scores were significantly lower . Cognitive assessment following HBOT revealed a significant increase in the global cognitive score , where memory, attention and information processing speed domain scores were the most ameliorated . Moreover, post-HBOT mean memory scores improved to the mean score , normalized per age and education level . The improvements in these scores correlate with improved short and working memory, and reduced times of calculation and response, as well as increased capacity to choose and concentrate on a relevant stimulus.
Breathing Pure Oxygen Could Significantly Slow Its Progression And Severity Scientists Say
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Alzheimers disease could be slowed down or even reversed using oxygen therapy, according to a new study
Alzheimers disease could be slowed down or even reversed using oxygen therapy, according to a new study.
Researchers say the therapy boosts the functioning of the human brains, and has been shown in animals to fight the build-up of brain plaque that is associated with the disease.
The team at Tel Aviv University monitored six people over the age of 60 who have experienced signs of cognitive decline.
After 60 sessions of hyperbaric oxygen therapy over the course of 90 days, they reported seeing blood flow to the brain improving by an average of 20 per cent. Memory test results showed an average improvement of 16.5 per cent, the team said.
Study Selection And Data Extraction
Inclusion criteria: if the study was an RCT performed in humans, whether they were blinded or not. Patients were diagnosed with VD according to Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders DSM-IV , issued by American Psychiatric Association , or Draft diagnostic criteria for VD published by Neurological branch of Chinese Medical Association, or other accepted diagnostic criteria for VD. The experimental group was treated with HBOT and conventional therapy , and the control group was treated with conventional therapy without regard to the treatment duration, age, course of disease, sex, and ethnicity. At least one or more outcome indicator, including MMSE, ADL, BADL and TEF, was applied to evaluate the curative effect. Exclusion criteria: Non-RCTs, animal experiments, systematic review and case reports, incorrect or incomplete data, and conventional treatment was inconsistent between the control group and the experimental group. Two reviewers independently extracted the data of the literature, including the following contents: general trial characteristics baseline patient and disease data interventions , outcome definitions, and detailed adverse reactions. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus or a third researcher.
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Hbot For Alzheimers Disease: Heres What We Know
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HBOT For Alzheimers Disease: Heres What We KnowHyperbaric oxygen therapy can be used to treat a variety of medical conditions. With a study focused on HBOT and its potential benefits when it comes to Alzheimers disease, there is a lot of hope as early results are pointing towards increased brain metabolism.
Heres what we know so far:
Biochemical And Histological Analyses
Mice were anesthetized with ketamine and xylazine and perfused transcardially with PBS. Brains were then excised and halved and each hemisphere was further processed for either biochemical or histological analysis, as outlined below. Antibodies used in this project are listed in Supplementary Table 1.
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Alzheimers Disease And Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy
It is estimated that approximately six million Americans are living with Alzheimers disease. According to the National Institute of Health , Alzheimers disease is an irreversible, progressive brain disorder that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills and, eventually, the ability to carry out the simplest tasks. Furthermore, the NIH currently ranks Alzheimers disease as the sixth leading cause of death in the US, and a cure is yet to be discovered. So, how does Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy help?
HBOT introduces pure oxygen into the lungs under pressure. This increased amount of oxygen promotes healing in damaged tissue. HBOT can be used to treat wounds and is particularly effective in reducing inflammation. We know already that HBOT yields positive results in the treatment of traumatic brain injury, but what about Alzheimers?
Studies On Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy And Dementia
This particular report examined eight different databases, China Science and Technology Journal Database , and WanFang) and 25 randomized controlled clinical trials involving 1,954 patients.
This meta analysis aimed to determine the effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in patients with vascular dementia. Throughout the courses of these studies, there were groups that solely had medication, groups that only did hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and groups that had treatment of both.
There was much more improvement seen in the hyperbaric groups both with medication and without. They saw what shows strikingly improved mini mental state examinations and massive improvements in activities of daily living.
The curative administration of 100% oxygen in the pressurized hyperbaric chamber at an atmosphere of more than 1.4 has shown therapeutic effects in treating vascular dementia.
The researchers believe these results are due to the increase of oxygen supply, decrease of intracranial pressure, the relief of brain edema, promotes tissue healing and angiogenesis , improvement of metabolism, lessening oxidative stress, improving mitochondrial function, improving cell differentiation, and more.
Though still not fully understood, researchers claim that the efficacy and safety of hyperbaric oxygen therapy for dementia is undisputable.
Improve dementia with hyperbaric oxygen therapy
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Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography
Six of the AD patients and four of the aMCI patients underwent fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography before and at 1 month after hyperbaric oxygen treatment. The 18FFDG was synthesized by the Eclipse RD cyclotron and the FDG synthesizer Explora FDG4 . All patients fasted for at least 6 hours, and the body weight and serum glucose level were determined before the injection. The fasting blood glucose < 9 mmol/L was acceptable. Then a dose of 0.15 mCi/kg of FDG was injected via a peripheral cannula after resting for 30 to 40 minutes. After injection, the patients were instructed to stay awake, keep eyes open, and not vocalize in a quiet and darkened room for 40 minutes. The images were then acquired with Siemens Biograph 64 HD P/CT . All images were compared with the template and analyzed with NeuroQ Brain Imaging Analysis .
Study On Animals Genetically Engineered To Develop Alzheimer And A Group Of Subjects Over 65 With Memory Decline Showed Improved Vascular Function
A research team in Israel has succeeded in reversing brain trauma using hyperbaric oxygen therapy . This is the first time in the scientific world that non-drug therapy has been proven effective in preventing the core biological processes responsible for the development of Alzheimers disease.
HBOT involves having patients sit in a special chamber where the atmospheric pressure is much higher than normal, breathing air composed of 100 percent oxygen. This form of therapy is considered safe for treating many medical conditions, and can induce the repair of damaged brain tissue and renewed growth of blood vessels and nerve cells in the brain.
A specific HBOT protocol devised by Tel Aviv University and Shamir Medical Center researchers Prof. Shai Efrati, Prof. Uri Ashery, Dr. Ronit Shapira, Dr. Pablo Blinder and Dr. Amir Hadanny resulted in cerebral blood flow improving in elderly patients by 16-23%, alleviating vascular dysfunction, reducing the volume of pre-existing amyloid plaques and slowing the formation of new ones. These protein plaques are linked to severe degenerative conditions such as Alzheimers.
Their findings were published in the journal Aging.
The study, part of a comprehensive research program that looks at aging and accompanying ailments as a reversible disease, could lead to a new strategic approach to preventing Alzheimers.
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What Is Alzheimers Disease
Alzheimerâs disease is not a normal part of aging, though it typically doesnât affect patients until after the age of 65. Those that experience it earlier in life receive a diagnosis of early-onset Alzheimerâs. In the early stages, memory loss is very mild, often brushed aside as simple aging. As the disease progresses, patients lose the ability to engage in normal conversation.
Researchers believe that Alzheimerâs disease is the result of damage to brain cells, with the main culprits being plaques and tangles. Plaques are deposits of beta-amyloid fragments that build up and cluster together between nerve cells. Tangles are twisted fibers of the protein tau and build up inside cells. These plaques and tangles begin in the memory section of the brain and continue to spread. Researchers believe that these plaques and tangles disrupt normal communication in the nerve cells. This leads to cell death and the loss of memory function in the brain. There is no cure for Alzheimerâs as well as no current treatment available to help slow the progression.
Despite New Research Scientists Want More Proof That Hyperbaric Oxygen Treats Alzheimer’s
Researchers at two medical schools in the United States are reporting what they say is the first PET scan-documented case of improvement in brain metabolism in Alzheimers disease in a patient treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy . Though they say their results suggest the possibility of a long-term Alzheimers treatment, some experts say they still need to see more studies. A spokesman for The Mayo Clinic, which lists HBOT as a treatment for other diseases, but not for Alzheimer’s, noted that a single case report is “not deemed sufficient grounds to recommend a therapy by our experts” and that a larger series of studies, with appropriate controls, would be needed.
We demonstrated the largest improvement in brain metabolism of any therapy for Alzheimer’s disease, said Dr. Paul Harch, clinical professor and director of Hyperbaric Medicine at Louisiana State University Health New Orleans School of Medicine. HBOT in this patient may be the first treatment not only to halt, but temporarily reverse disease progression in Alzheimers disease.
Dr. Paul Harch, , clinical professor and director of Hyperbaric Medicine at Louisiana State… University Health New Orleans School of Medicine.
Health New Orleans School of Medicine.)
The study was conducted by Harch and Dr. Edward Fogarty, chairman of Radiology at the University of North Dakota School of Medicine and published in the current issue of the peer-reviewed journal Medical Gas Research, in January.
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A Recent Study Of Mice And Humans Indicates That Breathing Pure Oxygen In Highly Pressurized Chambers May Improve Cognitive Impairment And Reduce Alzheimers Pathology But The Jury Is Still Out About The Treatments Benefits For Treating Disease
Growing evidence shows that dysfunction of the vascular system, vessels that carry blood and fluid throughout the body, is closely linked with cognitive decline and Alzheimers. So, scientists are studying various interventions that target vascular dysfunction to treat and prevent Alzheimers. Oxygen therapy is one such experimental treatment, and scientists recently found that it may boost brain functions and combat Alzheimers pathology.
In the study of mice and humans, researchers reported that hyperbaric oxygen therapy , which involves breathing pure oxygen in a highly pressurized chamber, could improve blood flow in the brain, clear away Alzheimers hallmarks known as amyloid plaques, and enhance cognitive abilities. Experts say these results remain preliminary, but the studys researchers believe the findings offer hope that HBOT could be effective for slowing and even preventing Alzheimers progression.
By treating vascular dysfunction, were mapping out the path toward Alzheimers prevention, Dr. Shai Efrati, the studys co-author and associate professor at Tel Aviv University, said in a news release. More research is underway to further demonstrate how HBOT can improve cognitive function and become an influential tool in the imperative fight against the disease.
He added, The idea is to commence therapy before the onset of clinical symptoms of dementia and before deterioration and loss of extensive brain tissue.
Mmse Moca And Adl Scores In Different Stages Medications And Sexes In Ad Patients After Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment
The difference of MMSE, MoCA, and ADL scores in disease stages, medications, and sexes AD patients was further analyzed. As shown in Table S2 in supporting information, the MMSE score was increased significantly at 1month followup after hyperbaric oxygen treatment in mild AD patients, the MoCA score was improved significantly at 1month followup after hyperbaric oxygen treatment in mild and moderate AD patients, and the ADL score was increased significantly at 1month followup after hyperbaric oxygen treatment in moderate AD patients. The difference of MMSE, MoCA, and ADL scores in AD patients with medications is shown in Table S3 in supporting information. The MMSE score was increased significantly at 1month followup after hyperbaric oxygen treatment in AD patients maintained with ChEIs. And the MoCA score was improved significantly at 1month followup after hyperbaric oxygen treatment in AD patients with combined medications . The ADL score was improved significantly at 1 and 3month followup after hyperbaric oxygen treatment in AD patients with ChEIs. The difference of MMSE, MoCA, and ADL scores in AD patients male and female is shown in Table S4 in supporting information. The MMSE and MoCA scores were improved significantly at 1month followup after hyperbaric oxygen treatment in both sexes. And the ADL score was increased significantly at 1 and 3month followup after hyperbaric oxygen treatment in female AD patients.
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The improvements in these scores correlate with improved short and working memory, and reduced times of calculation and response, as well as increased capacity to choose and concentrate on a relevant stimulus, the researchers wrote.
The team said this is the first time that a non-drug therapy has been proven effective in preventing the core biological processes responsible for the development of Alzheimers disease.
Use of HBOT may be a new strategic approach for preventing Alzheimers, they said.
By treating the root problem that causes cognitive deterioration with age, we are in fact mapping out the way to prevention, said Shai Efrati, MD, a study co-author and an associate professor at both the Sackler School of Medicine and the Sagol School of Neuroscience at Tel Aviv University.
It is likely that hyperbaric medicine can potentially provide the opportunity for living with good brain function without relating to chronological age, Efrati said.
The idea is to commence therapy before the onset of clinical symptoms of Dementia and before deterioration and loss of extensive brain tissue. This is the stage at which blood vessels become occluded, and the blood flow and the oxygen supply to the brain are diminished a phenomenon that can already take place at a relatively early age, he added.
Positive Improvements But No Cure Yet
These temporary positive improvements are encouraging. Alzheimers disease contains four main pathological processes that have been identified and HBOT targets all of these processes. It does this by affecting microcirculation mitochondrial dysfunction, and biogenesis. Furthermore, Oxidative stress is controlled and inflammation is reduced.
At this fairly early stage, although HBOT has shown some promising results in the above case study, it is not a cure for Alzheimers disease at this stage. Two months post-HBOT treatment, the patient experienced a recurrence of symptoms. She was retreated for the following 20 months with an additional 56 HBOT treatments combined with medications. This ongoing treatment saw her symptoms stabilizing again temporarily.
If more studies happen to find similar outcomes, it will help to prove that patients battling with Alzheimers disease can enjoy a certain amount of temporary relief from symptoms. The good news is that these case findings are only the first in a series of 11 HBOT-treated patients with Alzheimers disease and so more positive results will hopefully soon follow. Harch concludes: Our results suggest the possibility of treating Alzheimers disease long-term with HBOT and pharmacotherapy.
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Study Inclusion And Characteristics
Of the 549 potentially relevant studies searched from the eight databases, 341 duplicated publications were removed, and 208 papers were left for further screening. After reading titles and abstracts, there were 113 reports left, and 87 articles were excluded for one of following reasons: irrelevant study, not a randomized controlled trial, conference papers. Finally, the remaining 25 RCTs with a total of 1.954 patients meeting our inclusion criteria were included in the final review . Additionally, all trials were performed and published in China. Among the 25 studies, five comparisons were employed between the HBOT group and the control group, including HBOT+CT+ oxiracetam vs. CT+ oxiracetam , HBOT+CT+ butylphthalide vs. CT+ butylphthalide , HBOT+ CT+ donepezil vs. CT+ donepezil , HBOT+ CT+ nicergoline vs. CT +nicergoline , and HBOT+CT vs. CT . The treatment duration lasted from 3 to 16 weeks, and sample sizes varied from 40 to 156. Twelve studies reported specific adverse events .
Figure 1. The flowchart of study selection.
Table 1. The baseline characteristics of the 25 studies.
Hbot Reduces Abnormal Processing Of Amyloid Precursor Protein And Increases Levels Of A Degradation And Clearance
To understand the molecular mechanisms that contribute to the observed reduction in amyloid burden, we next assessed key proteins involved in amyloid precursor protein processing, and A degradation and clearance. First, levels of the -secretase-cleaved C-terminal fragment of APP and the -secretase-cleaved C-terminal fragment of APP were measured . HBO treatment significantly reduced C99 levels in 5XFAD mice and induced no change in levels of the C83 fragment in 5XFAD mice , suggesting that HBOT reduced -secretase -mediated cleavage of APP. Indeed, BACE1 levels were found to be reduced in the HBO-treated mice . As we previously showed with the 3xTg mouse model , the levels of full-length APP were also unchanged upon HBO treatment of 5XFAD mice , whereas the levels of the -secretase ADAM10 were reduced by HBOT . In addition, while the levels of presenilin 1 , a component of the -secretase complex, were also significantly reduced in 5XFAD mice following HBOT , no changes were found in the levels of nicastrin, another component of the -secretase complex .
HBOT has been shown to affect microglial function and increase A clearance, thus contributing to neuroprotection . Analysis of plaque-associated microglia showed that following HBOT, the number of microglia per plaque increased, suggesting that HBOT induced microglial recruitment to the plaques, possibly supporting plaque degradation .
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