Pollution Can Change Sperms Genetic Material
Urban air pollution, which has a slightly different chemical profile than wildfire smoke, has already been linked with harmful effects to the male reproductive system. Studies have shown how air pollution produced from sources like industrial stacks and automobile exhaust can affect sperm shape, their ability to swim and the genetic material they carry. However, few studies have looked at wildfire smoke as an independent source of toxicity.
One recent study found that baby rats born to parents that had been exposed to wood smoke could end up with behavioral and cognitive problems. That prompted our team at Boise State University, in collaboration with researchers at Northeastern University, to look closer at what happens to sperm of mice exposed to wildfire smoke.
Our goal was to look for small changes at the cellular level that might show us how negative effects could be passed from parents to the next generation. Mice arent humans, of course, but damage to their systems can provide clues about potential harm to ours.
Stress Anxiety And Depression
While THC can increase anxiety in some people, especially if administered in high doses, a study conducted by Neurotherapeutics has found that CBD can help reduce the anxiety experienced by patients with anxiety disorders. The neurological effects of CBD could lead to the emergence of all-natural anti-anxiety therapies in the nearest future .
What Does Fluoride Do To The Brain
Fluorides ability to damage the brain is one of the most active areas of fluoride research today. Giving us a clear path to the answer of, what does fluoride do to the brain?
With over 400 studies labelling fluoride as a neurotoxin there is plenty to learn about the relationship between fluoride and the brain.
Table of Contents
Final Stages Of Alzheimer’s
In the final stages, people may lose the ability to feed themselves, speak, recognize people and control bodily functions. Memory worsens and may become almost non-existent. Constant care is typically necessary. On average, those with Alzheimer’s live for 8 to 10 years after diagnosis, but this terminal disease can last for as long as 20 years.
How Does Cbd Affect The Brain Impact Of Cannabidiol On Brain Function
The one-of-a-kind neurological effects of CBD are the main reason why this supplement has grabbed the world of wellness products by the throat. Unlike other cannabinoids present in the cannabis plant, CBD has its own way of interacting with the endocannabinoid system.
Cannabidiol is a chemical compound whose largest concentration can be found in hemp, a close relative of marijuana the two come from the same mother plant . CBD is non-intoxicating; in other words,CBD doesnt make people feel high, but it allows them to draw a myriad of health benefits from this particular cannabinoid.
The list of medical conditions alleviated by CBD includes anxiety, inflammation, pain, lethargy, aging, skin and bones injuries, and other health concerns. When administered, it allows a person to feel relaxed without the mind-altering effects induced by THC.
How Alzheimer’s Disease Impacts The Brain
One condition becoming all too common today is Alzheimers disease, a brain condition that is the 6th leading cause of death in the United States. The Alzheimers Association defines the disease as a type of dementia that causes problems with memory, thinking, and behavior.
Alzheimers doesnt happen all at once. In fact, the symptoms may at first be dismissed as simply getting older, if doctors and family members arent vigilant. Early symptoms include relatively small issues like trouble learning new things or remembering details. Eventually, the symptoms grow to the point of inability to care for oneself or understand ones surroundings. So, where does the brain with Alzheimers disease go wrong?
What Are The Warning Signs Of Alzheimers Disease
Watch this video play circle solid iconMemory Loss is Not a Normal Part of Aging
Alzheimers disease is not a normal part of aging. Memory problems are typically one of the first warning signs of Alzheimers disease and related dementias.
In addition to memory problems, someone with symptoms of Alzheimers disease may experience one or more of the following:
- Memory loss that disrupts daily life, such as getting lost in a familiar place or repeating questions.
- Trouble handling money and paying bills.
- Difficulty completing familiar tasks at home, at work or at leisure.
- Decreased or poor judgment.
- Misplacing things and being unable to retrace steps to find them.
- Changes in mood, personality, or behavior.
Even if you or someone you know has several or even most of these signs, it doesnt mean its Alzheimers disease. Know the 10 warning signs .
Treatment Of Alzheimer Disease
Safety and supportive measures
Drugs that may improve mental function
Treatment of Alzheimer disease involves general measures to provide safety and support, as for all dementias. Also, certain drugs can help for a while. The person with Alzheimer disease, family members, other caregivers, and the health care practitioners involved should discuss and decide on the best strategy for that person.
Pain and any other disorders or health problems are treated. Such treatment may help maintain function in people with dementia.
Effect Of Alzheimers Disease On The Brain
Alzheimers disease is a neurode generative disease that destroys memory and other vital functions of the brain . It is a progressive mental deterioration that begins with difficulty in remembering in mild confusion. People who are affected by the disease cannot remember essential personalities in their lives. In most cases, they experience dramatic changes in their personalities. Alzheimers disease is associated with dementia. Dementia is a brain disorder that makes an individual lose social and intellectual skills. The brain cells begin to degenerate and eventually die thus affecting mental function and memory decline.
Alzheimers disease is caused by some factors that affect the functions of the brain over time. The disease is caused by environmental, genetic and lifestyle factors. The disease damages and eventually kills the brain cells thus leading to the shrinkage of the brain . Some of the risk factors responsible for Alzheimers disease include age, genetics and family history, Down syndrome, past head trauma and heart health.
The Basics Of Alzheimers Disease
Scientists are conducting studies to learn more about plaques, tangles, and other biological features of Alzheimers disease. Advances in brain imaging techniques allow researchers to see the development and spread of abnormal amyloid and tau proteins in the living brain, as well as changes in brain structure and function. Scientists are also exploring the very earliest steps in the disease process by studying changes in the brain and body fluids that can be detected years before Alzheimers symptoms appear. Findings from these studies will help in understanding the causes of Alzheimers and make diagnosis easier.
One of the great mysteries of Alzheimers disease is why it largely affects older adults. Research on normal brain aging is exploring this question. For example, scientists are learning how age-related changes in the brain may harm neurons and affect other types of brain cells to contribute to Alzheimers damage. These age-related changes include atrophy of certain parts of the brain, inflammation, blood vessel damage, production of unstable molecules called free radicals, and mitochondrial dysfunction .
What Happens To The Brain In Alzheimers Disease
The healthy human brain contains tens of billions of neuronsspecialized cells that process and transmit information via electrical and chemical signals. They send messages between different parts of the brain, and from the brain to the muscles and organs of the body. Alzheimers disease disrupts this communication among neurons, resulting in loss of function and cell death.
Main Parts Of The Brain
The first step is to understand how a normal, healthy brain functions. This organ is nothing short of amazing. From its larger structures down to its tiniest cells, it is arguably the most important and the least understood organ in the human body.
The larger, easily visible structures of the brain include the cerebrum, the cerebellum and the brain stem. Scientists have also been able to map the general regions and lobes that control a person’s skills and reactions, allowing them to better understand the progress of AD.
Do People With Alzheimers Sleep More
People with Alzheimers and other forms of dementia often sleep for long periods and may need to sleep during the day.
As Alzheimers progresses, it causes an increasing amount of damage to the brain, and the individual becomes weaker. A person may feel exhausted after everyday tasks, such as communicating, eating, or trying to make sense of the world around them. People may sleep more during the day as the symptoms worsen.
Additionally, medications that doctors prescribe to treat Alzheimers can contribute to sleepiness. These medications may include antipsychotics, antidepressants, antihistamines, and sleeping pills.
Alzheimers Disease Vs Other Types Of Dementia
Dementia is an umbrella term for a range of conditions that involve a loss of cognitive functioning.
Alzheimers disease is the most common type of dementia. It involves plaques and tangles forming in the brain. Symptoms start gradually and are most likely to include a decline in cognitive function and language ability.
To receive a diagnosis of Alzheimers, a person will be experiencing memory loss, cognitive decline, or behavioral changes that are affecting their ability to function in their daily life.
Friends and family may notice the symptoms of dementia before the person themselves.
There is no single test for Alzheimers disease. If a doctor suspects the presence of the condition, they will ask the person and sometimes their family or caregivers about their symptoms, experiences, and medical history.
The doctor may also carry out the following tests:
- cognitive and memory tests, to assess the persons ability to think and remember
- neurological function tests, to test their balance, senses, and reflexes
- blood or urine tests
- a CT scan or MRI scan of the brain
- genetic testing
A number of assessment tools are available to assess cognitive function.
In some cases, genetic testing may be appropriate, as the symptoms of dementia can be related to an inherited condition such as Huntingtons disease.
Some forms of the APOE e4 gene are associated with a higher chance of developing Alzheimers disease.
Loss Of Neuronal Connections And Cell Death
In Alzheimers disease, as neurons are injured and die throughout the brain, connections between networks of neurons may break down, and many brain regions begin to shrink. By the final stages of Alzheimers, this processcalled brain atrophyis widespread, causing significant loss of brain volume.
Learn more about Alzheimer’s disease from MedlinePlus.
Medications To Treat The Underlying Alzheimer’s Disease Process
Aducanumab is the first disease-modifying therapy approved by the FDA to treat Alzheimers disease. The medication helps to reduce amyloid deposits in the brain and may help slow the progression of Alzheimers, although it has not yet been shown to affect clinical outcomes such as progression of cognitive decline or dementia. A doctor or specialist will likely perform tests, such as a PET scan or analysis of cerebrospinal fluid, to look for evidence of amyloid plaques and help decide if the treatment is right for the patient.
Aducanumab was approved through the FDAs Accelerated Approval Program. This process requires an additional study after approval to confirm the anticipated clinical benefit. If the follow-up trial fails to verify clinical benefit, the FDA may withdraw approval of the drug. Results of the phase 4 clinical trial for aducanumab are expected to be available by early 2030.
Several other disease-modifying medications are being tested in people with mild cognitive impairment or early Alzheimers as potential treatments.
Key Biological Processes In The Brain
Most neurons have three basic parts: a cell body, multiple dendrites, and an axon.
- The cell body contains the nucleus, which houses the genetic blueprint that directs and regulates the cells activities.
- Dendrites are branch-like structures that extend from the cell body and collect information from other neurons.
- The axon is a cable-like structure at the end of the cell body opposite the dendrites and transmits messages to other neurons.
The function and survival of neurons depend on several key biological processes:
Neurons are a major player in the central nervous system, but other cell types are also key to healthy brain function. In fact, glial cells are by far the most numerous cells in the brain, outnumbering neurons by about 10 to 1. These cells, which come in various formssuch as microglia, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytessurround and support the function and healthy of neurons. For example, microglia protect neurons from physical and chemical damage and are responsible for clearing foreign substances and cellular debris from the brain. To carry out these functions, glial cells often collaborate with blood vessels in the brain. Together, glial and blood vessel cells regulate the delicate balance within the brain to ensure that it functions at its best.
Causes And Risk Factors For Alzheimers Disease
The precise cause for the development of Alzheimers disease is not well understood. The characteristic brain changes that are the hallmark of Alzheimers cannot be seen through imaging techniques and are only identifiable upon physical examination of the brain. Some causes for the brain abnormalities identified in Alzheimers disease include:
Genetic: Less than 5% of the time, Alzheimers disease is caused by genetic changes that virtually assure that an individual will develop Alzheimers disease.
Brain Structure and Function: Plaques are extremely small microscopic clusters of a protein called beta-amyloid peptide. Tangles are tiny entwined threads of the tau protein. Connections between brain cells control memory, learning, and communication. These connections between neurons in the brain convey information from cell to cell. Swelling in the brain results from the exertion expended in fighting off the fatal effects of the other changes occurring in the brain. Ultimately, death of brain cells and severe shrinking of the membrane within the brain lead to the symptoms observed in Alzheimers disease.
Physical: Individuals who develop Alzheimers disease are almost universally over the age of 65. Women, who outlive most men, are more likely to develop Alzheimers disease. In addition, individuals who have a mild cognitive impairment or past head trauma are at greater risk for developing the disease.
Why Some Foods Induce Memory Loss
The brain needs its own brand of fuel. It requires healthy fats, fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and adequate vitamins and minerals. Consuming too little of these foods and too many complex carbohydrates, processed foods and sugar stimulates the production of toxins in the body. Those toxins can lead to inflammation, the build-up of plaques in the brain and, as a result, impaired cognitive function.
These effects apply to people of all ages, not just seniors.
Slowing The Progression Of Alzheimers Disease And Dementia
While the progression of Alzheimers disease and many kinds of dementia cannot be reversed, there are treatments available to slow the progression and protect neural tissues, allowing patients to maintain independence and a higher quality of life for as long as possible.
If you are looking for a local neurologist in New York, look no further than Crystal Run Healthcare. Our providers span a wide array of neurology subspecialties to bring the most comprehensive and innovative treatment plans available for Alzheimers and dementia. or visit us online at Crystalrunhealthcare.com to schedule a consultation and begin treatment as soon as possible.
Can Alzheimer’s Disease Be Prevented
As the exact cause of Alzheimer’s disease is not clear, there’s no known way to prevent the condition.
But there are things you can do that may reduce your risk or delay the onset of dementia, such as:
- staying physically fit and mentally active
These measures have other health benefits, such as lowering your risk of cardiovascular disease and improving your overall mental health.
Read more about preventing Alzheimer’s disease.
Tips For Family Members
What should a patient, or a patients family, do to make sure that infections are not overlooked in someone with suspected Alzheimers disease or another dementia? First and foremost, make sure to express your concern to the clinicians who are caring for someone with an altered mental state. Also, it is crucial to ensure that the patients history is known by his or her health care providers. This is especially important if the cognitive changes are recent, or developed rapidly, or were associated with a known medical illness or known exposure to an infectious disease. Identifying an infection can require special tests of blood or cerebrospinal fluid that are not routinely ordered in many treatment settings. Awareness of a disease history or of an exposure may lead to further assessment and earlier identification of an infection even when typical medical symptoms such as fever, cough, or pain with urination are subtle or absent.
Alzheimer’s Stages And Progression
In the early stages of Alzheimers disease and dementia, neurons and their connections are destroyed in the areas of the brain which support memory. In later stages, brain functions involving language, reasoning, and regulating behavior become affected. In most cases, the patient will eventually lose their ability to safely live independently.
In the late stages of Alzheimers, as more neurons are lost, many areas of the brain shrink in size. This process is referred to as widespread brain atrophy, resulting in a significant loss of nerve tissue and severely impaired brain function2.
What Are Some Complications Of Alzheimers Disease
Alzheimers disease is an irreversible form of dementia. The rate of progression differs between people: some people have it only in the last 5 years of their life, while others may have it for as long as 20 years. Alzheimers disease eventually leads to complete dependence and increasing frailty. This means a secondary illness, such as pneumonia, may eventually cause death.
Other complications of Alzheimers disease may include:
- an inability to complete daily tasks such as planning meals and managing money
- a tendency to wander from home
- personality changes such as anxiety, depression and irritability that make relationships more difficult
- delusions and hallucinations in advanced stages of the disease
How Does Alzheimers Affect You Physically
Alzheimers doesnt just affect a person mentally, it can also affect a person physically too. Some people may end up with physical problems before experiencing serious memory loss. It can affect the way a person walks and talks as well as the issues listed below :
- Loss of balance
- Shuffling or dragging feet when walking
- Trouble standing
- Trouble sitting in a chair
- Weak muscles
How Is Alzheimers Disease Treated
Alzheimers is complex, and it is therefore unlikely that any one drug or other intervention will successfully treat it in all people living with the disease.
Scientists are exploring many avenues to delay or prevent the disease as well as to treat its symptoms. In ongoing clinical trials, scientists are developing and testing several possible interventions. Under study are drug therapies aimed at a variety of disease interventions, as well as nondrug approaches such as physical activity, diet, cognitive training, and combinations of these. Just as we have many treatments for heart disease and cancer, we will likely need many options for treating Alzheimers. Precision medicine getting the right treatment to the right person at the right time will likely play a major role.
Current approaches to treating Alzheimers focus on helping people maintain mental function, treating the underlying disease process, and managing behavioral symptoms.
What Is The Difference Between Dementia And Alzheimers Disease
Dementia is not a specific disease, but an umbrella term that describes an array of cognitive symptoms which impair an individuals ability to perform everyday tasks and live independently. Alzheimers disease is one type of dementia.
Some of the signs of dementia include1:
- Reduced ability to focus
- Changes in language and communication
- Impaired judgment and reasoning
Some other types of dementia with unique causes and diagnostic markers are1:
- Frontotemporal dementia
- Dementia related to Parkinsons disease
- Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
- Mixed dementia
Physical Changes To Expect
Which symptoms you have and when they appear are different for everyone.
Some people have physical problems before serious memory loss.
In one study, people who walked slowly and had poor balance were more likely to be diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease in the following 6 years.
Some of the changes you might experience are:
- Loss of balance or coordination
- Stiff muscles
Other Sleep Tips And Management
Caregivers of people with Alzheimers can take steps to help them manage their sleep. These include:
- Identifying any other medical conditions: Caregivers can watch the individual to see whether they have a condition that results in them waking up. For example, sleep apnea causes short pauses in breathing, and restless leg syndrome involves moving or twitching the legs uncontrollably.
- Reviewing their medication: The side effects of some prescription medications that treat Alzheimers may contribute to sleepless nights. A doctor can advise on the best time of day to take medications to ease these effects.
- Keeping the time visible: It may be beneficial for the individual to be able to see a clock that distinguishes between nighttime and daytime.
- Talking to them: If the individual gets up in the night, a caregiver can talk to them to try to find out why. It is then best to keep the person relaxed and prepare them for returning to sleep with low lighting and relaxing music that they enjoy.
- Using a bed exit pad: These wireless pads signal if the individual wanders from their bed during the night. Once a caregiver receives the alert, they can assist the individual in getting back into bed as soon as possible.
- Establishing a routine: Keeping to the same bedtime and wake time each day and putting a routine in place such as a relaxing bath or a hot, milky drink before bed can help the individual recognize the time of day.
Signs And Symptoms Of Alzheimers Disease
The symptoms of Alzheimers eventually encompass every area of the individuals functioning. While these symptoms will vary among individuals, Alzheimers disease does tend to follow a particular progression. The most common symptoms of Alzheimers disease include:
- Alterations in mood, mood swings, inconsistent or inappropriate emotional responses
- Personality changes
- Inability to orient to person, place, and time
- Frustration over inability to communicate or remember things
- Decrease in the ability to read familiar writing
- Withdrawal from occupational or social situations
- Misplacing common items
- Difficulty driving until it becomes hazardous
- Inability to produce the correct words to describe objects
- Inability to participate in a conversation
- Significant decrease in verbal fluency
- In later states, non-fluency
- Inability to remember and repeat a statement immediately after it was made
- In final stages, the individual may become practically mute
- Inability to understand visual-spatial concepts
- Inability to perform motor activities, despite motor abilities and the ability to understand what is necessary to carry out the task remaining intact
- Impaired gait
- Inability to properly navigate environment
- Pocketing food in the sides of mouth
- Inability to perform activities of daily living
How Does Alzheimers Affect The Respiratory System
Breathing problems arent normal, but they are quite common in older people, especially those with Alzheimers disease. It can be caused by a number of conditions, including:
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
- Heart failure
Breathing issues can be prevented by avoiding sudden temperature changes, air pollution, pollen, dust, cigarette smoke and chemical fragrances.
Doing breathing exercises can help get as much air in the lungs as possible. One way to do this is to sit up straight. Then breathe in through the nose, purse lips and then breathe out slowly. Try to breathe out twice as long as you breathed in.
Failure To Do Day To Day Tasks
The first thing a normal person does after waking up in the morning is head to the washroom and wash his/her face or perform other routine activities.
But an AD patient feels directionless and purposeless in the morning and has a torrid time getting through the day.
An Alzheimers patient in later stages doesnt even remember what a toothbrush is used for, let alone other things like taking a shower, do your hair, etc.
It can be really frustrating for a family member to watch their loved one being physically fit and strong, but not being able to apply their minds.