Racial And Ethnic Differences In The Prevalence Of Alzheimer’s And Other Dementias
Although there are more Whites living with Alzheimer’s and other dementias than any other racial or ethnic group in the United States , older Black and Hispanic Americans are disproportionately more likely than older White Americans to have Alzheimer’s or other dementias.- Data from the CHAP study indicates 18.6% of Blacks and 14% of Hispanics age 65 and older have Alzheimer’s dementia compared with 10% of White older adults. Most other prevalence studies also indicate that older Blacks are about twice as likely to have Alzheimer’s or other dementias as older Whites., , Some studies indicate older Hispanics are about one and one-half times as likely to have Alzheimer’s or other dementias as older Whites.- However, Hispanics comprise very diverse groups with different cultural histories, genetic ancestries and health profiles, and there is evidence that prevalence may differ from one specific Hispanic ethnic group to another .,
But Will The Moon Have An Effect On Dementia
One research looked to see if aged care residents became more and more agitated throughout a full moon, but concluded that there wasnt a major distinction to alternative phases of the moon.
However, another study by Alan M. Beck of Purdue University found that Alzheimers disease exhibited significantly additional behaviors during times of full moon, which these behaviors were of a greater duration throughout the total moon.
Though the research connecting the full moon and behavioral changes in people with dementia are often rather inconclusive, many folks have experienced challenges that they would connect with lunar changes.
It should be noted that the full moon will cause atmospheric pressure which might account for a shift in bodily awareness. for some individuals, the intense light shining outside may be disconcerting.
Regardless of whether or not the night has a full moon, new moon or something in between people with dementia would like the same compassionate care on a daily basis for whatever symptoms they are exhibiting.
If youre a caregiver for somebody with dementia, youve most likely seen some odd behavior in your loved one around the full moon. And if youve got trouble sleeping or feel restless or anxious throughout the full-moon, youve personally noticed the effects.
Here are some ways to calm the nerves and odd behaviors during the full moon or anytime.
The main types of nervines are tonics, relaxants, and stimulants.
Total Cost Of Health Care And Long
Table; reports the average annual per-person payments for health care and long-term care services for Medicare beneficiaries age 65 and older with and without Alzheimer’s or other dementias. Total per-person health care and long-term care payments in 2020 from all sources for Medicare beneficiaries with Alzheimer’s or other dementias were over three times as great as payments for other Medicare beneficiaries in the same age group .
|Payment Source||Beneficiaries with Alzheimer’s or Other Dementias||Beneficiaries without Alzheimer’s or Other Dementias|
- *Payments from sources do not equal total payments exactly due to the effects of population weighting. Payments for all beneficiaries with Alzheimer’s or other dementias include payments for community-dwelling and facility-dwelling beneficiaries.
Despite these and other sources of financial assistance, individuals with Alzheimer’s or other dementias still incur high out-of-pocket costs. These costs are for Medicare copayments and coinsurance, other health insurance premiums, deductibles, copayments, coinsurance and services not covered by Medicare, Medicaid or additional sources of support. On average, Medicare beneficiaries age 65 and older with Alzheimer’s or other dementias paid $11,571 out of pocket annually for health care and long-term care services not covered by other sources .
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Provide Comfort And Familiarity
Think back to the last time you were sick. Chances are you wanted to be surrounded by comforting thoughts, things, and people. For someone with dementia, the world can become a scary place. Comfort and familiarity can help them cope with this difficult time in life.
Help fill your loved ones life and home with things they find comforting. If they move into a hospital or assisted living facility, furnish the space around them with cherished items. For example, bring their favorite blanket or family photos to the new facility. This may help ease the transition and curb their sundowning symptoms.
Risk Factors For Alzheimer’s Dementia
The vast majority of people who develop Alzheimer’s dementia are age 65 or older. This is called late-onset Alzheimer’s. Experts believe that Alzheimer’s, like other common chronic diseases, develops as a result of multiple factors rather than a single cause. Exceptions are cases of Alzheimer’s related to uncommon genetic changes that greatly increase risk.
2.8.1 Age, genetics and family history
The greatest risk factors for late-onset Alzheimer’s are older age,, genetics, especially the apolipoprotein e4 gene and having a family history of Alzheimer’s.-
Age is the greatest of these three risk factors. The percentage of people with Alzheimer’s dementia increases dramatically with age: 5.3% of people age 65 to 74, 13.8% of people age 75 to 84 and 34.6% of people age 85 or older have Alzheimer’s dementia . The aging of the baby-boom generation will significantly increase the number of people in the United States with Alzheimer’s. However, it is important to note that Alzheimer’s dementia is not a normal part of aging, and older age alone is not sufficient to cause Alzheimer’s dementia.
|APOE Pair||* Percentages do not total 100 due to rounding.||European Americans|
- Created from data from Rajan et;al.
- * Percentages do not total 100 due to rounding.
2.8.2 Modifiable risk factors
Cardiovascular disease risk factors, physical activity, and diet
Social and cognitive engagement
Traumatic brain injury
Other modifiable risk factors
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Deaths From Alzheimer’s Disease
It is difficult to determine how many deaths are caused by Alzheimer’s disease each year because of the way causes of death are recorded. According to data from the CDC, 121,499 people died from Alzheimer’s disease in 2019, the latest year for which data are available. The CDC considers a person to have died from Alzheimer’s if the death certificate lists Alzheimer’s as the underlying cause of death, defined as the disease or injury which initiated the chain of events leading directly to death.
In the United States, Alzheimer’s disease is counted as a cause of death that can be ranked against other leading causes of death such as cancer and heart disease, but deaths due to other types of dementia are not ranked in this manner. The number of deaths from dementia of any type is much higher than the number of reported Alzheimer’s deaths. In 2019, some form of dementia was the officially recorded underlying cause of death for 271,872 individuals ., Therefore, the number of deaths from all causes of dementia, even as listed on death certificates, is more than twice as high as the number of reported Alzheimer’s deaths alone.
Irrespective of the cause of death, among people age 70, 61% of those with Alzheimer’s dementia are expected to die before age 80 compared with 30% of people without Alzheimer’s dementia.
Racial And Ethnic Disparities Exist In Alzheimer’s And Dementia Care
Racial and ethnic disparities in health and health care, such as those observed during the pandemic, extend to dementia care. Stigma, cultural differences, awareness and understanding, and the ability to obtain a diagnosis, manage the disease, and access care and support services for dementia vary widely depending on race, ethnicity and socioeconomic status. These disparities reach beyond clinical care to include uneven representation of Black, Hispanic, Asian, and Native Americans in Alzheimer’s research in clinical trials.
As discussed in the Prevalence section, health and socioeconomic disparities and systemic racism contribute to increased Alzheimer’s and dementia risk in communities of color., , , , -, , Older Black and Hispanic Americans are also disproportionately more likely to have Alzheimer’s and other dementias, as well as more likely to have missed diagnoses, than older White Americans.-, –
Caregiving for individuals with Alzheimer’s or other dementias differs between racial and ethnic groups too. These differences include the time spent on caregiving, cultural perceptions of the burden of caregiving, whether social networks provide support, and the psychological well-being of the caregiver.-,
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But Does The Moon Affect Dementia
One research looked to see if aged care residents became increasingly agitated during a full moon, but concluded that there was not a significant difference to other phases of the moon.
However, another study by Alan M. Beck of Purdue University found that Alzheimers disease exhibited significantly more behaviours during periods of full moon, and that these behaviours were of a greater duration during the full moon.
Though the research connecting the full moon and behavioural changes in people with dementia can be rather inconclusive, many people have experienced challenges that they would connect to lunar changes.
It should be noted that the full moon does cause atmospheric pressure and that may account for a shift in bodily awareness. For some people, the bright light shining outside might be upsetting.
Regardless of whether the night has a full moon, new moon or something in between people with dementia need the same compassionate care every day for whatever symptoms they are exhibiting.
What do you have to say? Comment, share and like below.
Responses To Alzheimers Disease And The Full Moon
I was doing some research on barometric pressure falling and its affects on Alzheimer patients when I came across your blog. I am curious if you have discovered any more information on this topic. The staff at the nursing home where my grandmother lives do state that when a big storm is out in the Gulf the dementia and sundowning behaviors are greatly decreased as the pressure drops. Have you heard of this happening?
I have a pain syndrome which is greatly affected by rapid changes in barometric pressure, whether increased or decreased pressure. The effect for me is increased pain. I am also a nurse in a special care unit of a nursing home . I simply believe it to be common sense that if I am hurting due to barometric changes, surely these elderly who also have physically painful conditions, are experiencing increased pain. The difference is that people with dementia have no inhibitions. In other words, if they are in pain, they will act out by becoming increasingly confused, aggitated, and aggressive. However, I know nothing about affects of the moon on them. I have heard others make such remarks but have never tested it out myself.
Hi Im Pam from England im taking a masters in dementia training and find this interesting so am researching the subject . I feel most people agree the lunar effects but what can we do about the behavior and affects on the people we care for any ideas please contact me Pam
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Correlation Does Not Mean Causation
The existence of a relationship between two “variables” DOES NOT mean that one variable causes theother variable. For example, if you looked for a relationship between thenumber of points scored by a basketball team and the number of bookschecked out of a library on different days, you might find a significantrelationship. This doesn’t mean that the score of basketball games causespeople to check out library books or that checking out library bookscauses the basketball team to score more points. The reason why thesetwo activities vary in a similar fashion is completely unknown anduntested. It just happens that the two measurements vary in a relatedfashion.
In the basketball/library book example, the relationship could becaused by many things, maybe even by the weather. Maybe there was a lotof rain when the basketball scores and library books were counted. Perhaps the rain caused the basketball players to practice more and caused more people to visit the library.
Some experiments do show that on days with a full moon there is moreabnormal behavior. However, many of these studies have been criticizedbecause they were not performed properly. For example, some of theseexperiments:
Full Moon Mood And Mental Health
The human body has adapted to eons of exposure to daylight and darkness.
This has led to the development of circadian rhythms that affect many of your bodys systems not just your sleep-wake cycle. Circadian rhythms affect your physical and mental health, too.
But the widespread use of electric light means many of your circadian rhythms are adapting to new light and dark patterns. When circadian rhythms wobble, it of certain mental health disorders, including:
Does the full moon still have the power to disrupt your circadian rhythm? It brightens the sky by a lowly compared with a single streetlight or a cell phone screen .
So, are full moons really associated with changes in mood and mental health?
The prevailing scientific evidence says no. Researchers in a analyzed emergency room records at a 140-bed hospital and found that people visited the ER because of a psychiatric condition in roughly equal numbers during all four phases of the moon.
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Estimates Of The Number Of People With Alzheimer’s Dementia By State
Table; lists the estimated number of people age 65 and older with Alzheimer’s dementia by state for 2020 , the projected number for 2025, and the projected percentage change in the number of people with Alzheimer’s between 2020 and 2025.
|Projected Number with Alzheimer’s||Percentage Increase|
- Created from data provided to the Alzheimer’s Association by Weuve et;al.
As shown in Figure;, between 2020 and 2025 every state across the country is expected to experience an increase of at least 6.7% in the number of people with Alzheimer’s. These projected increases in the number of people with Alzheimer’s are based on projected increases in the population age 65 and older in these states. Because risk factors for dementia such as midlife obesity and diabetes can vary dramatically by region and state, the regional patterns of future burden may be different than reported here. Based on these projections, the West and Southeast are expected to experience the largest percentage increases in people with Alzheimer’s dementia between 2020 and 2025. These increases will have a marked impact on states health care systems, as well as the Medicaid program, which covers the costs of long-term care and support for many older residents with dementia, including more than a quarter of Medicare beneficiaries with Alzheimer’s or other dementias.
May Affect Sleep Latency
2014 analysis involving 319 people whod been referred to a sleep center, researchers found that the full moon was associated with less deep sleep and increased REM latency.
Sleep latency is the period between when you first fall asleep and when you enter the first stage of REM sleep. So, increased latency means it takes a longer time to get to REM sleep.
Other causes of REM sleep latency can include:
- sleep apnea
Deep sleep is believed to occur during your last period of REM sleep.
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How The Moon Changes Human Behavior
The word lunatic was coined in the 13th century and is derived from “luna,” which is Latin for moon, according to the Online Etymology Dictionary, so it has long been thought there is a lunar influence on human behavior. Some recent studies seem to support this connection, and there are many first-hand accounts from professionals who believe strongly this is the case. Yet large scale analysis paints a different picture.
Fact Or Fiction: Does A Full Moon Affect Hospitals
05th Mar, 2019
We’ve all heard tall tales of werewolves and full moons; humans turning into hairy, wolf-like monsters under the light of the full moon and leaving a trail of devastation in their path. It’s the stuff of fairy tales, right?;
Maybe not if you work in a hospital.
According to the healthcare community, full moons bring some rather unusual events to hospitals, with many Nurses and Midwives claiming that the number of hospital admissions and births increase dramatically during a full-moon shift.
There’s no scientific evidence to support how lunar patterns affect humans, but according to a;2011 study published in the World Journal of Surgery, a staggering 40% of medical professionals believe it has an impact on human behaviour.
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Overview Of Alzheimer’s Disease
Alzheimer’s disease is a type of brain disease, just as coronary artery disease is a type of heart disease. It is also a progressive disease, meaning that it becomes worse with time. Alzheimer’s disease is thought to begin 20 years or more before symptoms arise.- It starts with changes in the brain that are unnoticeable to the person affected. Only after years of brain changes do individuals experience noticeable symptoms such as memory loss and language problems. Symptoms occur because nerve cells in parts of the brain involved in thinking, learning and memory have been damaged or destroyed. As the disease progresses, neurons in other parts of the brain are damaged or destroyed as well. Eventually, neurons in parts of the brain that enable a person to carry out basic bodily functions, such as walking and swallowing, are affected. Individuals become bed-bound and require around-the-clock care. Alzheimer’s disease is ultimately fatal.