Fact Or Myth There Are Two Types Of Memory: Short
Answer: It depends
“It can be as complex or as simple as you want to make it,” said Small, noting that dividing memory into short-term and long-term is simply one way to classify it.
But Small noted that memory could be divided into categories such as working memory, where you would hold information you only need now, like a phone number, and emotional memory.
Grisolia noted that in some ways, memory can be thought of in short- and long-term terms.
It may be helpful in understanding Alzheimer’s, as short term memories are quickly forgotten if they don’t go through the hippocampus.
“Making the bridge is where Alzheimer’s gets involved,” he said.
With phone numbers, for instance, “a lot of times, by the time the telephone rings, you might not even remember who you’re calling,” said Grisolia.
And the problems with the hippocampus often cause the memory problems associated with Alzheimer’s.
“Those are the areas where Alzheimer’s hits first and worst,” said Grisolia. “And then the process will start to spread to other areas of the brain.”
Another type of memory some would consider distinct, Karlawish said, is semantic memory, such as the way you remember what the word “apply” means.
“‘Memory’ is an omnibus term that captures a variety of cognitive functions,” he said.
And the reason this bit of information is impossible to classify is that it is semantic, rather than a fact or myth — defining memory, like many of the workings of the brain, is more flexible.
Sowhat S The Best Exercise
In summary, there are many different exercises that are appropriate and safe for individuals with Alzheimers disease. It is important to engage in several different categories of exercise, including aerobic, muscle strengthening, balance, and flexibility. In addition, there are national recommendations that can serve as a guide for individuals with Alzheimers disease. Therefore, the answer to the question whats the best exercise for individuals with Alzheimers disease isall exercises that are safe, enjoyable, and sustainable.
Aerobic Best For Alzheimers Prevention
Panza and his colleagues revealed that cognitive function in elderly adults who engaged only in aerobic exercise was three times better than that of seniors who did a combination of aerobic exercise and muscle-strengthening exercises.
The study showed that overall, seniors who did any type of exercise demonstrated better cognitive function than those who did not exercise at all. In fact, those who did not exercise had a slight cognitive decline.
The study also confirmed that the WHOs guidelines for physical activity were backed up by the evidence that they examined. As the authors conclude:
Our findings suggest that exercise training may delay the decline in cognitive function that occurs in individuals who are at risk of or have AD , with aerobic exercise possibly having the most favorable effect.
In fact, Panza and colleagues say that theirs is the first study to suggest that aerobic exercise may be superior in its ability to stave off Alzheimers in at-risk individuals.
However, the authors also concede that dditional randomized controlled clinical trials that include objective measurements of cognitive function are needed to confirm findings.
Ultimately, they note, studies should aim to examine physical activity and exercise in combination with other strategies to develop more targeted prevention and treatment options for AD.
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What You Should Do For Alzheimers Prevention
Even though we don’t have enough evidence that all healthy lifestyle choices prevent Alzheimer’s, we do know they can prevent other chronic problems. For example, limiting alcohol intake can help reduce the risk for certain cancers, such as breast cancer. Best advice: make as many healthy lifestyle choices as you can. “They’re all beneficial, and if they help you avoid Alzheimer’s, all the better,” says Dr. Marshall.
Know the symptoms of Alzheimer’s
Forgetting where you parked your car can be annoying. If it happens all the time, it can be disturbing, and you may worry that it’s a sign of a more serious condition. But don’t panic. There’s a difference between normal age-related memory slips, such as forgetting where the car keys are, and more serious signs of memory loss, such as forgetting what car keys are used for.
Early symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease include frequent memory loss, confusion about locations, taking longer to accomplish normal daily tasks, trouble handling money and paying bills, loss of spontaneity, and mood and personality changes. “If you have a decline in your memory or thinking that affects your ability to perform any of your daily routines, ask your doctor for a screening to evaluate you for Alzheimer’s and related conditions,” says Dr. Gad Marshall, a Harvard Medical School assistant professor of neurology.
How Do I Get Ready For Tongue
Before you start your tongue strengthening exercises, you may need to change your positioning. Your SLP will give you specific instructions on how to do this, if needed. For example, it may be better if you do these exercises while out of bed.
It is also helpful to remove distractions from your environment. Turn off the TV, and do them at a time when you wont have visitors. This will let you fully focus on your exercises and receive the most benefit from them. You can do these exercises at any time that is convenient for you.
Your SLP can let you know if there is anything else you need to do before getting started.
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Change Where You Put Things
Your brain becomes used to having certain objects in certain places. It knows, for example, that your underwear is in the top of your dresser, or that you keep milk in the fridge. By doing this, we become a little lazy and do everything from memory.
Challenge yourself to put things in new places. What if you put your underwear in a new drawer? You can change the furniture layout in your house. You could even change where your desk is in your office.
Strokes Can Cause Problems With Speech Walking Strength Thinking And Memory
Most people know that strokes can cause one side of the face to droop, weakness of an arm or a leg, trouble walking, and slurred speech. Did you know that strokes can also cause dementia?
Strokes occur when an artery sending blood from the heart to the brain becomes blocked off that part of the brain doesnt receive enough blood and dies. Most strokes occur in an instant. Similar to a heart attack, strokes are an emergency because treatment works best when instituted immediately. We say act FAST when you notice a stroke, using the mnemonic below:
- Face: Ask the person to smile. Does one side droop?
- Arms: Ask the person to raise both arms. Does one drift downward?
- Speech: Ask the person to repeat a simple phrase. Is their speech slurred or strange?
- Time: If you observe any of these signs, call 911 immediately.
Strokes are often called vascular disease or sometimes cerebrovascular disease to emphasize they are affecting blood vessels of the brain or cerebrum. When people have a number of strokesor occasionally even one if it affects a critical brain regionthey can develop problems with thinking and memory. If the problems are mild and function is normal, we call it vascular cognitive impairment. If the problems are severe enough to affect day-to-day function, it is called vascular dementia.
Major Risk Factors for Stroke
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Changes In Behaviour May Include:
- Distress or agitation this may be because the person is confused about where they are, who they are with or what they are meant to be doing.
- Sundowning the person may become more agitated and confused in the late afternoon and early evening. This can be caused by a range of factors including disturbance to the body clock, too much or too little sleep, or medication. It may help to give the person something meaningful to do at this time of day and make sure the environment is suitable . Going outside during the day can help.
- Aggression the person may react aggressively for a range of reasons for example, they may be in pain or feeling threatened, may not understand what is going on or trying to communicate a need.
Dementia and aggressive behaviour
The person may move their hands much more often. They may constantly wring their hands, pull at their clothes, tap or fidget, or touch themselves inappropriately in public. This can be a sign of a need for example, the person may pull at their clothes because they are too hot or need the toilet. A rummage box, containing objects related to the persons past such as pictures, jewellery or souvenirs, may help as it gives the person an opportunity for moving their hands.
Restlessness and dementia
What Is Proper Tongue Posture
Proper tongue posture involves the placement and resting position of your tongue in your mouth. And, as it turns out, proper tongue posture may be more important than you might think.
The ideal position for your tongue is pressed against the roof of your mouth rather than letting it settle at the bottom of your mouth. You dont want your tongue to press against the backs of your teeth either, as this may cause problems with your teeth alignment over time.
Your tongue should be touching the roof of your mouth when resting, explains Dr. Ron Baise, dentist of 92 Dental in London. It should not be touching the bottom of your mouth. The front tip of your tongue should be about half an inch higher than your front teeth.
Plus, resting your tongue against your hard palate the roof of your mouth behind your front teeth does potentially offer some benefits.
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Pillar #: Social Engagement
Human beings are highly social creatures. We dont thrive in isolation, and neither do our brains. Staying socially engaged may even protect against symptoms of Alzheimers disease and dementia in later life, so make developing and maintaining a strong network of friends a priority.
You dont need to be a social butterfly or the life of the party, but you do need to regularly connect face-to-face with someone who cares about you and makes you feel heard. While many of us become more isolated as we get older, its never too late to meet others and develop new friendships:
- Join a club or social group.
- Visit your local community center or senior center.
- Take group classes .
- Get to know your neighbors.
- Make a weekly date with friends.
- Get out .
How To Prevent Alzheimers Disease
There have been many advances since the disease was first discovered by Emil Kraepelin and Alois Alzheimer in 1906. However, there are still aspects of the disease that we dont understand.
For example, we still dont know what exactly causes it to appear. However, we do know that we can fight to prevent Alzheimers diseasebefore we get older.
Doing certain exercises and eating certain foods cant guarantee we wont suffer from Alzheimers when we get old, but it may help and we can at least say that we tried.
There are many factors that influence the appearance of this mental erosion caused by cerebral oxidation. Among them we find stress, arteriosclerosis, and diabetes. All of these increase the aging of your brain.
Also, being a woman and having gone through menopause can put you at risk. This is because your body has stopped producing estrogen, a hormone that increases brain health.
Lets take a look at some great exercises to train your brain and prevent Alzheimers disease.
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Fact Or Myth Some Over
Many over-the-counter pain relievers — belonging to a class known as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or NSAIDs — have been said to either increase or decrease the likelihood of developing dementia or Alzheimer’s disease.
Major studies, however, have disagreed over the result of using NSAIDs to ward off or delay Alzheimer’s, which has left doctors recommending using them for pain relief, but not for assisting with Alzheimer’s.
At this point, the decision to use these drugs may have nothing to do with Alzheimer’s.
“You should take them for reasons that have nothing to do with Alzheimer’s disease and dementia,” said Karlawish.
Lyketsos of Johns Hopkins has looked at the issue and said that part of the complication may lie in the fact that these drugs might have differing effects at different stages of the disease.
“I think it’s an unsorted question,” said Lyketsos.
Part of the problem, he explained, is that there’s not yet an explanation for why NSAIDs would affect Alzheimer’s.
“We’re not entirely sure what mechanism these drugs might have aside from being anti-inflammatory,” said Lyketsos.
It may be that drugs affect a person based on where they are in their Alzheimer’s progression. At this point, he said, the suggestion is that people who have symptoms have no benefit or perhaps some harm from taking NSAIDs.
Meanwhile, he said, studies of patients who have developed nothing seem to show some benefit.
Pillar #: Healthy Diet
In Alzheimers disease, inflammation and insulin resistance injure neurons and inhibit communication between brain cells. Alzheimers is sometimes described as diabetes of the brain, and a growing body of research suggests a strong link between metabolic disorders and the signal processing systems. By adjusting your eating habits, however, you can help reduce inflammation and protect your brain.
Manage your weight. Extra pounds are a risk factor for Alzheimers disease and other types of dementia. A major study found that people who were overweight in midlife were twice as likely to develop Alzheimers down the line, and those who were obese had three times the risk. Losing weight can go a long way to protecting your brain.
Cut down on sugar.Sugary foods and refined carbs such as white flour, white rice, and pasta can lead to dramatic spikes in blood sugar which inflame your brain. Watch out for hidden sugar in all kinds of packaged foods from cereals and bread to pasta sauce and low or no-fat products.
Enjoy a Mediterranean diet. Several epidemiological studies show that eating a Mediterranean diet dramatically reduces the risk of decline from cognitive impairment and Alzheimers disease. That means plenty of vegetables, beans, whole grains, fish and olive oiland limited processed food.
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Is Your Tongue The Key To A Neuroscience Breakthrough
We know that the brain is neuroplastic — adapts to changes in behavior, environment, thinking and emotions — and may even rewire itself in certain ways. Life experience also teaches us that the tongue is a learning tool that shapes our brain. During early development, babies test everything by placing it in their mouths. As children age they stick out their tongues when concentrating on tasks such as drawing. Even as adults we let our tongue tell us about the world around us through eating, drinking and kissing. During basketball games, some players stick out their tongues while shooting. Now, knowing that there is such a rich nerve connection to the brain, scientists and doctors are turning to the tongue as a way to possibly stimulate the brain for neural retraining and rehabilitation after traumatic injuries or disease.
The team at Helius Medical Technologies believe combining physical therapy with stimulation of the tongue may improve impairment of brain function and associated symptoms of injury. We have already seen that stimulation of various nerves can improve symptoms of a range of neurological diseases. However, we believe the tongue is a much more elegant and direct pathway for stimulating brain structures and inducing neuroplasticity. We are focused on investigating the tongue as a gateway to the brain to hopefully ease the disease of brain injury, said Dr. Jonathan Sackier, CMO at Helius.
Electroceuticals: The Next Era Of Therapeutic Medicine?
Fact Or Myth Aluminum Use Leads To Alzheimer’s
Answer: Probably a myth
Aluminum, mercury and other heavy metals are often blamed for neurological and mental conditions, because they have been linked to problems in the past.
But when it comes to aluminum, one of the most common metals in our everyday life, evidence to link it to Alzheimer’s has been lacking.
“Aluminum is not a cause and certainly not the cause of Alzheimer’s, at least not at the levels we’re exposed to as part of our daily life,” said Karlawish.
Rumors of the deadliness of aluminum have been around for some time. As the rumor-debunking Web site Snopes has noted, it has been blamed for the death of 1920’s movie star Rudolph Valentino.
But the legends appear to be ahead of the facts.
“That’s an old hypothesis that’s not been validated,” said Whitehouse.
Although aluminum doesn’t appear to be a cause of Alzheimer’s, that does not exonerate all heavy metals.
“Lead poisoning contributes to Alzheimer’s,” said Whitehouse. “Anything you do to your brain when you’re a youngster that kills brain cells puts you more at risk for late-in-life dementia.”
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Suggested Exercises In The Later Stages Of Dementia
- When getting up or going to bed, shuffle along the edge of the bed, in the sitting position, from one end of the bed to the other. This helps exercise the muscles needed for standing up from a chair.
- Balance in a standing position. This can be done holding on to a support if necessary. This exercise helps with balance and posture and can form part of everyday activities, for example when showering or doing the washing up.
- Sit unsupported for a few minutes each day. This exercise helps to strengthen the stomach and back muscles used to support posture. This activity should always be carried out with someone else present as there is a risk of falling.
- Lie as flat as possible on the bed for 20-30 minutes each day, trying to reduce the gap between the curve of the back and the mattress. This allows for a good stretch, strengthens abdominal muscles and gives the neck muscles a chance to relax.
- Stand up and move about regularly. Moving regularly helps to keep leg muscles strong and maintain good balance.