What Are The Types Of Dementia
Dementias are often broken down into two main categories — Alzheimer type or non-Alzheimer type. Dementias of the Alzheimers disease type are defined by the symptoms of memory loss plus impairment in other brain functions, such as language function inability to move the muscles associated with speech or perception, visual or other inabilities to recognize speech or name objects .
Non-Alzheimer dementias include the frontotemporal lobar degenerations, which are further broken down into two main types. One type primarily affects speech. An example is primary progressive aphasia syndromes. The other type is defined by changes in behavior, including lack of feeling, emotion, interest or concern loss of a social filter personality change and loss of executive functions . In both of these frontotemporal lobe dementias, memory loss is relatively mild until later in the course of the disease.
Other non-Alzheimers disease dementias include vascular disorders , dementia with Lewy bodies, Parkinson’s dementia, and normal pressure hydrocephalus.
Experience In A Rapidly Progressive Dementia Referral Center
In 2001, Stanley Prusiners laboratory at the University of California, San Francisco 1 demonstrated the potential therapeutic efficacy of both quinacrine and chlorpromazine in an experimental model of prion disease. This finding led to a dramatic increase in referrals for suspected prion disease to UCSF, and over the past 6 years we have conducted comprehensive evaluations on 178 cases of suspected prion disease or RPD . We made a conclusive diagnosis in 95.5% of these patients, whereas in 4.5%, the diagnosis was dementia, leukoencephalopathy, or encephalopathy of unknown origin. Sixty-two percent of all patients had prion disease, which was sporadic in 75% , genetic in 22%, and acquired in 3% . In 38% of the RPD patients, we diagnosed a nonprion condition typically, these cases were diagnostically complex, defying diagnosis despite evaluations by multiple physicians before assessment at UCSF. The breakdown of specific diagnoses for these non-prion RPD cases is shown in Table 1.
Diagnosis of University of California, San Francisco evaluated rapidly progressive dementia referrals from August 2001 to September 2007. Pie chart showing the percentile of broad categories for final diagnoses of patients with suspected CreutzfeldtJakob disease or other RPDs. Note that in many cases referred with suspected prion disease, a nonprion diagnosis was made.
How Are Rpds Treated
Treatment depends on the type of RPD that was diagnosed. For example, if the RPD is the result of cancer or a hormone imbalance, treatments that target these specific conditions may help treat the RPD. Unfortunately, for many causes of RPD, there is no cure available. For these cases, however, we can sometimes treat the symptoms, make patients more comfortable and improve their quality of life.
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The Facts Of Rapid Onset Dementia Life Expectancy
Dementia refers to a group of conditions characterized by the loss of cognitive functioning, such as memory, thinking, and reasoning. For some individuals with this disease, the progression is slow, taking years to reach an advanced stage. However, for others, dementia can develop and progress rapidly. The speed of progression primarily depends on the underlying cause of the disease. If you have a loved one that has been diagnosed with rapid onset dementia, you may feel overwhelmed and unsure of the future. Learn more about the rapid onset dementia life expectancy and what steps you should take.
Dementia Stages: How Fast Dementia Progresses Stages Of Dementia And More
Dementia is a progressive impairment of cognitive function caused by damage to the brain. Over time, a person with dementia will have increased difficulty with memory, understanding, communication, and reasoning.
Healthcare providers frequently speak about a persons dementia in terms of stages. This can be helpful for communicating with family or other healthcare providers regarding the persons illness, and it is important for determining an appropriate care plan.
How Fast Does Dementia Progress?
It is important to note that dementia progresses at different speeds for every person, and for different types of dementia. The most well-known form of dementia, Alzheimers disease, is just one specific type of dementia, and tends to have the slowest progression of all types. Some factors that affect the rate of progression include:
- Repeated infections
What are the Stages of Dementia?
There are a few different systems used to grade dementia — at the most basic there is early, moderate, and end. Many providers use the system developed by Dr. Barry Reisberg of New York University which includes 7 stages. The Reisberg scale is also known as the GDS or Global Deterioration Scale for Assessment of Primary Degenerative Dementia. This scale focuses primarily on cognitive abilities.
Dementia Stages in the Reisberg Scale
Dementia Stages in the FAST Scale
Dementia Stages in the CDR Scale
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Dementia With Lewy Bodies
Initial symptoms: Dementia with Lewy bodies is a type of Lewy body dementia. Dementia with Lewy bodies involves both body symptoms such as motor and muscle weakness and rigidity, as well as brain symptoms like making decisions, memory impairment, and attention span.
In dementia with Lewy bodies, the brain symptoms develop before the body symptoms, at the same time or less than a year after the body symptoms present.
Progression: Dementia with Lewy bodies can vary quite a bit, even from day to day. However, in general the disease starts slowly and worsens gradually.
Prognosis: Average life expectancy depends on many factors but is estimated to be approximately 5 to 8 years after diagnosis.
How Quickly Does Dementia Progress
The speed at which dementia progresses varies a lot from person to person because of factors such as:
- the type of dementia for example, Alzheimers disease tends to progress more slowly than the other types
- a persons age for example, Alzheimers disease generally progresses more slowly in older people than in younger people
- other long-term health problems dementia tends to progress more quickly if the person is living with other conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes or high blood pressure, particularly if these are not well-managed
- delirium a medical condition that starts suddenly .
There is no way to be sure how quickly a persons dementia will progress. Some people with dementia will need support very soon after their diagnosis. In contrast, others will stay independent for several years.
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How Does Mixed Dementia Develop
Research indicates that mixed dementia is often not recognised and diagnosed effectively, with the person diagnosed as having one type of dementia. As well as an inaccurate diagnosis, this can lead to the diagnosed person missing out on interventions that could be helpful for the unrecognised condition. The symptoms of mixed dementia can vary depending on the part of the brain affected. If the person has two types of dementia the symptoms can be more noticeable and appear to progress more rapidly.
What Are The 7 Stages Of Dementia
People with dementia have problems with thinking, memory, and reasoning, and lose the ability to carry out tasks of daily living. They may also experience changes in personality, mood, and behavior. Dementia is typically defined in seven stages. Alzheimers disease is the most common form of dementia.
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How Is Frontotemporal Dementia Diagnosed
Family members are often the first to notice subtle changes in behavior or language skills. Its important to see a healthcare provider as early as possible to discuss:
- Symptoms, when they began, and how often they occur
- Medical history and previous medical problems
- Medical histories of family members
- Prescription medicines, over-the-counter medicines, and dietary supplements taken
No single test can diagnose FTD. Typically, healthcare providers will order routine blood tests and perform physical exams to rule out other conditions that cause similar symptoms. If they suspect dementia, they may:
- Evaluate neurological status health including reflexes, muscle strength, muscle tone, sense of touch and sight, coordination, and balance
- Assess neuropsychological status such as memory, problem-solving ability, attention span and counting skills, and language abilities
- Order magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography scans of the brain
Infective And Neoplastic Causes
Many CNS infections can cause cognitive decline. CSF results help to differentiate these, including CSF protein and white cell count and viral PCR , cytomegalovirus , EpsteinBarr virus and enterovirus). Against this in our patient, however, is the relatively subacute onset and lack of systemic features including fever. However, neurotropic viruses, such as enterovirus 71, can present with a subacute cognitive decline, which can be fatal. Also, measles can cause cognitive decline in elderly patients and mycoplasma can cause encephalitis. In immunocompromised patients, CMV and EBV infections can cause encephalitis and it would be important to know the patient’s HIV status. There can also be a dementia-like presentation in Lyme disease.
Chronic meningitis due to cryptococcal or tuberculous infection or leptomeningeal metastases may present with dementia and ataxia and can cause intracranial hypertension, either with , or without ventricular enlargement .
Neurological Whipple’s disease is also possible. Patients present with cognitive decline, psychiatric symptoms, seizures and oculopalatal myoclonus. MRI should show one or more multinodular enhancing lesions. The CSF serology for Tropheryma whipplei is not always positive, and brain biopsy might be needed for diagnosis.
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What Are The 10 Warning Signs Of Dementia
10 Early Signs and Symptoms of Alzheimers Memory loss that disrupts daily life. Challenges in planning or solving problems. Difficulty completing familiar tasks. Confusion with time or place. Trouble understanding visual images and spatial relationships. New problems with words in speaking or writing.
What Do We Mean By Stages Of Dementia
There are many different types of dementia and all of them are progressive. This means symptoms may be relatively mild at first but they get worse with time, usually over several years. These include problems with memory, thinking, problem-solving or language, and often changes in emotions, perception or behaviour.
As dementia progresses, a person will need more help and, at some point, will need a lot of support with daily living. However, dementia is different for everyone, so it will vary how soon this happens and the type of support needed.
It can be helpful to think of there being three stages of dementia:
These are sometimes called mild, moderate and severe, because this describes how much the symptoms affect a person.
These stages can be used to understand how dementia is likely to change over time, and to help people prepare for the future. The stages also act as a guide to when certain treatments, such as medicines for Alzheimers disease, are likely to work best.
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Causes Of Frontotemporal Dementia
This is an important cause of dementia in younger people. It’s most often diagnosed between the ages of 45 and 65.
It’s caused by an abnormal clumping of proteins, including tau, in the frontal and temporal lobes at the front and sides of the brain.
The clumping of these proteins damages nerve cells in the frontal and temporal lobes, causing brain cells to die. This leads to shrinking of these areas of the brain.
Frontotemporal dementia is more likely to run in families than other, more common causes of dementia.
Read more about frontotemporal dementia.
Does Dementia Cause Loss Of Bowel Control
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Keeping this in consideration, why does dementia cause bowel incontinence?
Incontinence and toilet problems in people with dementiaThe reasons for this can include: not being able to react quickly enough to the sensation of needing to use the toilet. failing to get to the toilet in time for example, because of mobility problems.
Similarly, what causes loss of bowel control in the elderly? The most common cause of bowel incontinence is damage to the muscles around the anus . Diarrhea Impacted stool Inflammatory bowel disease
Moreover, what stage of dementia is bowel incontinence?
Many people will experience incontinence in the later stages of Alzheimer’s and other dementias. There are many causes, as well as ways to help manage incontinence. How you respond can help the person with dementia retain a sense of dignity.
What causes loss of bladder and bowel control?
Many conditions may affect the nerves and muscles that control the bladder and bowel. Bladder incontinence can be caused by things such as: Holding urine in too long , which can damage the bladder. Having to urinate many times during the day and night, often urgently
These actions may help:
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What Is Frontotemporal Dementia
Frontotemporal dementia , a common cause of dementia, is a group of disorders that occur when nerve cells in the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain are lost. This causes the lobes to shrink. FTD can affect behavior, personality, language, and movement.
These disorders are among the most common dementias that strike at younger ages. Symptoms typically start between the ages of 40 and 65, but FTD can strike young adults and those who are older. FTD affects men and women equally.
The most common types of FTD are:
- Frontal variant. This form of FTD affects behavior and personality.
- Primary progressive aphasia. Aphasia means difficulty communicating. This form has two subtypes:
- Progressive nonfluent aphasia, which affects the ability to speak.
- Semantic dementia, which affects the ability to use and understand language.
A less common form of FTD affects movement, causing symptoms similar to Parkinson disease or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis .
What Happens In Rapidly Progressive Dementia
The presentation and progress of RPD will vary between individuals. People affected will usually develop problems with their memory, thought processes and communication. Many people also have personality or behavioural changes and mood disturbance. Movement changes can also occur as a result of the brain cell injury.
Some forms of RPD are treatable and, if diagnosis is made quickly, early symptoms may be reversed. Regrettably, for other causes of the condition, there are no available cures. There is an inevitable increase in symptoms and decline in function. Sadly, within months or years, the rapidly progressing dementia will cause failure of all body systems and death.
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Other Tips For Dementia Management
In addition to cognitive rehabilitation, increasing blood flow to the brain can sometimes help improve cognitive function. Here are a few ways to increase cerebral blood flow:
- Try aerobic exercise. Aerobic exercise is one of the best ways to boost blood flow, which will bring more oxygen and nutrients to your brain cells and increase cognitive function. Examples of aerobic exercise include activities such as brisk walks, swimming, and bicycling.
- Lower your blood pressure. High blood pressure constricts your arteries, making it more difficult for blood to flow up to the brain. Lowering your blood pressure causes the blood vessels to dilate, which can then allow more blood to reach the brain. Decreasing your blood pressure also reduces your risk of a second stroke.
- Stay hydrated. Blood is largely made up of water. Therefore, when you are dehydrated, your blood will thicken and have a harder time moving through your arteries. Staying hydrated then will thin the blood, increase blood flow, and reduce your risk of blood clots.
These tactics can all help treat the underlying cause of vascular dementia after stroke and potentially reverse at least some of the symptoms.
Symptoms Of Mild Cognitive Impairment
Symptoms of mild cognitive impairment may be any or all of the following-
- If you forget things more often than is usual for you
- You forget important events like appointments
- You are lost in your thread of conversation or train of thought, like while discussing a movie
- You feel a difficulty in understanding instructions, planning how to execute a task or making decisions
- You have problems with finding your way around, especially in a known environment
- You become more impulsive
- Your family or friends talk to you about or mark any of these changes in you
- You may experience depression
- You may get easily irritable or aggressive
- You may get anxious
- Less participation in mentally stimulating activities
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What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Dementia
Because dementia is a general term, its symptoms can vary widely from person to person. People with dementia have problems with:
- Reasoning, judgment, and problem solving
- Visual perception beyond typical age-related changes in vision
Signs that may point to dementia include:
- Getting lost in a familiar neighborhood
- Using unusual words to refer to familiar objects
- Forgetting the name of a close family member or friend
- Forgetting old memories
- Not being able to complete tasks independently
How Does Alzheimers Impact Life Expectancy
According to a study, the key factors that determine how long someone lives after being diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia are gender, age, and level of disability:
- While men lived approximately 4.1 years following diagnosis, women lived approximately 4.6 years.
- When someone who is over the age of 90 is diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease, they live 3.8 years. In contrast, someone under the age of 70 lived 10.7 years.
- If a patient was frail when they were diagnosed, they didn’t live as long even after the adjustment for age has been made.
In the end, the average survival time for those diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia was 4.5 years.
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How Is Frontotemporal Dementia Treated
Currently, no treatments are available to cure or slow the progression of FTD, but healthcare providers may prescribe medicine to treat symptoms. Antidepressants may help treat anxiety and control obsessive-compulsive behaviors and other symptoms. Prescription sleeping aids can help ease insomnia and other sleep disturbances. Antipsychotic medicine may reduce irrational and compulsive behaviors.
Behavior modification may help control unacceptable or risky behaviors.
Speech and language pathologists and physical and occupational therapists can help adjustment to some of the changes caused by FTD.