The Effect Of Probiotic Supplementation On Tym Test
The TYM cognitive test was taken from the CON and PRO group before and 12 weeks after the intervention. The pre- and post-treatment TYM scores in the PRO group were 14.64 ± 1.71 and 17.42 ± 2.42, respectively the values in the CON patients were 14.35 ± 2.27 and 17.47 ± 2.89, respectively . Analysis of variance indicated no difference between the two groups . The change percent between the scores achieved at the onset and offset of the trials was 12.86% ± 8.33 in the CON group and 9.35% ± 16.83 in the PRO group, however, the unpaired student t-test indicates no statistical difference between the two groups .
Table 2. Pre- and post-treatment cognitive scores and biochemical values in the CON and PRO groups.
Table 3. Comparison of the change percent of the biochemical factors between the control and probiotic groups.
What Increases The Risk For Dementia
- AgeThe strongest known risk factor for dementia is increasing age, with most cases affecting those of 65 years and older
- Family historyThose who have parents or siblings with dementia are more likely to develop dementia themselves.
- Race/ethnicityOlder African Americans are twice more likely to have dementia than whites. Hispanics 1.5 times more likely to have dementia than whites.
- Poor heart healthHigh blood pressure, high cholesterol, and smoking increase the risk of dementia if not treated properly.
- Traumatic brain injuryHead injuries can increase the risk of dementia, especially if they are severe or occur repeatedly.
What Is Known About Alzheimers Disease
Scientists do not yet fully understand what causes Alzheimers disease. There likely is not a single cause but rather several factors that can affect each person differently.
- Age is the best known risk factor for Alzheimers disease.
- Family historyresearchers believe that genetics may play a role in developing Alzheimers disease. However, genes do not equal destiny. A healthy lifestyle may help reduce your risk of developing Alzheimers disease. Two large, long term studies indicate that adequate physical activity, a nutritious diet, limited alcohol consumption, and not smoking may help people. To learn more about the study, you can listen to a short podcast.
- Changes in the brain can begin years before the first symptoms appear.
- Researchers are studying whether education, diet, and environment play a role in developing Alzheimers disease.
- There is growing scientific evidence that healthy behaviors, which have been shown to prevent cancer, diabetes, and heart disease, may also reduce risk for subjective cognitive decline. Heres 8 ways.
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How Is Dementia Diagnosed
To diagnose dementia, doctors first assess whether a person has an underlying, potentially treatable, condition that may relate to cognitive difficulties. A physical exam to measure blood pressure and other vital signs, as well as laboratory tests of blood and other fluids to check levels of various chemicals, hormones, and vitamins, can help uncover or rule out possible causes of symptoms.
A review of a persons medical and family history can provide important clues about risk for dementia. Typical questions might include asking about whether dementia runs in the family, how and when symptoms began, changes in behavior and personality, and if the person is taking certain medications that might cause or worsen symptoms.
The following procedures also may be used to diagnose dementia:
Early detection of symptoms is important, as some causes can be treated. However, in many cases, the cause of dementia is unknown and cannot be treated. Still, obtaining an early diagnosis can help with managing the condition and planning ahead.
Anthropometric Characteristics Of The Patients
The patients assigned to the CON and PRO groups weighed 80.57 ± 1.79 and 79.70 ± 1.72 kg, respectively at the onset of the study. BMI index of the subjects enrolled in the study showed no difference over 12 weeks. The change percent of BMI was 0.11 ± 0.29 and 0.74 ± 0.34 in the CON and PRO groups , respectively .
Table 1. Anthropometric characteristics of the patients.
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What Is Mixed Dementia
It is common for people with dementia to have more than one form of dementia. For example, many people with dementia have both Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia.
Researchers who have conducted autopsy studies have looked at the brains of people who had dementia, and have suggested that most people age 80 and older probably have mixed dementia caused by a combination of brain changes related to Alzheimer’s disease,vascular disease-related processes, or another condition that involves the loss of nerve cell function or structure and nerve cell death .
Scientists are investigating how the underlying disease processes in mixed dementia start and influence each other. Further knowledge gains in this area will help researchers better understand these conditions and develop more personalized prevention and treatment strategies.
Other conditions that cause dementia-like symptoms can be halted or even reversed with treatment. For example, normal pressure hydrocephalus, an abnormal buildup of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain, often resolves with treatment.
Researchers have also identified many other conditions that can cause dementia or dementia-like symptoms. These conditions include:
Medical Definition Of Alzheimer’s Disease
- Medical Editor: Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD
Reviewed on 3/29/2021
Alzheimer’s disease: A progressive degenerative disease of the brain that leads to dementia. On a cellular level, Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by the finding of unusual helical protein filaments in nerve cells of the brain. These twisted filaments are called neurofibrillary tangles. In the brain, Alzheimer’s disease involves degeneration of the cortical regions, especially the frontal and temporal lobes. There is currently no cure for Alzheimer’s disease, but new medications and therapies appear to slow its progress and improve the patient’s ability to function.
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How Many Americans Have Alzheimers Disease
Estimates vary, but experts suggest that more than 6 million Americans age 65 and older may have Alzheimers. Many more under age 65 also have the disease. Unless Alzheimer’s can be effectively treated or prevented, the number of people with it will increase significantly if current population trends continue. This is because increasing age is the most important known risk factor for Alzheimers disease.
What To Do If A Loved One Is Suspicious Of Having Dementia
- Discuss with loved one. Talk about seeing a medical provider about the observed changes soon. Talk about the issue of driving and always carrying an ID.
- Medical assessment. Be with a provider that you are comfortable with. Ask about the Medicare Annual Wellness exam.
- Family Meeting. Start planning, and gather documents like the Health Care Directive, Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care, Estate Plan.
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Do People With Alzheimers Sleep More
People with Alzheimers and other forms of dementia often sleep for long periods and may need to sleep during the day.
As Alzheimers progresses, it causes an increasing amount of damage to the brain, and the individual becomes weaker. A person may feel exhausted after everyday tasks, such as communicating, eating, or trying to make sense of the world around them. People may sleep more during the day as the symptoms worsen.
Additionally, medications that doctors prescribe to treat Alzheimers can contribute to sleepiness. These medications may include antipsychotics, antidepressants, antihistamines, and sleeping pills.
Other Sleep Tips And Management
Caregivers of people with Alzheimers can take steps to help them manage their sleep. These include:
- Identifying any other medical conditions: Caregivers can watch the individual to see whether they have a condition that results in them waking up. For example, sleep apnea causes short pauses in breathing, and restless leg syndrome involves moving or twitching the legs uncontrollably.
- Reviewing their medication: The side effects of some prescription medications that treat Alzheimers may contribute to sleepless nights. A doctor can advise on the best time of day to take medications to ease these effects.
- Keeping the time visible: It may be beneficial for the individual to be able to see a clock that distinguishes between nighttime and daytime.
- Talking to them: If the individual gets up in the night, a caregiver can talk to them to try to find out why. It is then best to keep the person relaxed and prepare them for returning to sleep with low lighting and relaxing music that they enjoy.
- Using a bed exit pad: These wireless pads signal if the individual wanders from their bed during the night. Once a caregiver receives the alert, they can assist the individual in getting back into bed as soon as possible.
- Establishing a routine: Keeping to the same bedtime and wake time each day and putting a routine in place such as a relaxing bath or a hot, milky drink before bed can help the individual recognize the time of day.
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Key Points About Early
Alzheimer disease commonly affects older people, but early-onset Alzheimer disease can affect people in their 30s or 40s.
It affects memory, thinking, and behavior.
Although there is no known cure, early diagnosis and treatment can lead to better quality of life.
Stay healthy with a good diet and regular exercise.
Avoid alcohol and other substances that may affect memory, thinking, and behavior.
Is There Treatment Available
At present there is no cure for Alzheimer’s disease. However, one group of drugs called cholinergeric drugs appears to be providing some temporary improvement in cognitive functioning for some people with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease.
Drugs can also be prescribed for secondary symptoms such as restlessness or depression or to help the person with dementia sleep better.
Community support is available for the person with Alzheimer’s disease, their families and carers. This support can make a positive difference to managing dementia. Dementia Australia provides support, information and counselling for people affected by dementia. Dementia Australia also aims to provide up-to-date information about drug treatments.
For more information contact the National Dementia Helpline on 1800 100 500.
For a range of books and videos contact our Library.
For advice, common sense approaches and practical strategies on the issues most commonly raised about dementia, read our Help Sheets.
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Genetic Risk Factors And Research On Other Potential Contributors
Researchers have not pinpointed a gene that directly causes late-onset Alzheimers disease. But having one form of the apolipoprotein E gene on chromosome 19 does increase a persons risk, according to the National Institute on Aging.
The early-onset form of the disease is sometimes caused by an inherited change in one of three genes: APP, PSEN1 and PSEN2. Some research suggests it is possible for early-onset Alzheimers to be caused by genetic changes that occur outside of these three genes as well.
Aside from genetic influences, studies have suggested that gum disease bacteria, lack of sleep, proton pump inhibitors or iron buildup from like consuming red meat, among other things, may be contributors to the development of the disease, although findings are mixed and scientists still do not know for sure.
A 2019 study published in the journal Science Advances found Porphyromonas gingivalis in the brains of people with Alzheimers disease. The type of bacteria is involved in gum disease. In addition to the bacteria, scientists also found evidence of gingipains, which are toxic enzymes produced by the bacteria.
Although earlier studies also support a link between gum disease and the brain disorder, Business Insider reported that some experts are being cautious about the most recent findings.
Gum disease can contribute to a number of health problems, including heart disease, premature and low-birth weight babies, and rheumatoid arthritis.
Iso4 Abbreviation Of Alzheimer Disease And Associated Disorders
ISO 4 is an international standard, defining a uniform system for the abbreviation of serial publication titles. One major use of ISO 4 is to abbreviate the names of scientific journals. The International Organization for Standardization has appointed the ISSN International Centre as the registration authority for ISO 4. It maintains the List of Title Word Abbreviations containing standard abbreviations for words commonly found in serial titles. LTWA includes more than 56,000 words and their abbreviations in 65 languages. In conclusion, under ISO 4 standards, the Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders should be cited as Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord for abstracting, indexing and referencing purposes.
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Other Effects Of Alzheimers On Sleep
Some of the challenges that Alzheimers poses can result in an individual having reduced sleep quality, which may, in turn, worsen other symptoms of Alzheimers. For example, a lack of sleep can increase delusions, restlessness, and wandering, making sleeping more challenging.
People with Alzheimers may have difficulty communicating to their caregivers that something is wrong. For example, they may be unable to tell someone that they are experiencing pain. In this case, the pain may impair their sleep.
Having sufficient deep sleep and rapid eye movement sleep is necessary for memory preservation, and memory loss is the leading Alzheimers symptom. People with Alzheimers progressively experience less deep sleep and REM sleep.
Other potential effects of Alzheimers on sleep include decreased physical activity and spending less time in natural sunlight.
How Is Dementia Treated
If you are concerned about yourself or a loved one, speak to doctor or nurse practitioner.
It is important to have this conversation early to get more information, be connected to resources, and treat reversible causes of dementia such as thyroid problems or some vitamin deficiencies.
Speaking with your doctor early is an important first step. Alzheimers disease does not have a specific cure, but treatments can help slow progression or lessen the burden of symptoms.
Maintaining a healthy lifestyle and seeking support from family, friends, and community groups is important for quality of life.
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What Are The Common Signs Or Symptoms Of Dementia
As there are many different types and causes of dementia, there can be many different signs and symptoms. Some signs and symptoms include:
- Feeling confused or disoriented
- Difficulty remembering events, conversations, names/words
- Difficulty doing daily tasks, chores, activities
- Trouble planning or organizing
- Changes to personality, mood or behaviour
- Difficulty recognizing and misplacing objects
Assessment Of Biochemical Parameters
Twelve-hour fasting blood samples were collected by venipuncture before and after the intervention. The blood samples were taken according to a standard protocol and centrifuged . Then, the samples were stored at 80°C until analysis. Serum total antioxidant capacity was quantified using the method of ferric reducing antioxidant power method developed by Benzie and Strain . The method of Beutler et al. was used for measuring total glutathione . Plasma concentration of malondialdehyde was measured by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance method .
The serum high sensitivity concentrations of IL-6, IL-10, and TNF- were measured using commercial ELISA kit . Serum high sensitivity 8-hydroxy-2 -deoxyguanosine concentration was also quantified by use of commercial ELISA kit . Plasma nitric oxide was quantified by the Griess method .
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Symptoms Of Alzheimer’s Disease
In the early stages the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease can be very subtle. However, it often begins with lapses in memory and difficulty in finding the right words for everyday objects.
Other symptoms may include:
- Persistent and frequent memory difficulties, especially of recent events
- Vagueness in everyday conversation
- Apparent loss of enthusiasm for previously enjoyed activities
- Taking longer to do routine tasks
- Forgetting well-known people or places
- Inability to process questions and instructions
- Deterioration of social skills
- Emotional unpredictability
Symptoms vary and the disease progresses at a different pace according to the individual and the areas of the brain affected. A person’s abilities may fluctuate from day to day, or even within the one day, becoming worse in times of stress, fatigue or ill-health.
How Is Alzheimers Disease Treated
Medical management can improve quality of life for individuals living with Alzheimers disease and for their caregivers. There is currently no known cure for Alzheimers disease. Treatment addresses several areas:
- Helping people maintain brain health.
- Managing behavioral symptoms.
- Slowing or delaying symptoms of the disease.
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What Is Alzheimers Disease
- Alzheimers disease is the most common type of dementia.
- It is a progressive disease beginning with mild memory loss and possibly leading to loss of the ability to carry on a conversation and respond to the environment.
- Alzheimers disease involves parts of the brain that control thought, memory, and language.
- It can seriously affect a persons ability to carry out daily activities.
Who Has Alzheimers Disease
- In 2020, as many as 5.8 million Americans were living with Alzheimers disease.1
- Younger people may get Alzheimers disease, but it is less common.
- The number of people living with the disease doubles every 5 years beyond age 65.
- This number is projected to nearly triple to 14 million people by 2060.1
- Symptoms of the disease can first appear after age 60, and the risk increases with age.
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What To Do If You Suspect Alzheimers Disease
Getting checked by your healthcare provider can help determine if the symptoms you are experiencing are related to Alzheimers disease, or a more treatable conditions such as a vitamin deficiency or a side effect from medication. Early and accurate diagnosis also provides opportunities for you and your family to consider financial planning, develop advance directives, enroll in clinical trials, and anticipate care needs.