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What Is The Definition Of Dementia

Examples Of Dementia In A Sentence

What is Dementia?

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These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word ‘dementia.’ Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback.

Definition Of Alzheimer Disease Over Time

In 1984, the National Institute on Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Alzheimers Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria were created conceptualizing Alzheimer disease as a clinicopathological entity for over 30 years . With advancing technology allowing in vivo detection of amyloid with PET and CSF as well as measurement of neurodegeneration, in 2011 revised AD criteria were proposed by the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimers Association. Individuals were characterized by their clinical state with biomarkers of amyloid and neurodegeneration providing the likelihood that their clinical state was due to Alzheimer disease. For example, if amyloid and neurodegeneration biomarkers were present in conjunction with the clinical syndrome of dementia, the diagnosis of dementia due to AD with high likelihood could be made . But the diagnoses of MCI and dementia due to AD were still clinical-pathological conditions.

Coping With Cognitive Changes

Some medications used to treat Alzheimer’s disease also may be used to treat the cognitive symptoms of LBD. These drugs, called cholinesterase inhibitors, act on a chemical in the brain that is important for memory and thinking. They may also improve hallucinations, apathy, and delusions. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved one Alzheimer’s drug, rivastigmine, to treat cognitive symptoms in Parkinson’s disease dementia. Several other drugs are being tested as possible treatments for LBD symptoms or to disrupt the underlying disease process.

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What Are The Most Common Types Of Dementia

  • Alzheimers disease. This is the most common cause of dementia, accounting for 60 to 80 percent of cases. It is caused by specific changes in the brain. The trademark symptom is trouble remembering recent events, such as a conversation that occurred minutes or hours ago, while difficulty remembering more distant memories occurs later in the disease. Other concerns like difficulty with walking or talking or personality changes also come later. Family history is the most important risk factor. Having a first-degree relative with Alzheimers disease increases the risk of developing it by 10 to 30 percent.
  • Vascular dementia. About 10 percent of dementia cases are linked to strokes or other issues with blood flow to the brain. Diabetes, high blood pressure and high cholesterol are also risk factors. Symptoms vary depending on the area and size of the brain impacted. The disease progresses in a step-wise fashion, meaning symptoms will suddenly get worse as the individual gets more strokes or mini-strokes.
  • Lewy body dementia. In addition to more typical symptoms like memory loss, people with this form of dementia may have movement or balance problems like stiffness or trembling. Many people also experience changes in alertness including daytime sleepiness, confusion or staring spells. They may also have trouble sleeping at night or may experience visual hallucinations .

Patient Discussion About Dementia

Dementia introduction slides by swapnakishore released cc ...

Q. how is dementia and alcoholism related

A.

Q. Is obesity a risk factor for Dementia?

A.

Q. discussing my father situation with the doctor My 82 years old dad has dementia, and currently lives with us at my home. For the last few weeks he’s very nervous and sometimes yells and screams at us. I want to take him to the doctor and see if he can get any help, but I’m afraid that if I’ll try to speak with doctor about this subject in front of my dad he’ll take offense. What can I do?Thank you very much!

A.

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Vascular Dementia And Vascular Cognitive Impairment

Vascular dementia occurring with AD is common, but pure vascular dementia appears to be uncommon . A full review of the management of dementia with a cerebrovascular component was developed in Canada in the Third CCCD and was presented by Bocti, Black, and Frank . There are both conceptual and pragmatic difficulties in trying to portray vascular dementia as a distinct entity. Of the criteria now in use, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Association Internationale pour la Recherché et l’Enseignement en Neurosciences criteria and the Alzheimer’s Disease Diagnostic and Treatment Centers criteria have been especially influential but each set has limitations. In practice, most criteria are insensitive and different sets of criteria give differing estimates of who has vascular dementia . Vascular lesions are found in many dementia patients, including those with otherwise classical AD, where they are often detected only by routine neuroimaging. On the contrary, patients with only vascular pathology as the cause of their dementia have been uncommon in many series . Most patients have mixed pathology, so that patients with vascular lesions commonly have evidence of other neuro degenerative disorders . One should also note that many patients with positive imaging do not have a stroke history, implying a high occurrence of silent strokes.

What Is Dementia Definition Description And Diagnosis

The World Health Organization figures show that 50 million people worldwide are affected by dementia, with 10 million new cases diagnosed every year. Dementia disease has become a major challenge throughout the world. When it affects you or someone close to you, the problem becomes even more real for you. The first thing you need to know is a complete answer to the question ‘What is dementia?’

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Managing Sleep Disorders In Lewy Body Dementia

Sleep problems may increase confusion and behavioral problems in people with LBD and add to a caregiver’s burden. A physician can order a sleep study to identify any underlying sleep disorders such as sleep apnea, restless leg syndrome, and REM sleep behavior disorder.

REM sleep behavior disorder, a common LBD symptom, involves acting out one’s dreams, leading to lost sleep and even injuries to individuals and their sleep partners. Clonazepam, a drug used to control seizures and relieve panic attacks, is often effective for the disorder at very low dosages. However, it can have side effects such as dizziness, unsteadiness, and problems with thinking. Melatonin, a naturally occurring hormone used to treat insomnia, may also offer some benefit when taken alone or with clonazepam.

Excessive daytime sleepiness is also common in LBD. If it is severe, a sleep specialist may prescribe a stimulant to help the person stay awake during the day.

Some people with LBD have difficulty falling asleep. If trouble sleeping at night persists, a physician may recommend a prescription medication. It is important to note that treating insomnia and other sleep problems in people with LBD has not been extensively studied, and that treatments may worsen daytime sleepiness and should be used with caution. Sleep problems can also be addressed by avoiding lengthy naps, increasing daytime exercise, and avoiding caffeine, alcohol, and chocolate late in the day.

Mild Cognitive Impairment And Prodromal Alzheimer’s Disease

What is dementia?

There is overwhelming evidence that MCI is a risk state for progression to AD dementia. The development of AD-P biomarkers has supported a more refined clinico-biological definition of this at-risk state. Both the NIA-AA working group and the IWG have undertaken to integrate biomarkers into the diagnostic formulation of this condition. The NIA-AA group has conceptualized their approach around MCI due to AD, with the presence of AD-P biomarkers increasing the probability of progression to AD dementia. The IWG has taken a different view that a characteristic clinical presentation of AD in the predementia stage , supported by the presence of one or more AD-P biomarkers, is sufficient to diagnose AD. While there are currently no proven therapies to influence the longer term outcomes of these conditions, both definitions support the research of predementia AD interventions, both pharmacological and nonpharmacological. We will review each proposal in detail below.

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Proposals Adopted At The Fourth Cccd

We recommend the IWG definition of asymptomatic at-risk for AD states for research purposes.

Given that the presence of brain amyloid in normal people is of uncertain significance, we propose that the CCCD discourages the use of amyloid deposition imaging in individuals without memory loss, outside the research setting. The medical community should be clear in its discussions with patients, the media and the general population that a presence of brain amyloid in normal people is of unclear significance at the present time.

What Is Missing What Is Needed In The Future

This paper has focused on the new diagnostic formulations of AD that support the earlier identification of disease based on biomarker integration. There is currently an emerging belief in the field that the failure to make progress in therapeutics of the disease is arising from interventions that occur too late in the processed pathophysiological process. The emergence of biomarkers that identify the pathology of AD ahead of its symptomatic expression may in future allow the potential for studies directed at earlier intervention, including those directed at prevention of AD/dementia.

The time may now be here to reconceptualize the functional impairment criteria for AD diagnosis given some of the significant decade-long challenges of defining the right amount of impairment. Defining functional impairment cutoff points is very difficult, and even assessing function in many cases is unworkable, given its significant social and gender context. This is clearly an area that requires further work.

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How Is Vascular Dementia Treated

Because many different disease processes can result in different forms of vascular dementia, there may not be one treatment for all. However, vascular dementia is often managed with medications to prevent strokes and reduce the risk of additional brain damage. Some studies suggest that medications that are used to treat Alzheimer’s might benefit some people with an early form of vascular dementia. Treating modifiable risk factors like high blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol, and problems with the rhythm of the heartbeat can help prevent additional stroke. Living a healthy lifestyle is important to help reduce the risk factorsof vascular dementia.

Behavioral And Mood Symptoms Of Lewy Body Dementia

Dementia: Causes, types, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment ...

Changes in behavior and mood are possible in LBD and may worsen as the persons thinking abilities decline. These changes may include:

  • Depression
  • Apathy, or a lack of interest in normal daily activities or events and less social interaction
  • Anxiety and related behaviors, such as asking the same questions over and over or being angry or fearful when a loved one is not present
  • Agitation, or restlessness, and related behaviors, such as pacing, hand wringing, an inability to get settled, constant repeating of words or phrases, or irritability
  • Delusions, or strongly held false beliefs or opinions not based on evidence. For example, a person may think his or her spouse is having an affair or that relatives long dead are still living.
  • Paranoia, or an extreme, irrational distrust of others, such as suspicion that people are taking or hiding things

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Lewy Body Dementia Research

Many avenues of research are being explored to improve our understanding of LBD. Some researchers are working to identify the specific differences in the brain between the two types of LBD. Others are looking at the disease’s underlying biology, genetics, and environmental risk factors. Still other scientists are trying to identify biomarkers , improve screening tests to aid diagnosis, and research new treatments.

Scientists hope that new knowledge about LBD will one day lead to more effective treatments and even ways to cure and prevent the disorder. Until then, researchers need volunteers with and without LBD for clinical studies.

NIH and other groups help people learn about clinical trials and studies and find research opportunities near them. Visit the following websites for details:

What Increases The Risk For Dementia

  • AgeThe strongest known risk factor for dementia is increasing age, with most cases affecting those of 65 years and older
  • Family historyThose who have parents or siblings with dementia are more likely to develop dementia themselves.
  • Race/ethnicityOlder African Americans are twice more likely to have dementia than whites. Hispanics 1.5 times more likely to have dementia than whites.
  • Poor heart healthHigh blood pressure, high cholesterol, and smoking increase the risk of dementia if not treated properly.
  • Traumatic brain injuryHead injuries can increase the risk of dementia, especially if they are severe or occur repeatedly.

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What Research Is Being Done

Scientists all over the world are working hard to gain a better understanding of the many different aspects of dementia. This might help to develop preventive measures, improved early detection diagnostic tools, better and longer-lasting treatments, and even cures.

For example, early research suggests a common asthma drug called zileuton might slow, stop, and potentially reverse the development of proteins in the brain. These proteins are common in people with Alzheimers disease.

Another recent research development suggests deep brain stimulation could be an effective way to limit symptoms of Alzheimers in older patients. This method has been used to treat symptoms of Parkinsons disease, such as tremors, for decades.

Now, researchers are looking at the possibility of slowing the progression of Alzheimers.

Scientists are investigating a variety of factors they think might influence the development of dementia, including:

  • genetic factors

What Causes Sundowning

What is Dementia?

The exact causes of sundowning are not known, but it is thought that dementia damages the bodys circadian clock, which dictates the bodys daily rhythm. Moreover, the strain of dealing with dementia on a daily basis means that those living with the condition have low energy reserves by the end of the day, and as such can become tired and irritable.

People heading towards the later stages of dementia may be depressed by the condition, but unable to express their feelings appropriately. They could be bored, tired, hungry, thirsty or in pain, but with no way of making their feelings properly felt, they become agitated.

Other factors that can trigger sundowning symptoms include:

  • A change to their routine, or an increase in downtime over activities
  • A lack of consistent, quality sleep
  • Too much or too little light. Shadows in particular can increase confusion and fear
  • Prescribed medication wearing off

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What Do The Terms Mean

One of the challenges shared by people living with these disorders, families, clinicians, and researchers is what terminology to use. Here, we have used the term frontotemporal disorders to characterize this group of diseases and the abbreviation FTD, which is commonly used to refer to them. Other terms used include frontotemporal lobar degeneration and frontotemporal dementia, but it’s important to note that with some frontotemporal disorders, the primary symptoms are problems with speech or movement, rather than dementia symptoms. Physicians and psychologists diagnose the different forms of FTD based on a persons symptoms as well as the results of brain scans and genetic tests.

How Long Can A Person Live With Alzheimers Disease

The time from diagnosis to death varies as little as three or four years if the person is older than 80 when diagnosed, to as long as 10 or more years if the person is younger.

Alzheimers disease is currently ranked as the sixth leading cause of death in the United States, but recent estimates indicate that the disorder may rank third, just behind heart disease and cancer, as a cause of death for older people.

Currently, there is no cure for Alzheimers disease, though there has been significant progress in recent years in developing and testing new treatments. Several medicines have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat people with Alzheimers.

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Mise En Pratique Des Connaissances

  • À mesure que la population canadienne vieillit, la prévalence de la démence augmente de façon exponentielle et les demandes auxquelles doivent répondre les individus, la société et les fournisseurs de soins de santé saccroissent en conséquence.

  • Les pharmaciens peuvent jouer un plus grand rôle dans le traitement et le soutien des personnes atteintes de démence, en particulier en informant les patients et les aidants sur la maladie et sa progression, en se familiarisant avec les outils de dépistage qui peuvent être utilisés dans la pratique de la pharmacie pour évaluer la fonction cognitive, et en gérant les médicaments des patients à différents stades de la démence.

Of all the things Ive lost, I miss my mind the most.

Mark Twain

What Is Alzheimer’s Disease

MCRPsych09

Alzheimers disease is a brain disorder that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills and, eventually, the ability to carry out the simplest tasks. In most people with the disease those with the late-onset type symptoms first appear in their mid-60s. Early-onset Alzheimers occurs between a persons 30s and mid-60s and is very rare. Alzheimers disease is the most common cause of dementia among older adults.

The disease is named after Dr. Alois Alzheimer. In 1906, Dr. Alzheimer noticed changes in the brain tissue of a woman who had died of an unusual mental illness. Her symptoms included memory loss, language problems, and unpredictable behavior. After she died, he examined her brain and found many abnormal clumps and tangled bundles of fibers .

These plaques and tangles in the brain are still considered some of the main features of Alzheimers disease. Another feature is the loss of connections between nerve cells in the brain. Neurons transmit messages between different parts of the brain, and from the brain to muscles and organs in the body. Many other complex brain changes are thought to play a role in Alzheimers, too.

This damage initially takes place in parts of the brain involved in memory, including the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus. It later affects areas in the cerebral cortex, such as those responsible for language, reasoning, and social behavior. Eventually, many other areas of the brain are damaged.

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