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What Is The Most Common Cause Of Dementia

Are Dementia Senility And Alzheimer’s Disease The Same Things

NCLEX Question: Most Common Cause of Dementia
  • Dementia occurs most commonly in elderly people it used to be called senility and/or senile dementia, and was considered a normal part of aging. Affected people were labeled as demented. The term “senile dementia” is infrequently used in the current medical literature and has been replaced by the term “dementia.”
  • “Senile dementia,””senility,” and “demented” are older outdated terms that incorrectly label people with memory loss, confusion and other symptoms as a normal part of aging.
  • Dementia, as defined above, is a constellation of ongoing symptoms that are not part of normal aging that have a large number of different causes, for example, Alzheimer’s disease is the major cause of dementia in individuals but it is only one of many problems that can cause dementia.

    Symptoms of dementia vary considerably by the individual and the underlying cause of the dementia. Most people affected by dementia have some of these symptoms. The symptoms may be very obvious, or they may be very subtle and go unrecognized for some time. The first sign of dementia is usually loss of short-term memory. The person repeats what he just said or forgets where she put an object just a few minutes ago. Other symptoms and signs are as follows:

    Early dementia symptoms and signs

    How Is Vascular Dementia Diagnosed

    In addition to a complete medical history and physical exam, your healthcare provider may order some of the following:

    • Computed tomography . This imaging test uses X-rays and a computer to make horizontal, or axial images of the brain. CT scans are more detailed than general X-rays.
    • FDG-PET scan. This is a PET scan of the brain that uses a special tracer to light up regions of the brain.
    • Electroencephalogram . This test measures electrical activity in the brain
    • Magnetic resonance imaging . This test uses large magnets, radiofrequencies, and a computer to make detailed images of the brain.
    • Neuropsychological assessments. These tests can help sort out vascular dementia from other types of dementia and Alzheimer’s.
    • Neuropsychiatric evaluation. This may be done to rule out a psychiatric condition that may resemble dementia.

    Research Into The Cause Of Dementia With Lewy Bodies

    Dementia with Lewy bodies is characterised by the presence of abnormal spherical structures, called Lewy bodies, which develop inside nerve cells in the brain. Lewy bodies are accumulations of a protein called alpha-synuclein. It is thought that these contribute to the degeneration and death of nerve cells.

    Dementia with Lewy bodies sometimes co-occurs with Alzheimers disease and/or vascular dementia. It may also be hard to distinguish dementia with Lewy bodies from Parkinsons disease, which is also associated with Lewy bodies, and some people who have Parkinsons disease develop a similar dementia.

    At present there is no known cause of dementia with Lewy bodies and no risk factors have been identified. In very rare cases, the disease appears to be inherited, but a genetic cause has not yet been found. In short, we do not know why Lewy bodies form in the brain and research continues in the attempt to find an answer. Much of this research is focussed on searching for the genetic roots of dementia with Lewy bodies, exploring the mechanisms of alpha-synuclein accumulation, and discovering how Lewy bodies cause the particular symptoms of dementia with Lewy bodies.

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    Dementia With Lewy Bodies

    Dementia with Lewy bodies is caused by the build-up of tiny protein deposits in the brain. DLB is less common in younger people with dementia than in older people. Lewy bodies also cause Parkinsons disease and about one-third of people with Parkinsons eventually develop dementia.Symptoms of dementia with Lewy bodies can include hallucinations and varying levels of alertness. People can also develop the features of Parkinsons disease .

    What is dementia with Lewy bodies?

    Find out more about dementia with Lewy bodies, diagnosis and how to treat it.

    How Many Types Of Dementia Exist

    An overview of dementia

    There are hundreds of different types of dementia and dementia-like conditions. Dementia is a broad description of diseases and symptoms that cause damage or loss of nerve cells and their connectivity to the brain.

    As a result of this broad definition, dementia can also include some more rare forms of dementia, disorders that are often linked with dementia, and even be confused with dementia-like symptoms that are associated with other conditions.

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    Disproportionate Impact On Women

    Globally, dementia has a disproportionate impact on women. Sixty-five percent of total deaths due to dementia are women, and disability-adjusted life years due to dementia are roughly 60% higher in women than in men. Additionally, women provide the majority of informal care for people living with dementia, accounting for 70% of carer hours.

    What Causes Vascular Dementia

    Vascular dementia is caused by a lack of blood flow to a part of the brain. Blood flow may be decreased or interrupted by:

    • Blood clots
    • Bleeding because of a ruptured blood vessel
    • Damage to a blood vessel from atherosclerosis, infection, high blood pressure, or other causes, such as an autoimmune disorder

    CADASIL is a genetic disorder that generally leads to dementia of the vascular type. One parent with the gene for CADASIL passes it on to a child, which makes it an autosomal-dominant inheritance disorder. It affects the blood vessels in the white matter of the brain. Symptoms, such as migraine headaches, seizures, and severe depression, generally start when a person is in his or her mid-30s but, symptoms may not appear until later in life.

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    Pooled Estimates Of Prevalence

    In 2000, prevalence data from 11 European population based studies were pooled to obtain stable estimates of prevalence of dementia in the elderly . Age standardised prevalence was 6.4% for dementia , 4.4% for AD, and 1.6% for VaD. Prevalence of dementia was higher in women than in men and nearly doubled with every five year increase in age: 0.8% in the group age 6569 years and 28.5% at age 90 years and older . Of all dementia cases, 54% suffered AD. Prevalence of AD showed the steepest increase with age, from 0.6% in the group age 6569 years to 22.2% in the group aged 90 years and older. VaD accounted for 16% of cases, and prevalence increased with age from 0.3% to 5.2% . More recently, prevalence rates for dementia were compared among 12 population based European studies. Crude prevalence rates varied between 5.9% and 9.4% . Again, an almost exponential increase with age and a female excessmostly after age 75was described.

    Pooled prevalence of dementia by sex. Based on Lobo et al.

    Different Types Of Dementia

    What are the most common types of dementia and the need-to-know info?

    Dementia is a word used to describe a group of symptoms that occur when brain cells stop working properly. There are a number of diseases that cause dementia.

    Alzheimers disease is the most common cause of dementia, but there are other types of dementia too. It is possible to have more than one type of dementia at the same time. Alzheimers is sometimes seen with vascular dementia or dementia with Lewy bodies. You might hear this called mixed dementia.

    Page last reviewed: 05/07/2018

    Although often thought of as a disease of older people, around 4% of people with Alzheimers are under 65. This is called early-onset or young-onset Alzheimers. It usually affects people in their 40s, 50s and early 60s.

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    Dementia Stages Before Death

    At diagnosis, most people are in either the early- or mid-stage of dementia. People with early stage dementia may be a bit forgetful, but they can still function in everyday life. They live independently many still work.

    In mid-stage dementia, memory and thinking problems become more obvious. Other people notice that the affected individual is no longer operating at peak capacity. Symptoms become more pronounced as this stage progresses. Affected individuals may forget that they just ate. They may wander or get lost while walking a once-familiar route. Their sleep habits may change. Its not uncommon for people with mid-stage dementia to sleep during the day and be up most of the night.

    Eventually, dementia progresses to the point where individuals can no longer control bowel and bladder function. This loss of control is directly Related to the damage occurring in the brain the cells that normally control these functions die. And as more and more cells die, symptoms worsen. In late-stage , individuals may lose the ability to walk and speak. Self-feeding becomes impossible, and as the disease progresses, many people have a hard time swallowing food or drink.

    Talking With A Doctor

    After considering the persons symptoms and ordering screening tests, the doctor may offer a preliminary diagnosis or refer the person to a Cognitive Dementia and Memory Service clinic, neurologist, geriatrician or psychiatrist.Some people may be resistant to the idea of visiting a doctor. In some cases, people do not realise, or else they deny, that there is anything wrong with them. This can be due to the brain changes of dementia that interfere with the ability to recognise or appreciate the changes occurring. Others have an insight of the changes, but may be afraid of having their fears confirmed.One of the most effective ways to overcome this problem is to find another reason for a visit to the doctor. Perhaps suggest a check-up for a symptom that the person is willing to acknowledge, such as blood pressure, or suggest a review of a long-term condition or medication.Another way is to suggest that it is time for both of you to have a physical check-up. Any expressed anxiety by the person is an excellent opportunity to suggest a visit to the doctor. Be sure to provide a lot of reassurance. A calm, caring attitude at this time can help overcome the person’s very real worries and fears.Sometimes, your friend or family member may refuse to visit the doctor to ask about their symptoms. You can take a number of actions to get support including:

    • talking with other carers who may have had to deal with similar situations
    • contacting your local Aged Care Assessment Team

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    Common Forms Of Dementia

    There are many different forms of dementia. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form and may contribute to 60-70% of cases. Other major forms include vascular dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies , and a group of diseases that contribute to frontotemporal dementia . Dementia may also develop after a stroke or in the context of certain infections such as HIV, harmful use of alcohol, repetitive physical injuries to the brain or nutritional deficiencies. The boundaries between different forms of dementia are indistinct and mixed forms often co-exist.

    What Is The Treatment For Symptoms And Complications Of Dementia

    OVERVIEW OF DEMENTIA

    Some symptoms and complications of dementia can be relieved by medical treatment, even if no treatment exists for the underlying cause of the dementia.

    • Behavioral disorders may improve with individualized therapy aimed at identifying and changing specific problem behaviors.
    • Mood swings and emotional outbursts may be treated with mood-stabilizing drugs.
    • Agitation and psychosis may be treated with antipsychotic medication or, in some cases, anticonvulsants.
    • Seizures usually require anticonvulsant medication.
    • Sleeplessness can be treated by changing certain habits and, in some cases, by taking medication.
    • Bacterial infections require treatment with antibiotics.
    • Dehydration and malnutrition may be treated with rehydration and supplements or with behavioral therapies.
    • Aspiration, pressure sores, and injuries can be prevented with appropriate care.

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    While At Home What Can I Do To Help My Loved One With Symptoms Of Dementia

    Many people with dementia in the early and intermediate stages are able to live independently.

    • With regular checks by a local relative or friend, they are able to live without constant supervision.
    • Those who have difficulty with activities of daily living require at least part-time help from a family caregiver or home health aide.
    • Visiting nurses can make sure that these individuals take their medications as directed.
    • Housekeeping help is available for those who cannot keep up with household chores.

    Other affected individuals require closer supervision or more constant assistance.

    • Round-the-clock help in the home is available, but it is too expensive for many.
    • Individuals who require this level of assistance may need to move from their home to the home of a family caregiver or to an assisted-living facility.
    • Many families prefer these options because they give the individual the greatest possible independence and quality of life.

    For individuals who are able to remain at home or to retain some degree of independent living, maintaining a familiar and safe environment is important.

    Individuals with dementia should remain physically, mentally, and socially active.

    A balanced diet that includes low-fat protein foods and plenty of fruits and vegetables helps maintain a healthy weight and prevents malnutrition and constipation. An individual with dementia should not smoke, both for health and for safety reasons. As a caregiver, make sure to take care of yourself.

    Cad Iad Na Cimeanna Luatha Den Naltr

    Cé go n-athraíonn na chéad chomharthaí, áirítear na chéad chomharthaí is coitianta de néaltrú:

    • Fadhbanna cuimhne, go háirithe cuimhne imeachtaí le déanaí.
    • mearbhall ag fás.
    • Athruithe ar phearsantacht nó ar iompar.
    • Apathy agus aistarraingt nó dúlagar.
    • Cailliúint cumais chun tascanna laethúla a dhéanamh.

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    Rarer Causes Of Dementia

    There are many rarer diseases and conditions that can lead to dementia, or dementia-like symptoms.

    These conditions account for only 5% of dementia cases in the UK.

    They include:

    • problems with planning and reasoning

    These symptoms are not severe enough to cause problems in everyday life.

    MCI can be caused by an underlying illness, such as depression, anxiety or thyroid problems.

    If the underlying illness is treated or managed, symptoms of MCI often disappear and cause no further problems.

    But in some cases, people with MCI are at increased risk of going on to develop dementia, which is usually caused by Alzheimer’s disease.

    Read more about how to prevent dementia.

    What Is The Most Common Form Of Dementia In Older Adults

    Mayo Clinic Researchers Find Gene That Is Common Cause of ALS and Frontotemporal Dementia

    Alzheimers disease

    What is the most common form of dementia?

    Most Common Types of Dementia

    • Alzheimers Disease AD is the most common type of dementia.
    • Vascular or Multi-Infarct Dementia This type of dementia is often the result of a stroke in which small areas of the brain are irreversibly damaged.

    What are the four most common forms of dementia?Four Common Types of Dementia

    Contents

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    What Are The Main Causes Of Dementia

    The most common causes of dementia include:

    • Degenerative neurological diseases.
    • Traumatic brain injuries caused by car accidents, falls, concussions, etc.
    • Infections of the central nervous system.
    • Long-time alcohol or drug use.
    • Certain types of hydrocephalus, a buildup of fluid in the brain.

    . Also question is, why do people get dementia?

    Dementia is caused by damage to or loss of nerve cells and their connections in the brain. Depending on the area of the brain that’s affected by the damage, dementia can affect people differently and cause different symptoms.

    Additionally, what causes dementia in the brain? Dementia is caused by damage to brain cells. This damage interferes with the ability of brain cells to communicate with each other. When brain cells cannot communicate normally, thinking, behavior and feelings can be affected.

    People also ask, how does dementia start?

    Dementia is more common in people over the age of 65, but it can also affect younger people. Early onset of the disease can begin when people are in their 30s, 40s, or 50s. With treatment and early diagnosis, you can slow the progression of the disease and maintain mental function.

    Can a blood test detect dementia?

    Simple Blood Test Can Detect Dementia. An Alzheimer’s diagnosis has historically been difficult to confirm. Until recently, only an autopsy could detect Alzheimer’s with certainty. Researchers were able to develop a blood test that can measure beta-amyloid in a person’s brain.

    Symptoms Of Dementia With Lewy Bodies

    Diagnosing any type of dementia is difficult, but there are many cornerstone symptoms that help achieve an accurate diagnosis. In Lewy body dementia, the most prevalent symptoms include:

    • Disrupted sleep- often this is the first sign to look out for further symptoms in years to come. Affected individuals will physically act out dreams, moving while sleeping and sometimes hitting their partners in their sleep.
    • Difficulty with problem-solving abilities such as putting together a puzzle
    • Lowered inhibitions
    • Visual hallucinations and sensory disturbances
    • Tremors and Parkinsonism often occurs last in LBD, which includes loss of balance
    • Blood pressure can drop with LBD, causing fainting spells
    • Bladder issues and incontinence

    To diagnose someone with Lewy body dementia based on symptoms alone, at least two of these symptoms must be present, including dementia. New research has provided insight into brain scans to more accurately diagnose LBD and other brain disorders in a clinic.

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    Take Part In Dementia Research

    There are many dementia research projects and clinical trials going on around the world, many of which are based in the UK.

    If you have a dementia diagnosis or are worried about memory problems, you can help scientists understand more about it, and develop possible treatments, by taking part in research.

    Carers can also take part, as there are studies into the best ways to care for someone with a dementia diagnosis.

    How Is Dementia Diagnosed

    OVERVIEW OF DEMENTIA

    To diagnose dementia, doctors first assess whether a person has an underlying, potentially treatable, condition that may relate to cognitive difficulties. A physical exam to measure blood pressure and other vital signs, as well as laboratory tests of blood and other fluids to check levels of various chemicals, hormones, and vitamins, can help uncover or rule out possible causes of symptoms.

    A review of a persons medical and family history can provide important clues about risk for dementia. Typical questions might include asking about whether dementia runs in the family, how and when symptoms began, changes in behavior and personality, and if the person is taking certain medications that might cause or worsen symptoms.

    The following procedures also may be used to diagnose dementia:

  • Psychiatric evaluation. This evaluation will help determine if depression or another mental health condition is causing or contributing to a person’s symptoms.
  • Genetic tests. Some dementias are caused by a persons genes. In these cases, a genetic test can help people know if they are at risk for dementia. It is important to talk with a genetic counselor before and after getting tested, along with family members and the doctor.
  • Early detection of symptoms is important, as some causes can be treated. However, in many cases, the cause of dementia is unknown and cannot be treated. Still, obtaining an early diagnosis can help with managing the condition and planning ahead.

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