Why Is Having A Poo Pleasurable
According to the authors, this feeling, which they call poo-phoria, occurs when your bowel movement stimulates the vagus nerve, which runs from your brainstem to your colon. … The sensation is most likely after a large poop, which explains why it can be especially satisfying and even pleasurable.
Management Of Weight Loss
Patients who have Parkinsons disease will have to look towards a balanced diet that will help in giving the right quantity of proteins, calories, and other nutrients to the body to ensure that there is no weight loss. As the menu changes from one individual to another, the doctor refers to a dietician who will look into the preparation of the chart. Apart from the addition of the mentioned components, the dietician will also include vitamins, fluids, and dietary fiber that further help in preventing the occurrence of weight loss.
People diagnosed with Parkinsons disease may find losing weight in the initial stage or the final stage. In such cases, opting for high-calorie foods is preferable. The best examples are deserts, biscuits, and peanut butter, as they are rich in calories, and helps in filling the gap between the demand and supply. Furthermore, avoiding three large meals in a day is necessary and is crucial to replace the same with smaller meals at regular interval. It will ensure that the body is receiving the needed quantity of calories, proteins, nutrients, and fluids. It will also help in easy digestion. Apart from this, it is also necessary to time the intake of food in such a way that there will be no interference of protein with the absorption of levodopa. Addition of fluids will prevent dehydration and avoids the occurrence of urinary tract infections or development of kidney stones.
Memory Loss And Dementia
In this series
Memory loss has a number of causes, one of which is dementia. Dementia is a progressive condition which causes deteriorating mental function which interferes with activities of daily living.
In this article
Dementia affects functions such as:
- Social behaviour
However, dementia is not the only cause of memory loss. Indeed, most people who suffer lapses in memory do not have dementia.
It is normal for memory to deteriorate a little as we get older: this doesn’t necessarily mean we are developing dementia. It is normal for memory not to work well when we are distracted or concentrating on too many things at the same time. That’s why memory lapses are more common if we are stressed. Physical and mental illness can all temporarily affect memory too.
Overeating Or Insatiable Appetite And Dementia
- Try five to six small meals each day.
- Have low calorie snacks available, such as apples and carrots.
- Consider whether other activities, such as walks or increased socialisation, may help.
- Lock some foods away, if necessary.
- Leave healthy snack foods on the table this may be enough to satisfy some people.
Potential Role For Medical Foods
The pursuit of novel dementia treatments has led to the development of novel nutritional interventions such as medical foods. Medical foods are not dietary supplements owing to legal definitions, and variation exists cross-nationally as to whether a medical prescription is necessary for their use, thus complying with the pharmacotherapy framework of this review . The term medical food is defined as a food which is formulated to be consumed or administered enterally under the supervision of a physician and which is intended for the specific dietary management of a disease or condition for which distinctive nutritional requirements, based on recognized scientific principles, are established by medical evaluation . In contrast, dietary supplements are products that contain a dietary ingredient intended to add to the nutritional value of the diet . Both medical foods and nutritional supplements have been developed to improve dementia outcomes, but for the sake of brevity and the focus of this review on pharmacotherapies, only medical foods are discussed here. .
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Pharmacotherapies For Dementia: Effects On Body Weight And Body Mass Index
The US Food and Drug Administration has currently approved four unique formulations for the treatment of dementia: donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine, and memantine . Donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine are acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and vary only slightly in pharmacological properties. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are at the forefront of symptomatic treatment for AD and LBD , diseases that are most often characterized by a loss of cholinergic neurons in the brain, reducing the amount of acetylcholine available for neurotransmission, leading to a deficient cholinergic system . Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors bind to brain cholinesterase enzymes in a reversible manner and inhibit them from breaking down acetylcholine at the synapse level. Thus, AChEIs increase the level and duration of neurotransmitter action in forebrain regions, in an attempt to compensate for the loss of functioning cholinergic neurons . Most systematic reviews and meta-analyses that assess the efficacy of AChEIs report modest improvements in cognitive function and other benefits in patients with mild-to-moderate AD or LBD , but marginal effects of uncertain significance in VaD .
Weight Loss: Early Sign Of Dementia
Researchers Say Weight Loss Could Be Warning Sign in Middle-Aged Women
Aug. 20, 2007 — Weight loss among middle-aged and older women may be an early warning sign of dementia.
Researchers found that middle-aged women who went on to develop dementia started losing weight up to 20 years before the disease was diagnosed and weighed about 12 pounds less than those without the disease by the time of diagnosis.
“One explanation for the weight loss is that, in the very early stages of dementia, people develop apathy, a loss of initiative, and also losses in the sense of smell,” says researcher David Knopman, MD, of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., in a news release. “When you can’t smell your food, it won’t have much taste, and you might be less inclined to eat it. And, apathy and loss of initiative may make women less likely to prepare nutritious meals and more likely to skip meals altogether.”
Researchers say the results contradict previous studies that have suggested that obesity in middle age may raise the risk of dementia. Obesity is also associated with diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease, which are known risk factors for dementia.
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How To Treat Unintentional Weight Loss
The best treatment plans are based on a careful evaluation and correct diagnosis of what health problems and social factors are causing the weight loss.
Unfortunately, its common for many doctors to quickly turn to prescribing high-calorie supplements like Ensure, or even prescription appetite stimulants.
In fact, this is such a common problem that the American Geriatrics Society chose to address it in their Choosing Wisely recommendations:
Avoid using prescription appetite stimulants or high-calorie supplements for treatment of anorexia or cachexia in older adults.
Instead, optimize social supports, discontinue medications that may interfere with eating, provide appealing food and feeding assistance, and clarify patient goals and expectations.
Now, even when social issues and medical problems are addressed, its often necessary to provide some extra nutritional support to those older adults who have been losing weight.
This usually means providing extra protein and extra calories. Fat is dense in calories, so this can be a good way to increase energy intake. Technically its better to provide good fat like olive oil, but in the short-term, I encourage people to consider whatever fatty foods the older person really likes to eat, which might mean ice-cream or peanut butter.
Research also suggests that many older adults may benefit from supplemental protein, especially if theyve been showing signs of lean muscle loss. Many studies have used milk or whey protein.
Depression Loneliness And Pain
Depression may affect your loved ones desire to engage in activity. People who experience depression often report a decrease in appetite. Elderly people lose weight unintentionally when they feel isolated. Your loved one may experience the loss of loved ones and independence. These emotional changes sometimes contribute to declines in food interest.
Pain impacts a persons desire to engage in meals. If your loved one experiences pain, speak to her doctor about getting it under control. She may feel more interest in food if she doesnt ache.
If you think your loved ones weight loss stems from depression, loneliness, or pain, consider sharing mealtimes together daily. You can also hire a caregiver to prepare meals and offer companionship.
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Support For People With Dementia And Carers
UCL covid-19 decision aid – a tool to support carers of people living with dementia to make difficult decisions during covid-19
Alzheimers Society end of life care information for patients and families
Alzheimers Society information and fact sheets on all aspects of dementia including what is dementia, types of dementia and living well with dementia
Alzheimer Scotland specialist services for patients and carers
Dementia UK expert one-on-one advice and support to families living with dementia via Admiral Nurses
What Happens In The Later Stages Of Dementia
- Progressive loss of memoryThis can be a particularly disturbing time for family and carers as the person with dementia may fail to recognise close family members.
- Increased loss of physical abilitiesMost people with dementia gradually lose their ability to walk, wash, dress and feed themselves. Other illnesses such as stroke or arthritis may also affect them. Eventually the person will be confined to a bed or a chair.
- Increased difficulty communicatingA person with dementia will have increasing difficulty in understanding what is said or what is going on around them. They may gradually lose their speech, or repeat a few words or cry out from time to time. But continuing to communicate with them is very important. Remember, although many abilities are lost as dementia progresses, some – such as the sense of touch and ability to respond to emotions – remain.
- Problems eatingIt is common for people in the later stages of dementia to lose a considerable amount of weight. People may forget how to eat or drink, or may not recognise the food they are given. Some people become unable to swallow properly. Providing nutrition supplements may need to be considered. If a person has swallowing difficulties, or is not consuming food or drink over a significant period of time and their health is affected, nutrition supplements may be considered for consumption other than by mouth.
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Severe Dementia Predicts Weight Loss By The Time Of Death
- 1Discipline of Geriatrics, University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, Brazil
- 2Department of Pathology, University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, Brazil
- 3Department of Neurology, University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, Brazil
- 4Department of Neurology and Pathology, Memory and Aging Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States
Background: Body mass index in midlife is associated with dementia. However, the association between BMI and late-life obesity is controversial. Few studies have investigated the association between BMI and cognitive performance near the time of death using data from autopsy examination. We aimed to investigate the association between BMI and dementia in deceased individuals who underwent a full-body autopsy examination.
Methods: Weight and height were measured before the autopsy exam. Cognitive function before death was investigated using the Clinical Dementia Rating scale. The cross-sectional association between BMI and dementia was investigated using linear regression models adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical variables.
Results: We included 1,090 individuals . Most participants had a normal BMI , and the prevalence of dementia was 16%. Twenty-four percent of the sample had cancer, including 76 cases diagnosed only by the autopsy examination. Moderate and severe dementia were associated with lower BMI compared with participants with normal cognition in fully adjusted models .
Dementia Diagnosis And Severity
We used the 10/66 algorithm on the basis of information from the Community Screening Instrument for Dementia , a modified version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease 10-word recall task, and the Geriatric Mental State fully-structured clinical interview . The 10/66 algorithm was previously developed and successfully validated in 26 countries , and its prospective validity has been confirmed . Dementia severity was determined by operationalizing the Washington University CDR criteria combining cognitive and functional information obtained from informants and patients, as detailed by Morris and colleagues .
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Effects Of Parkinsons Disease
The following are the effects of Parkinsons disease in weight loss:
- Low blood pressure.
- Osteoporosis mineral density reduces in bones, which creates a situation of thinning the bones, making it difficult for the patient suffering from back in since disease to have resistance and the strength to prevent fractures.
What Is Alzheimers Disease And Why Do People Get Dementia
A new study at Sheffield University has shown that excess weight is an additional burden on brain health and can worsen Alzheimers disease.
Alzheimers disease is one of the most common diseases in the world. It was known to the ancient Greeks, but if modern medicine can finally defeat dementia and restore a healthy mind to a person.
Alzheimers disease, or senile dementia is the most common form of dementia, named after the German psychiatrist Alois Alzheimer, who first described this type of pathology. By dementia, doctors understand an intellectual disorder expressed in a decrease in cognitive activity, as well as the loss of previously acquired knowledge and practical skills. Unlike mental retardation, which is a congenital defect, dementia is acquired. Alzheimers disease is considered a disease of the elderly, but its scale is truly amazing: ten years ago, the total number of cases was estimated at 26.6 million people, and by 2050 their number may grow to 100 million!
The beginning of it
Amyloid deposits are formed in two variants. The first, most well-known to the public because of the advertising of medicines, is amyloid plaques, which first appear in the hippocampus . And then they spread throughout all brain tissues. Due to the excess of protein and polysaccharides, calcium begins to accumulate in the tissues. Calcified, the cells lose the ability to perform their functions and die.
Hypotheses of the disease origin
The cholinergic hypothesis
The tau hypothesis
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How Can Weight Loss In Patients With Alzheimers Disease Be Treated
Treatment should be focused on the identified causes of weight loss. If other health problems are suspected to contribute to weight loss, they need to be identified and treated. Current medications that are no longer required should be discontinued. Prescription medications, over-the-counter products and supplements that are thought to be a source of weight loss should be discontinued and replaced with medications that are not associated with weight loss. An appetite stimulant, such as megestrol acetate , dronabinol , mirtazapine , or growth hormone secretagogues may be prescribed.
A speech therapist may recommend a feeding strategy if there are reversible causes for the eating problems.
Common Early Symptoms Of Dementia
Different types of dementia can affect people differently, and everyone will experience symptoms in their own way.
However, there are some common early symptoms that may appear some time before a diagnosis of dementia. These include:
- memory loss
- difficulty concentrating
- finding it hard to carry out familiar daily tasks, such as getting confused over the correct change when shopping
- struggling to follow a conversation or find the right word
- being confused about time and place
- mood changes
These symptoms are often mild and may get worse only very gradually. It’s often termed “mild cognitive impairment” as the symptoms are not severe enough to be diagnosed as dementia.
You might not notice these symptoms if you have them, and family and friends may not notice or take them seriously for some time. In some people, these symptoms will remain the same and not worsen. But some people with MCI will go on to develop dementia.
Dementia is not a natural part of ageing. This is why it’s important to talk to a GP sooner rather than later if you’re worried about memory problems or other symptoms.
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Symptoms In The Later Stages Of Dementia
As dementia progresses, memory loss and difficulties with communication often become severe. In the later stages, the person is likely to neglect their own health, and require constant care and attention.
The most common symptoms of advanced dementia include:
- memory problems people may not recognise close family and friends, or remember where they live or where they are
- communication problems some people may eventually lose the ability to speak altogether. Using non-verbal means of communication, such as facial expressions, touch and gestures, can help
- mobility problems many people become less able to move about unaided. Some may eventually become unable to walk and require a wheelchair or be confined to bed
- behavioural problems a significant number of people will develop what are known as “behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia”. These may include increased agitation, depressive symptoms, anxiety, wandering, aggression, or sometimes hallucinations
- bladder incontinence is common in the later stages of dementia, and some people will also experience bowel incontinence
- appetite and weight loss problems are both common in advanced dementia. Many people have trouble eating or swallowing, and this can lead to choking, chest infections and other problems. Alzheimer’s Society has a useful factsheet on eating and drinking
What Is Medical Nutrition
Medical nutrition has been specifically designed for those who find it difficult to get adequate nutrition from a normal diet alone. Medical nutrition is a scientifically formulated liquid food that is available in the form of a drink containing energy, protein, vitamins and minerals. There are also options available for specific types of dementia, such as the early stages of Alzheimers disease. Speak to your pharmacist about these options.
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