Use And Costs Of Health Care And Long
Among Medicare beneficiaries with Alzheimer’s or other dementias, black/African Americans had the highest Medicare payments per person per year, while whites had the lowest payments . The largest difference in payments was for hospital care, with black/African Americans incurring 1.7 times as much in hospital care costs as whites .
- Created from unpublished data from the National 5% Sample Medicare Fee-for-Service Beneficiaries for 2014.
In a study of Medicaid beneficiaries with a diagnosis of Alzheimer’s dementia that included both Medicaid and Medicare claims data, researchers found significant differences in the costs of care by race/ethnicity. These results demonstrated that black/African Americans had significantly higher costs of care than whites or Hispanics/Latinos, primarily due to more inpatient care and more comorbidities. These differences may be attributable to later-stage diagnosis, which may lead to higher levels of disability while receiving care delays in accessing timely primary care lack of care coordination duplication of services across providers or inequities in access to care. However, more research is needed to understand the reasons for this health care disparity.
Social And Economic Impact
Dementia has significant social and economic implications in terms of direct medical and social care costs, and the costs of informal care. In 2015, the total global societal cost of dementia was estimated to be US$ 818 billion, equivalent to 1.1% of global gross domestic product . The total cost as a proportion of GDP varied from 0.2% in low- and middle-income countries to 1.4% in high-income countries.
Specific Information In This Report
Alzheimer’s Disease Facts and Figures
- Brain changes that occur with Alzheimer’s disease.
- Risk factors for Alzheimer’s dementia.
- Number of Americans with Alzheimer’s dementia nationally and for each state.
- Lifetime risk for developing Alzheimer’s dementia.
- Proportion of women and men with Alzheimer’s and other dementias.
- Number of deaths due to Alzheimer’s disease nationally and for each state, and death rates by age.
- Number of family caregivers, hours of care provided, and economic value of unpaid care nationally and for each state.
- The impact of caregiving on caregivers.
- National cost of care for individuals with Alzheimer’s or other dementias, including costs paid by Medicare and Medicaid and costs paid out of pocket.
- Medicare payments for people with dementia compared with people without dementia.
- Number of geriatricians needed by state in 2050.
The Appendices detail sources and methods used to derive statistics in this report.
When possible, specific information about Alzheimer’s disease is provided in other cases, the reference may be a more general one of âAlzheimer’s or other dementias.â
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Can The Full Moon Affect My Mood And Sleep
- Terri-Ann Williams, Digital Health & Fitness Reporter
- 5:34 ET, Sep 21 2021
IF you went out for an evening stroll last night it’s likely you would have seen the Full Moon.
The ‘Harvest Moon’ peaked in the early hours of this morning, meaning that it was most visible last night – but full moons have long been associated with the weird and wacky and disrupted sleep patterns.
The full moon in September became known as the Harvest Moon as it would aide farmers in harvesting their crops.
There is a Full Moon everyone month and the September Full Moon marks the starts of the autumnal equinox.
But what is Full Moon and why and how does it make a difference to how you’re feeling?
Can The Full Moon Affect You
The full moon has been associated with strange or insane behavior, including suicide, sleepwalking and violence. … Many people dismiss myths concerning the influence of the moon, but real effects are being found through science. Lunacy linked to the moon. Lunacy and lunatic stem from luna, the Latin word for moon.
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But Will The Moon Have An Effect On Dementia
One research looked to see if aged care residents became more and more agitated throughout a full moon, but concluded that there wasnt a major distinction to alternative phases of the moon.
However, another study by Alan M. Beck of Purdue University found that Alzheimers disease exhibited significantly additional behaviors during times of full moon, which these behaviors were of a greater duration throughout the total moon.
Though the research connecting the full moon and behavioral changes in people with dementia are often rather inconclusive, many folks have experienced challenges that they would connect with lunar changes.
It should be noted that the full moon will cause atmospheric pressure which might account for a shift in bodily awareness. for some individuals, the intense light shining outside may be disconcerting.
Regardless of whether or not the night has a full moon, new moon or something in between people with dementia would like the same compassionate care on a daily basis for whatever symptoms they are exhibiting.
If youre a caregiver for somebody with dementia, youve most likely seen some odd behavior in your loved one around the full moon. And if youve got trouble sleeping or feel restless or anxious throughout the full-moon, youve personally noticed the effects.
Here are some ways to calm the nerves and odd behaviors during the full moon or anytime.
The main types of nervines are tonics, relaxants, and stimulants.
Brain Changes Of Alzheimer’s Disease
A healthy adult brain has about 100 billion neurons, each with long, branching extensions. These extensions enable individual neurons to form connections with other neurons. At such connections, called synapses, information flows in tiny bursts of chemicals that are released by one neuron and detected by another neuron. The brain contains about 100 trillion synapses. They allow signals to travel rapidly through the brain, and the information they carry creates the cellular basis of memories, thoughts, sensations, emotions, movements and skills.
The accumulation of the protein fragment beta-amyloid into clumps outside neurons and the accumulation of an abnormal form of the protein tau inside neurons are two of several brain changes associated with Alzheimer’s.
Plaques and smaller accumulations of beta-amyloid called oligomers may contribute to the damage and death of neurons by interfering with neuron-to-neuron communication at synapses. Inside neurons, tau tangles block the transport of nutrients and other molecules essential for normal function and neuron survival. Although the complete sequence of events is unclear, beta-amyloid may begin accumulating before abnormal tau, and increasing beta-amyloid accumulation is associated with subsequent increases in tau.,
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Brain Changes Associated With Alzheimer’s Disease
A healthy adult brain has about 100 billion neurons, each with long, branching extensions. These extensions enable individual neurons to form connections with other neurons. At such connections, called synapses, information flows in tiny bursts of chemicals that are released by one neuron and detected by another neuron. The brain contains about 100 trillion synapses. They allow signals to travel rapidly through the brain’s neuronal circuits, creating the cellular basis of memories, thoughts, sensations, emotions, movements and skills.
The accumulation of the protein fragment beta-amyloid outside neurons and the accumulation of an abnormal form of the protein tau inside neurons are two of several brain changes associated with Alzheimer’s.
Plaques and smaller accumulations of beta-amyloid called oligomers may contribute to the damage and death of neurons by interfering with neuron-to-neuron communication at synapses. Tau tangles block the transport of nutrients and other essential molecules inside neurons. Although the complete sequence of events is unclear, beta-amyloid may begin accumulating before abnormal tau, and increasing beta-amyloid accumulation is associated with subsequent increases in tau.,
Racial And Ethnic Differences In The Prevalence Of Alzheimers And Other Dementias
Although there are more Whites living with Alzheimers and other dementias than any other racial or ethnic group in the United States , older Black and Hispanic Americans are disproportionately more likely than older White Americans to have Alzheimers or other dementias.- Data from the CHAP study indicates 18.6% of Blacks and 14% of Hispanics age 65 and older have Alzheimers dementia compared with 10% of White older adults. Most other prevalence studies also indicate that older Blacks are about twice as likely to have Alzheimers or other dementias as older Whites., , Some studies indicate older Hispanics are about one and one-half times as likely to have Alzheimers or other dementias as older Whites.- However, Hispanics comprise very diverse groups with different cultural histories, genetic ancestries and health profiles, and there is evidence that prevalence may differ from one specific Hispanic ethnic group to another .,
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Others Aren’t Having Any Of It
Every debate needs two sides and for all the Nurses, Doctors and healthcare professionals who are fully convinced about the moons weird effect, theres a whole bunch who just plain disagree. The sceptics among us argue that its purely coincidental for a busy shift to fall on a full moon.
One full-time paramedic of 20 years claims to have found no change whatsoever in patient behaviour or the rate of admissions during a full moon. He believes that full moons and holiday seasons are simply a source of blame for people in hospital jobs during a busy shift.
Another NHS worker who dealt with emergency calls for two years also reported no pattern or noticeable increase in bizarre healthcare situations during the 24 full moons he experienced.
Use And Costs Of Long
An estimated 70% of older adults with Alzheimer’s or other dementias live in the community, compared with 98% of older adults without Alzheimer’s or other dementias. Of those with dementia who live in the community, 74% live with someone and the remaining 26% live alone. As their disease progresses, people with Alzheimer’s or other dementias generally receive more care from family members and other unpaid caregivers. Many people with dementia also receive paid services at home in adult day centers, assisted living facilities or nursing homes or in more than one of these settings at different times during the often long course of the disease. Medicaid is the only public program that covers the long nursing home stays that most people with dementia require in the late stages of their illnesses.
6.3.1 Use of long-term care services by setting
Long-term care services provided at home and in the community
Transitions between care settings
6.3.2 Costs of long-term care services
Affordability of long-term care services
Long-term care insurance
Prevalence Of Alzheimer’s And Other Dementias In The United States
Based on updated calculations, an estimated 6.2 million Americans age 65 and older are living with Alzheimer’s dementia in 2021. Seventy-two percent are age 75 or older .
- More than 1 in 9 people age 65 and older has Alzheimer’s dementia.
- The percentage of people with Alzheimer’s dementia increases with age: 5.3% of people age 65 to 74, 13.8% of people age 75 to 84, and 34.6% of people age 85 and older have Alzheimer’s dementia. People younger than 65 can also develop Alzheimer’s dementia, but it is much less common and prevalence is uncertain.
The estimated number of people age 65 and older with Alzheimer’s dementia comes from an updated study using the latest data from the 2020 projections from the U.S. Census Bureau and the Chicago Health and Aging Project , a population-based study of chronic health conditions of older people.
National estimates of the prevalence of all dementias are not available from CHAP, but they are available from other population-based studies including the Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study , a nationally representative sample of older adults., Based on estimates from ADAMS, 11% of people age 65 and older in the United States have dementia.
3.1.1 Prevalence estimates
3.1.2 Mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease
3.1.3 Underdiagnosis of Alzheimer’s and other dementias in the primary care setting
3.1.4 Prevalence of subjective cognitive decline
The State Of Disparity In Alzheimer’s And Dementia Health Care: Adult And Caregiver Surveys
To better understand racial and ethnic attitudes and experiences regarding Alzheimer’s and dementia care in the United States, the Alzheimer’s Association commissioned Versta Research to conduct surveys of U.S. adults and current or recent caregivers of adults age 50 or older with cognitive issues. Respondents were asked about access to care and support services, trust in providers and the health care system, participation in clinical trials and research, and caregiver experiences. This is the first Alzheimer’s Association survey to ask and report the views of Asian Americans and Native Americans on these issues. It is also one of the few reports to investigate the experiences of diverse caregivers.
7.4.1 Key findings
The Alzheimer’s Association surveys revealed:
Discrimination is a barrier to Alzheimer’s and dementia carePeople of color want health care providers who understand their unique experiences and backgrounds, but many doubt they would have access to culturally competent providers
- An overwhelming majority of non-White Americans say it is important for Alzheimer’s and dementia care providers to understand their ethnic or racial background and experiences, including Native Americans , Blacks , Hispanics and Asian Americans .
- But fewer than half of Black and Native Americans feel confident there is access to providers who are culturally competent, and only about 3 in 5 Asian Americans and Hispanics likewise feel confident.
7.4.2 Survey design and research methods
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The Effects Of The Full Moon On Dementia
jjude said:My dad was in the dementia unit in hospital at the beginning of this year and there was a full moon during this period. The nurses told me that each full moon they are run ragged and nobody would be able to tell them there was no connection.
Lawson58 said:Many years ago, a friend’s father worked at a large psychiatric hospital and the staff hated being on duty at the time of the full moon. There was an increase in violence but he said the worst part was the increase in the noise levels.I recently had to take OH into Emergency a few weeks ago and it just happened to be at the time of the full moon. The doctor assured me that there is always an increase in the number of people presenting with psychotic episodes and certainly there was some distinctly odd behaviour in the waiting room. There were the usual drunks, broken bones, cuts etc but quite a few who were decidedly unwell.Not into astrology or such things either but the moon exerts a huge influence on our vast seas. And what else?
Estimates Of The Number Of People With Alzheimer’s Dementia By State
Table lists the estimated number of people age 65 and older with Alzheimer’s dementia by state for 2020, the projected number for 2025, and the projected percentage change in the number of people with Alzheimer’s between 2020 and 2025.,
|Projected Number with Alzheimer’s||Percentage Increase|
- Created from data provided to the Alzheimer’s Association by Weuve et al.,
As shown in Figure , between 2020 and 2025 every state across the country is expected to experience an increase of at least 6.7% in the number of people with Alzheimer’s. These projected increases in the number of people with Alzheimer’s are due solely to projected increases in the population age 65 and older in these states. Because risk factors for dementia such as midlife obesity and diabetes can vary dramatically by region and state, the regional patterns of future burden may be different than reported here. Based on these projections, the West and Southeast are expected to experience the largest percentage increases in people with Alzheimer’s dementia between 2020 and 2025. These increases will have a marked impact on statesâ health care systems, as well as the Medicaid program, which covers the costs of long-term care and support for many older residents with dementia, including more than a quarter of Medicare beneficiaries with Alzheimer’s or other dementias.
May Affect Sleep Latency
Sleep latency is the period between when you first fall asleep and when you enter the first stage of REM sleep. So, increased latency means it takes a longer time to get to REM sleep.
Other causes of REM sleep latency can include:
- sleep apnea
Deep sleep is believed to occur during your last period of REM sleep.
Incidence Of Alzheimer’s Dementia
While prevalence refers to existing cases of a disease in a population at a given time, incidence refers to new cases of a disease that develop in a given period of time in a defined population in this case, the U.S. population age 65 or older. Incidence provides a measure of risk for developing a disease. According to estimates using data from the CHAP study and the U.S. Census, approximately 910,000 people age 65 or older developed Alzheimer’s dementia in the United States in 2011, a number that would be expected to be even higher in 2021 if CHAP estimates were available for that year. A study using data from the Adult Changes in Thought Study, a cohort of members of Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound , a health care delivery system in the Seattle, Washington, area, reported similar incidence rates to the CHAP study. The number of new cases of Alzheimer’s increases dramatically with age: according to estimates from CHAP, in 2011 the average annual incidence in people age 65 to 74 was 0.4% in people age 75 to 84, the annual incidence was 3.2% and for age 85 and older , the incidence was 7.6% . Because of the increasing number of people age 65 and older in the United States, particularly the oldest-old, the annual number of new cases of Alzheimer’s and other dementias is projected to double by 2050.
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