What Is The Sage Test
SAGE is a self-administered test available online. It has been scientifically evaluated in comparison with other common dementia tests and has been found to be an accurate tool to identify signs of memory and thinking impairment. While not meant to replace a clinical assessment, the SAGE test can be helpful in identifying cognitive losses earlier, when treatment may be most effective.
The SAGE test contains a series of questions that measure cognitive functioning. There are actually four different tests to choose from, and they are all interchangeable. If you took all four , you should score essentially the same on each test.The different options are available to reduce the chances of inaccurate scoring that can result from re-taking the same test too frequently.
Preparing For A Doctor’s Visit
What Is Mild Cognitive Impairment
MCI is a condition characterized by a minor decline in mental abilities. Often these changes are noticeable to the person experiencing them or family members or close friends but they are not severe enough to interfere with normal daily life and activities.
According to the Alzheimers Association, approximately 15 to 20 percent of people age 65 or older have MCI.
People living with MCI are more likely to develop Alzheimers disease or other dementias. According to Mayo Clinic, studies suggest that around 10 to 15 percent of individuals with MCI go on to develop dementia each year.
Symptoms of MCI are often vague but may include the following:
- Memory loss forgetting certain words
- Forgetting important events, like appointments
- Losing your train of thought in conversation, or when reading a book or watching a movie
- Becoming disoriented in familiar surroundings
- Becoming more impulsive or showing poor judgement
MCI does not always lead to dementia. In some individuals MCI reverts to normal cognition and in others the condition stabilizes and they experience no further decline in cognition.
Currently there are no medications for MCI, but establishing an early diagnosis can be important in managing and treating symptoms as they progress.
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The Brief Alzheimer’s Screening Test
This short screening asks the test taker to repeat three words immediately after hearing them. Next, two tasks that distract from those three words are performed: a short version of the verbal fluency test where the person is asked to name as many animals as they can in 30 seconds and spelling “WORLD” backward. Finally, the person is asked to remember and recite the three words from the beginning of the screening process.
Free Ohio State Sage Tests
The Ohio State University Medical Center’s Department of Neurology has developed several free tests which you can download and use for free here Sage Test. There are several versions of this test that you can use. They are more complex than the oral tests above and might be good for someone who would resist having you test them, but might be willing to take a written test.
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How To Take / Administer The Mmse
The Mini-Mental State Exam is best administered by a neurologist, or other healthcare professional, in a doctors office-like environment. However, an online version of the MMSE / Folstein Test is relatively simple, only takes about 15 minutes to complete and can be administered by a friend or family member without special training. If you choose to do this, be aware that the results should not be considered definitive.
Should you not wish to administer the MMSE using your phone or computer, there are numerous MMSEs online that can be printed. Again, you do not need special training and these printed options give easy-to-understand instructions. If you want to take or give the test, follow these basic guidelines and then consult a doctor:
Step 1. There are multiple versions online, and they all ask roughly the same questions. The link above contains a good version that is easy to score.
Step 2 Seat your loved one, the person being tested, in a quiet and well-lit room. Ask for attention. Do not set a timer.
Step 4 Give the person as much time as needed. The MMSE generally takes about 10 minutes to complete, but there is no time limit. Do not rush in any way. In fact, be as positive and encouraging as possible.
Step 6 If more than a few questions were answered incorrectly, youll want to take the finished test to a primary care doctor, who will go over it and decide whether a referral to an expert like a neurologist is appropriate.
Scoring the MMSE
Take The Sage Test At Home
Anyone can take the SAGE test anytime. Its free and you can get it here on the Ohio State University website.
Print the test and take it with a pen or pencil. Theres no time limit, but most people finish in about 15 minutes.
Sample questions from the test:
- How many nickels are in 60 cents?
- You are buying $13.45 of groceries. How much change would you receive back from a $20 bill?
- Write down the names of 12 different animals.
- Draw a large face of a clock and place in the numbers.Position the hands for 10 minutes after 11 oclock. On your clock, label L for the long hand and S for the short hand.
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See The Hunt For A Blood Test For Alzheimers Disease
The C2N test relies on the ratio of two isoforms of the amyloid- protein, A42 and A40, that aggregate to form amyloid plaques in the brain, combined with the presence of isoforms of apolipoprotein E that reflect whether the patient caries a genetic variant associated with Alzheimers risk. The results are combined into a score that indicates the probability that a patient would be found to have amyloid plaques if they were to undergo an amyloid PET scan. Doctors can then consider the test results along with other information about the patient to arrive at a diagnosis. According to data posted on the companys website, a study in 686 patients with cognitive impairment found that those with scores above a certain cutoff point had a positive amyloid PET scan 92 percent of the time, while those with scores below a certain cutoff had a 77 percent chance of having a negative result on the PET scan.
While no drugs have yet been approved to treat Alzheimers, being able to distinguish it from other possible causes of cognitive impairment is nonetheless valuable, Fillit and Schindler say. As a clinician, Schindler says, I want to know what my patients have. That can be complicated because in many cases, they dont just have memory impairment, theyre taking multiple medications, they have all sorts of health issues, she says. And sometimes its really hard to know whether the symptoms theyre experiencing are due to something like Alzheimers or something else.
More Easy Mental Quizzes
Doctors often use some of these simple mental tests in their examinations both to screen for dementia and also to detect whether a person is worsening in mental abilities. At every doctor’s examination, I attended with my in-laws, our family physician would give them 3-4 of these tasks. I was amazed at how easily these tests showed when my in-laws had worsened in memory loss, even though I was not always able to tell that in our daily lives.
These sorts of activities are part of daily living, and you may find you can do your “quiz” periodically without actually telling the person you are testing their memory. If your informal quiz leads you to suspect the person is having memory issues, it is vital to have them see a doctor for an evaluation.
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What Conditions Can Be Mistaken For Dementia
The term dementia refers to a specific group of symptoms related to a decline in mental ability. Often, people who experience subtle short-term memory changes, are easily confused, or exhibit different behaviors or personality traits are mistakenly thought to have dementia. These symptoms could be the result of a variety of other conditions or disorders, including other neurocognitive disorders such as Parkinsons disease, brain growths or tumors, mild cognitive impairment , and mood disorders, like depression.
Why Would Anyone Want An Early Alzheimers Diagnosis
The SAGE test is useful because it helps you understand if your concerns are something to be worried about.
If the results seem to indicate that there could be a problem, you might think theres no point in talking with the doctor because theres no cure for dementia.
The most important is that a treatable condition could be the cause of cognitive impairment. Finding out sooner means getting treatment ASAP to eliminate the cognitive symptoms.
If the cognitive impairment is caused by Alzheimers or dementia, a major benefit is that starting treatment early is far more effective in managing symptoms and delaying progression of the disease.
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Some Of The Commonly Used Cognitive Tests Include:
Mini-Mental Status Examination
This test is usually conducted by your doctor or specialist in their office and takes around 5 minutes to complete. The MMSE is the most common test for the screening of dementia. It assesses skills such as reading, writing, orientation and short-term memory.
Alzheimers Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive
This 11-part test is more thorough than the MMSE and can be used for people with mild symptoms.
It is considered the best brief examination for memory and language skills.
It takes around 30 minutes and is usually conducted by a specialist in their office, or you may be referred to a psychologist for the test.
This involves a number of very sensitive tests administered by a neuropsychologist .
A typical testing session will take at least 2 hours and may be conducted over more than one visit.
A variety of tests will be used and may include tests of memory such as recall of a paragraph, tests of the ability to copy drawings or figures and tests of reasoning and comprehension.
Standard X-rays may be taken and those who smoke will commonly require a chest X-ray to rule out lung cancer, which may be causing a secondary brain tumour. \
Brain imaging techniques
Various brain-imaging techniques are sometimes used to show brain changes and to rule out other conditions such as tumour, infarcts and hydrocephalus these include:
Mental Ability Tests To Diagnose Dementia
People with symptoms of dementia are given tests to check their mental abilities, such as memory or thinking.
These tests are known as cognitive assessments, and may be done initially by a GP.
There are several different tests. A common one used by GPs is the General Practitioner Assessment of Cognition .
Although these tests cannot diagnose dementia, they may show there are memory difficulties that need further investigation.
Most tests involve a series of pen-and-paper tests and questions, each of which carries a score.
These tests assess a number of different mental abilities, including:
- short- and long-term memory
- language and communication skills
- awareness of time and place
It’s important to remember that test scores may be influenced by a person’s level of education.
For example, someone who cannot read or write very well may have a lower score, but they may not have dementia.
Similarly, someone with a higher level of education may achieve a higher score, but still have dementia.
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Assessment For Dementia Usually Includes The Following:
The doctor usually spends some time discussing your medical history and gathering information about your changes in memory and thinking.
Physical examination and laboratory tests
The symptoms of dementia can be due to a number of other possible causes, such as vitamin deficiency, infection, metabolic disorders and side effects from drugs.
These other causes are often easily treated.
Therefore, an early step in diagnosing dementia is to rule out these causes through a physical examination, blood tests and urine tests.
Routine laboratory tests used in the diagnosis of dementia include:
- Blood tests to investigate:
- Drug interactions and dosing problems
Cognitive tests are used to measure and evaluate cognitive, or thinking, functions such as memory, concentration, visual-spatial awareness, problem solving, counting and language skills.
Most doctors use short cognitive screening tests when assessing these functions. If more detailed testing is required you will be referred to a neuropsychologist a psychologist specialising in the assessment and measurement of cognitive function.
Cognitive tests are vital in the diagnosis of dementia and are often used to differentiate between types of dementia. They can also be used to assess mood and may help diagnose depression, which can cause symptoms similar to those of dementia.
What Is The Mini
The MMSE is a 30-point test used to measure thinking ability . If you had reason to suspect that you may be developing Alzheimers disease or another dementia, the MMSE is a step toward making a diagnosis. The test is also used by researchers who study Alzheimers, in order to know a persons level or stage of dementia. It is the most widely used test for assessing dementia.
The test measures the following: orientation to time and place short-term memory attention and ability to solve problems language comprehension and motor skills
For clarity, following are some sample MMSE questions: What city, state, and country are we in? Name three unrelated objects. Repeat the following: No ifs, ands, or buts. What is this called?
Importantly, the MMSE is not used on its own to diagnose dementia. A score below 24 is considered indicative of dementia, but its not enough alone to say that someone who scored 23 or less has dementia. A neurologist would factor that in with other analyses, like the results of brain scans, a neurological exam, an evaluation of medical history, and possibly genetic testing. In other words, no one should take a low score on the MMSE as proof that they have dementia. Instead, consider it a warning sign that means further testing is necessary.
Compared to the Clock Drawing Test
Compared to the SAGE
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How To Take The Sage Test
If you are taking the paper version of the test, youll find four slightly different variations of the test on the official website. It doesnt matter which one you take. The test consists of four pages. Print it out and answer the questions in ink without the assistance of others. Don’t look at a clock or calendar while taking the test and just do the best you can.
You can take the test in virtually any setting. It will usually take about 10 to 15 minutes but theres no set time limit.
Its important not to cheat in order to get a better assessment.
In some cases, you might choose to take the test at your doctors office where it can be evaluated right away.
Referral To A Specialist
If a GP is unsure about whether you have Alzheimer’s disease, they may refer you to a specialist, such as:
- a psychiatrist
- an elderly care physician
- a neurologist
The specialist may be based in a memory clinic alongside other professionals who are experts in diagnosing, caring for and advising people with dementia and their families.
There’s no simple and reliable test for diagnosing Alzheimer’s disease, but the staff at the memory clinic will listen to the concerns of both you and your family about your memory or thinking.
They’ll assess your memory and other areas of mental ability and, if necessary, arrange more tests to rule out other conditions.
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Should Everyone Have Their Apoe Genotype Tested
No, the test is not intended to be used to screen the general population. It is intended to be used in very specific situations to give a healthcare practitioner additional information. The association of APOEs e4 allele with AD arose as part of the Framingham Heart study to evaluate genetic risk factors related to cardiovascular health.
The Brain Scan: Does Alzheimers Show Up On An Mri
Brain scans or brain imaging are typically done with special agents. These special chemicals are injected into the bloodstream, travel to the brain and light up the beta amyloid plaques.
This type of imaging is called PET imaging or PET scan. Its very specific to Alzheimers disease plaque pathology because of the slightly radioactive agents that are injected. Once the agents reach the brain, the patient slides into a brain scanner where the amount of Alzheimers plaque you have in your brain can be seen and measured.
Tests designed to light up tau tangles, the other hallmark of Alzheimers disease, are in development.
PET scans are good but also not 100% accurate, With a memory test alone we might be 80% to 90% accurate. A PET scan will increase the accuracy level,
After that, many physicians, if they have access to the technology, will order a secondary biomarker test. And with the additional biomarker test the accuracy can improve further.
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