Citations Is A Word With A Long History
The word citations can be traced back literally thousands of years to the Latin word citare meaningto summon, urge, call put in sudden motion, call forward rouse, excite. The word then took on its more modern meaning and relevance to writing papers in the 1600s, where it became known as the act of citing or quoting a passage from a book, etc.
Neuritic Plaques And Neurofibrillary Tangles
The presence of neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain are used to diagnose Alzheimer disease in autopsy. Neuritic plaquesalso called senile, dendritic, or amyloid plaquesconsist of deteriorating neuronal material surrounding deposits of a sticky protein called amyloid beta . This protein is derived from a larger molecule called amyloid precursor protein, which is a normal component of nerve cells. Neurofibrillary tangles are twisted protein fibres located within nerve cells. These fibres consist of a protein, called tau, that normally occurs in neurons. When incorrectly processed, tau molecules clump together and form tangles.
Both neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, which also may be found in smaller amounts in the brains of healthy elderly persons, are thought to interfere in some way with normal cellular functioning. However, it is not known whether the plaques and tangles are a cause or a consequence of the disease. Research in animals suggests that amyloid-beta plaques form naturally in the brain in response to infection, serving to entrap microorganisms. The idea that amyloid beta serves as a natural antibiotic implies that Alzheimer disease may be in some way linked to brain infection, plaque formation being either excessive in older individuals or abnormal in some other way in persons who eventually develop Alzheimer disease.
There Are Some Really Specific And Uniquely Named Citation Styles
How specific can citation styles get? The answer is very. For example, the Flavour and Fragrance Journal style is based on a bimonthly, peer-reviewed scientific journal published since 1985 by John Wiley & Sons. It publishes original research articles, reviews and special reports on all aspects of flavor and fragrance. Another example is Nordic Pulp and Paper Research, a style used by an international scientific magazine covering science and technology for the areas of wood or bio-mass constituents.
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Lifetime Risk Of Alzheimer’s Dementia
Lifetime risk is the probability that someone of a given age who does not have a particular condition will develop the condition during his or her remaining life span. Data from the Framingham Heart Study were used to estimate lifetime risks of Alzheimer’s dementia by age and sex., As shown in Figure , the study found that the estimated lifetime risk for Alzheimer’s dementia at age 45 was approximately one in five for women and one in 10 for men. The risks for both sexes were slightly higher at age 65.
They Promote Originality And Prevent Plagiarism
The point of research projects is not to regurgitate information that can already be found elsewhere. We have Google for that! What the students project should aim to do is promote an original idea or a spin on an existing idea, and use reliable sources to promote that idea. Copying or directly referencing a source without proper citation can lead to not only a poor grade, but accusations of academic dishonesty. By citing their sources regularly and accurately, students can easily avoid the trap of plagiarism, and promote further research on their topic.
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Brooker C Nicol M And Gould D
Nursing Adults the practice of caring
2003 – Mosby – London
Your Bibliography: Brooker, C., Nicol, M. and Gould, D., 2003. Nursing Adults the practice of caring. 1st ed. London: Mosby, pp.973-974.
Providing a Safe Home Environment for Alzheimer’s Patients
Your Bibliography: Clark, D., 2016. Providing a Safe Home Environment for Alzheimer’s Patients. Available at: < https://www.agingcare.com/articles/how-to-provide-a-safe-home-environment-for-alzheimer-s-patients-114872.htm> .
What Does Alzheimer’s Do to the Brain?
Your Bibliography: Colbert, T., 2017. What Does Alzheimer’s Do to the Brain?. Healthline. Available at: < http://www.healthline.com/health-slideshow/alzheimers-and-brain> .
Some Citation Styles Are Named After People
While a majority of citation styles are named for the specific organizations that publish them , some are actually named after individuals. The most well-known example of this is perhaps Turabian style, named for Kate L. Turabian, an American educator and writer. She developed this style as a condensed version of the Chicago Manual of Style in order to present a more concise set of rules to students.
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They Provide Hard Evidence Of Ideas
Having many citations from a wide variety of sources related to their idea means that the student is working on a well-researched and respected subject. Citing sources that back up their claim creates room for fact-checking and further research. And, if they can cite a few sources that have the converse opinion or idea, and then demonstrate to the reader why they believe that that viewpoint is wrong by again citing credible sources, the student is well on their way to winning over the reader and cementing their point of view.
Developing A Treatment Plan
Psychologists may work with individuals with dementia and their families independently through a private practice or as part of a health care team. Psychologists will work with the individual and family to develop strategies to improve quality of life and manage emotions related to the dementia diagnosis.
In working with a psychologist, an individual with dementia and those who provide care for them may discuss what is already being done well to manage the dementia and which behaviors may be improved. The psychologist may ask the individual or caregiver to do homework like practicing memory tools. Memory tools can help individuals become more organized to better manage their symptoms of memory loss. These tools might include:
- Using an alarm as a reminder to take medicine
- Using a calendar, to-do list, and journal combo as a memory substitute
- Establishing routines to identify, plan, and carry out pleasant activities that are within the capacity of the care recipient
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Use And Costs Of Health Care Services
6.2.1 Use of health care services
People with Alzheimer’s or other dementias have twice as many hospital stays per year as other older people. Moreover, the use of health care services by people with other serious medical conditions is strongly affected by the presence or absence of dementia. In particular, people with coronary artery disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease , stroke or cancer who also have Alzheimer’s or other dementias have higher use and costs of health care services than people with these medical conditions but no coexisting dementia.
- * This table does not include payments for all kinds of Medicare services, and as a result the average per-person payments for specific Medicare services do not sum to the total per-person Medicare payments.
- Created from unpublished data from the National 5% Sample Medicare Fee-for-Service Beneficiaries for 2014.
Avoidable Use Of Health Care And Long
6.5.1 Preventable hospitalizations
Preventable hospitalizations are one common measure of health care quality. Preventable hospitalizations are hospitalizations for conditions that could have been avoided with better access to, or quality of, preventive and primary care. Unplanned hospital readmissions within 30 days are another type of hospitalization that potentially could have been avoided with appropriate post-discharge care. In 2013, 21% of hospitalizations for fee-for-service Medicare enrollees with Alzheimer’s or other dementias were either for unplanned readmissions within 30 days or for an ambulatory care sensitive condition . The total cost to Medicare of these potentially preventable hospitalizations was $4.7 billion . Of people with dementia who had at least one hospitalization, 18% were readmitted within 30 days. Of those who were readmitted within 30 days, 27% were readmitted two or more times. Ten percent of Medicare enrollees had at least one hospitalization for an ambulatory care-sensitive condition, and 14% of total hospitalizations for Medicare enrollees with Alzheimer’s or other dementias were for ambulatory care sensitive conditions.
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Quoting Paraphrasing And Summarizing
Quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing are three ways to incorporate outside sources into your paper. See In-Text Citations: 2 Ways for options in the placement of your in-text citations and the In-Text Citation Format box for proper formatting.
Quoting is reproducing text verbatim from another source. You must include an in-text citation to direct quotes that gives credit to the author/source AND refers the reader to your References page so they may find that source and the quote you’ve included.
Short Quotations fewer than 40 words: Incorporate the quote into the narrative of your text by using quotation marks. Place the in-text citation in parentheses after the author’s name or at the end of the quote:
According to Geppert , “it is imperative that development economists extend their research beyond purely economic factors and focus their attention on creating more inclusive, and hence more accurate, measures of development and national well-being.”
In ancient Egypt, black pigment was the best-known form of makeupused by people of all classes .
Long Quotations more than 40 words: Separate the quote by creating a double-spaced indented block without quotation marks. Indent 5 spaces from the left margin. Place the in-text citation in parentheses after the author’s name or at the end of the quote:
According to Geppert:
Jewelry was a form of body decoration :
Paraphrasing and Summarizing
Overview Of Alzheimer’s Disease
Alzheimer’s disease is a type of brain disease, just as coronary artery disease is a type of heart disease. It is also a degenerative disease, meaning that it becomes worse with time. Alzheimer’s disease is thought to begin 20 years or more before symptoms arise,- with changes in the brain that are unnoticeable to the person affected. Only after years of brain changes do individuals experience noticeable symptoms such as memory loss and language problems. Symptoms occur because nerve cells in parts of the brain involved in thinking, learning and memory have been damaged or destroyed. As the disease progresses, neurons in other parts of the brain are damaged or destroyed. Eventually, nerve cells in parts of the brain that enable a person to carry out basic bodily functions, such as walking and swallowing, are affected. Individuals become bed-bound and require around-the-clock care. Alzheimer’s disease is ultimately fatal.
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Murphy J And Maidens G
Improving communication in dementia care
2016 – The Nursing Times
Your Bibliography: Murphy, J. and Maidens, G., 2016. Improving communication in dementia care. The Nursing Times, 112, pp.18-19.
Your Bibliography: Nhs. 2017. Vascular dementia – NHS Choices. Available at: < http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/vascular-dementia/Pages/Introduction.aspx#outlook> .
Your Bibliography: Nhs.uk. 2017. Alzheimer’s disease – NHS Choices. Available at: < http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/Alzheimers-disease/Pages/Introduction.aspx> .
Using Reference Management Software
Typically you don’t format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:
|Paperpile||The citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.|
|EndNote||Download the output style file|
|Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and others||The style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.|
|BibTeX||BibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.|
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Differences Between Women And Men In The Prevalence And Risk Of Alzheimer’s And Other Dementias
More women than men have Alzheimer’s or other dementias. Almost two-thirds of Americans with Alzheimer’s are women., Of the 5.8 million people age 65 and older with Alzheimer’s in the United States, 3.6 million are women and 2.2 million are men., Based on estimates from ADAMS, among people age 71 and older, 16% of women have Alzheimer’s or other dementias compared with 11% of men.
The prevailing reason that has been stated for the higher prevalence of Alzheimer’s and other dementias in women is that women live longer than men on average, and older age is the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer’s.- But when it comes to differences in the actual risk of developing Alzheimer’s or other dementias for men and women of the same age, findings have been mixed. Most studies of incidence in the United States have found no significant difference between men and women in the proportion who develop Alzheimer’s or other dementias at any given age., , – However, some European studies have reported a higher incidence among women at older ages,, and one study from the United Kingdom reported higher incidence for men. Differences in the risk of dementia between men and women may therefore depend on age and/or geographic region.,
Brain Changes Associated With Alzheimer’s Disease
A healthy adult brain has about 100 billion neurons, each with long, branching extensions. These extensions enable individual neurons to form connections with other neurons. At such connections, called synapses, information flows in tiny bursts of chemicals that are released by one neuron and detected by another neuron. The brain contains about 100 trillion synapses. They allow signals to travel rapidly through the brain’s neuronal circuits, creating the cellular basis of memories, thoughts, sensations, emotions, movements and skills.
The accumulation of the protein fragment beta-amyloid outside neurons and the accumulation of an abnormal form of the protein tau inside neurons are two of several brain changes associated with Alzheimer’s.
Plaques and smaller accumulations of beta-amyloid called oligomers may contribute to the damage and death of neurons by interfering with neuron-to-neuron communication at synapses. Tau tangles block the transport of nutrients and other essential molecules inside neurons. Although the complete sequence of events is unclear, beta-amyloid may begin accumulating before abnormal tau, and increasing beta-amyloid accumulation is associated with subsequent increases in tau.,
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Alzheimer’s Disease Or Dementia
Many people wonder what the difference is between Alzheimer’s disease and dementia.
Dementia is an overall term for a particular group of symptoms. The characteristic symptoms of dementia are difficulties with memory, language, problem-solving and other thinking skills that affect a person’s ability to perform everyday activities. Dementia has many causes . Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of dementia.
Dementia With Lewy Bodies
Your Bibliography: Dementia UK. 2015. Dementia with Lewy bodies – Dementia UK. Available at: < https://www.dementiauk.org/understanding-dementia/about-dementia/the-diagnosis-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies/> .
Your Bibliography: Fightdementia.org.au. 2017. Alzheimer’s Australia | Risk factors. Available at: < https://www.fightdementia.org.au/about-dementia-and-memory-loss/am-i-at-risk/risk-factors> .
Obesity doubles the risk of alzheimer’s
2008 – The Daily Express
Your Bibliography: Fletcher, V., 2008. Obesity doubles the risk of alzheimer’s. The Daily Express, Available at: < http://www.express.co.uk/news/uk/43751/Obesity-doubles-the-risk-of-alzheimer-s> .
Dementia Care Practice Recommendations for Assisted Living Residences and Nursing Homes
2009 – Alzheimers Association – Chicago
Your Bibliography: Gould, E., 2009. Dementia Care Practice Recommendations for Assisted Living Residences and Nursing Homes. 1st ed. Chicago: Alzheimers Association, pp.5-8. Available at: < https://www.alz.org/national/documents/brochure_DCPRphases1n2.pdf> .
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Risk Factors For Alzheimer’s Dementia
The vast majority of people who develop Alzheimer’s dementia are age 65 or older. This is called late-onset Alzheimer’s. Experts believe that Alzheimer’s, like other common chronic diseases, develops as a result of multiple factors rather than a single cause. Exceptions are cases of Alzheimer’s related to uncommon genetic changes that increase risk.
2.7.1 Age, genetics and family history
The greatest risk factors for late-onset Alzheimer’s are older age,, genetics, and having a family history of Alzheimer’s.-
Age is the greatest of these three risk factors. As noted in the Prevalence section, the percentage of people with Alzheimer’s dementia increases dramatically with age: 3% of people age 65-74, 17% of people age 75-84 and 32% of people age 85 or older have Alzheimer’s dementia. It is important to note that Alzheimer’s dementia is not a normal part of aging, and older age alone is not sufficient to cause Alzheimer’s dementia.
- One in 10 people age 65 and older has Alzheimer’s dementia.,,
- The percentage of people with Alzheimer’s dementia increases with age: 3% of people age 65-74, 17% of people age 75-84, and 32% of people age 85 and older have Alzheimer’s dementia. People younger than 65 can also develop Alzheimer’s dementia, but it is much less common and prevalence is uncertain.
3.1.1 Underdiagnosis of Alzheimer’s and other dementias in the primary care setting
3.1.2 Prevalence of subjective cognitive decline
How To Cite From Social Media
As social media posts are usually untitled, use the first 20 words of the post, in italics, as a title. Also include any relevant information about the type of post and any multimedia aspects in square brackets.
|Format||Last name, Initials. . First 20 words of post . Site Name. URL|
On some social media sites , users go by usernames instead of or in addition to their real names. Where the authors real name is known, include it, along with their username in square brackets:
This Labor Day, lets thank all those whove kept our country going this yearnurses, teachers, delivery drivers, food service
In some cases, youll want to cite a whole social media profile instead of a specific post. In these cases, include an access date, because a profile will obviously change over time:
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What Does Alzheimers Disease Look Like
Memory problems are typically one of the first signs of Alzheimers, though initial symptoms may vary from person to person. A decline in other aspects of thinking, such as finding the right words, vision/spatial issues, and impaired reasoning or judgment, may also signal the very early stages of Alzheimers disease. Mild cognitive impairment is a condition that can be an early sign of Alzheimers, but not everyone with MCI will develop the disease.
People with Alzheimers have trouble doing everyday things like driving a car, cooking a meal, or paying bills. They may ask the same questions over and over, get lost easily, lose things or put them in odd places, and find even simple things confusing. As the disease progresses, some people become worried, angry, or violent.