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What Are The Types Of Dementia

Dementia With Lewy Bodies

What are the different types of dementia?

Dementia with Lewy bodies, also known as Lewy body dementia, is caused by protein deposits in nerve cells. This interrupts chemical messages in the brain and causes memory loss and disorientation.

People with this type of dementia also experience visual hallucinations and have trouble falling asleep at night or fall asleep unexpectedly during the day. They also might faint or become lost or disoriented.

Dementia with Lewy bodies shares many symptoms with Parkinson and Alzheimer diseases. For example, many people develop trembling in their hands, have trouble walking, and feel weak.

What Are The Different Types Of Dementia

Various disorders and factors contribute to the development of dementia. Neurodegenerative disorders result in a progressive and irreversible loss of neurons and brain functioning. Currently, there are no cures for these diseases.

The five most common forms of dementia are:

  • Alzheimers disease, the most common dementia diagnosis among older adults. It is caused by changes in the brain, including abnormal buildups of proteins, known as amyloid plaques and tau tangles.
  • Frontotemporal dementia, a rare form of dementia that tends to occur in people younger than 60. It is associated with abnormal amounts or forms of the proteins tau and TDP-43.
  • Lewy body dementia, a form of dementia caused by abnormal deposits of the protein alpha-synuclein, called Lewy bodies.
  • Vascular dementia, a form of dementia caused by conditions that damage blood vessels in the brain or interrupt the flow of blood and oxygen to the brain.
  • Mixed dementia, a combination of two or more types of dementia.

Alzheimers And Other Types Of Dementia

The ugly reality is that dementia often manifests as a relentless and cruel assault on personhood, comfort, and dignity. It siphons away control over thoughts and actions, control that we take for granted every waking second of every day.

Michael J. Passmore, Geriatric PsychiatristUniversity of British Columbia

Dementia is the collective name for progressive, global deterioration of the brains executive functions. It develops primarily in later adulthood and is a major cause of disability in older adults. Almost everyone with dementia is elderly but nevertheless dementia is not considered a normal part of aging.

Very early identification of dementiabefore obvious symptoms appearis an intense focus of research. Staging and correctly diagnosing dementia is becoming increasingly important in the clinical setting. Understanding the difference between Alzheimers disease and other types of dementia and differentiating dementia from delirium and depression is of critical importance.

Did you know . . .

Worldwide more than 35 million people live with dementia and this number is expected to double by 2030 and triple by 2050 .

Degeneration of Cerebral Neurons

Left: A healthy nerve cell. Right: A dying nerve cell. Source: ADEAR, 2014.

We are learning that the changes associated with dementia occur over years, or even decades, before emotional, physical, or cognitive symptoms emerge. Eventually symptoms become obvious, and they lead to gradual and progressive decline .

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Isnt Dementia Part Of Normal Aging

No, many older adults live their entire lives without developing dementia. Normal aging may include weakening muscles and bones, stiffening of arteries and vessels, and some age-related memory changes that may show as:

  • Occasionally misplacing car keys
  • Struggling to find a word but remembering it later
  • Forgetting the name of an acquaintance
  • Forgetting the most recent events

Normally, knowledge and experiences built over years, old memories, and language would stay intact.

How Is Dementia Diagnosed

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To diagnose dementia, doctors first assess whether a person has an underlying, potentially treatable, condition that may relate to cognitive difficulties. A physical exam to measure blood pressure and other vital signs, as well as laboratory tests of blood and other fluids to check levels of various chemicals, hormones, and vitamins, can help uncover or rule out possible causes of symptoms.

A review of a persons medical and family history can provide important clues about risk for dementia. Typical questions might include asking about whether dementia runs in the family, how and when symptoms began, changes in behavior and personality, and if the person is taking certain medications that might cause or worsen symptoms.

The following procedures also may be used to diagnose dementia:

  • Psychiatric evaluation. This evaluation will help determine if depression or another mental health condition is causing or contributing to a person’s symptoms.
  • Genetic tests. Some dementias are caused by a persons genes. In these cases, a genetic test can help people know if they are at risk for dementia. It is important to talk with a genetic counselor before and after getting tested, along with family members and the doctor.
  • Early detection of symptoms is important, as some causes can be treated. However, in many cases, the cause of dementia is unknown and cannot be treated. Still, obtaining an early diagnosis can help with managing the condition and planning ahead.

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    List Of Types Of Dementia The Common Types And Its Symptoms

    Different types of dementia will have some symptoms in common, but each type of dementia will also have specific symptoms. Now, keep your eyes on the following interesting health information and the list of common types of dementia that you should know for good. Here are some of the different types of dementia and these symptoms:

    1. Alzheimers Disease

    This is the first out of the common types of dementia that we want to reveal in this article and want you and other readers to know for good!

    This condition is the most common type of dementia. It accounts for about 60-80% of cases. The most distinguishing feature of this disease is the buildup of tau tangles and amyloid plaques in the brain. It is believed that brain changes are a cause of the disease. Some symptoms of this condition are difficulty remembering recent names, events, and conversations. Apathy and depression are also Alzheimers diseases early symptoms. Some later symptoms are poor judgment, impaired communication, confusion, depression, disorientation, difficulty speaking, walking and swallowing, and behavior changes.

    There are many therapies, which can temporarily improve the spirits of the patients with Alzheimers , but no treatment to cure, stop or delay the progression of Alzheimers has shown to be effective.

    Alzheimers disease is the most common type of dementia and it accounts for 2/3 of cases of dementia.

    Where To Get Help

    • Your local community health service
    • Your local council
    • National Dementia Helpline Dementia Australia Tel. 1800 100 500
    • Aged Care Assessment Services Tel. 1300 135 090
    • My Aged Care Tel. 1800 200 422
    • Cognitive Dementia and Memory Service clinics Tel. 1300 135 090
    • Carers Victoria Tel. 1800 242 636
    • Commonwealth Respite and Carelink Centres Tel 1800 052 222
    • Dementia Behaviour Management Advisory Service Tel. 1800 699 799 for 24-hour telephone advice for carers and care workers

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    What Is Dementia Symptoms Types And Diagnosis

    Dementia is the loss of cognitive functioning thinking, remembering, and reasoning to such an extent that it interferes with a person’s daily life and activities. Some people with dementia cannot control their emotions, and their personalities may change. Dementia ranges in severity from the mildest stage, when it is just beginning to affect a person’s functioning, to the most severe stage, when the person must depend completely on others for basic activities of living.

    Dementia is more common as people grow older but it is not a normal part of aging. Many people live into their 90s and beyond without any signs of dementia.

    There are several different forms of dementia, including Alzheimers disease. A persons symptoms can vary depending on the type.

    What Are The Early And Later Signs And Symptoms Of Dementia

    Other types of dementia | Mental health | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

    Early signs of dementia may include:

    • Simple forgetfulness
    • Problems performing tasks or activities that were previously done without effort.
    • Difficulty with learning new material is frequently one of the earliest signs of dementia.

    Many patients with early Alzheimer’s disease or other types of dementia are unaware that they have any problem. As the disease progresses, behavioral changes can become evident.

    • Patients have difficulty performing basic tasks, such as getting dressed or using the bathroom.
    • Some patients begin to forget pieces of information about themselves, including their address or telephone number, or even their date of birth.
    • They may have difficulty understanding what is occurring around them.
    • Some patients have problems remembering to eat and may develop pronounced weight loss.
    • In the late stages of dementia, patients often cannot recognize family members and their ability to communicate effectively is markedly impaired.
    • They are no longer able to effectively care for themselves and require assistance for all activities of daily living.
    • Over time, patients can forget how to walk or even how to sit up.

    The stages of dementia are loosely grouped into mild, moderate, and severe categories by some doctors. However, there is another system of staging for dementia.

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    The Common Types Of Dementia In Seniors

  • Discovery Village At Westchase
  • The Common Types Of Dementia
  • What Is dementia? Dementia is the name given to chronic illnesses that affect the brain, including Alzheimers disease, vascular dementia, and frontotemporal dementia, the most common types of dementia in aging family members. With these diseases, memory loss gradually worsens over time, and brain function diminishes. By the end of this article, youll be able to recognize the common types of dementia in seniors and learn more about them.

    What Are The Most Common Types Of Dementia

    • Alzheimers disease. This is the most common cause of dementia, accounting for 60 to 80 percent of cases. It is caused by specific changes in the brain. The trademark symptom is trouble remembering recent events, such as a conversation that occurred minutes or hours ago, while difficulty remembering more distant memories occurs later in the disease. Other concerns like difficulty with walking or talking or personality changes also come later. Family history is the most important risk factor. Having a first-degree relative with Alzheimers disease increases the risk of developing it by 10 to 30 percent.
    • Vascular dementia. About 10 percent of dementia cases are linked to strokes or other issues with blood flow to the brain. Diabetes, high blood pressure and high cholesterol are also risk factors. Symptoms vary depending on the area and size of the brain impacted. The disease progresses in a step-wise fashion, meaning symptoms will suddenly get worse as the individual gets more strokes or mini-strokes.
    • Lewy body dementia. In addition to more typical symptoms like memory loss, people with this form of dementia may have movement or balance problems like stiffness or trembling. Many people also experience changes in alertness including daytime sleepiness, confusion or staring spells. They may also have trouble sleeping at night or may experience visual hallucinations .

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    What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Dementia

    Signs and symptoms of dementia result when once-healthy neurons, or nerve cells, in the brain stop working, lose connections with other brain cells, and die. While everyone loses some neurons as they age, people with dementia experience far greater loss.

    The symptoms of dementia can vary and may include:

    • Experiencing memory loss, poor judgment, and confusion
    • Difficulty speaking, understanding and expressing thoughts, or reading and writing
    • Wandering and getting lost in a familiar neighborhood
    • Trouble handling money responsibly and paying bills
    • Repeating questions
    • Not caring about other peoples feelings
    • Losing balance and problems with movement

    People with intellectual and developmental disabilities can also develop dementia as they age, and recognizing their symptoms can be particularly difficult. Its important to consider a persons current abilities and to monitor for changes over time that could signal dementia.

    Disproportionate Impact On Women

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    Globally, dementia has a disproportionate impact on women. Sixty-five percent of total deaths due to dementia are women, and disability-adjusted life years due to dementia are roughly 60% higher in women than in men. Additionally, women provide the majority of informal care for people living with dementia, accounting for 70% of carer hours.

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    Younger Onset Frontotemporal Dementia

    One day, Dan couldnt find words at all. They went to see a neurologist and Dan was diagnosed with younger onset frontotemporal dementia, whichaffects a persons behaviour and moods. Carrie says most people dont understand the type of dementia Dan has. theyre looking at him, hes fit like wrong It doesnt make anysense to people they say hes great. Hes talking really well. But they dont see that he can go3 days without saying a word to me or he hasnt said my name in 6 months.Carrie and her family have faced many challenges since the diagnosis, and one of the hardest was tellingthe kids.

    The caring roleYou live with the uncertaintyof a prognosis. And you try and explain it and their little hearts broke, Illnever forget it, it was devastating.

    Making some great memories for the kids. But they are lucky, and lucky to be in a good financial situation.Weve done some bucket list trips and have some more planned and were making some greatmemories for the kids. And its sort of fun to do that stuff when you are young rather than your60s or 70s we have had a lovely life together and we will continue to have a lovely life together. Thishas just thrown a bit of a curveball so while its awful living with an uncertain prognosis, every daywere lucky.

    How Is Dementia Treated

    Treatment of dementia depends on the underlying cause. Neurodegenerative dementias, like Alzheimers disease, have no cure, though there are medications that can help protect the brain or manage symptoms such as anxiety or behavior changes. Research to develop more treatment options is ongoing.

    Leading a healthy lifestyle, including regular exercise, healthy eating, and maintaining social contacts, decreases chances of developing chronic diseases and may reduce number of people with dementia.

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    Help From The Ontario Government

    Caring for someone with dementia can be difficult, but help is available. Each province in Canada offers different resources and programs for dementia patients and caregivers. Were going to look at the options available in Ontario, however if you live in a different province, similar options will likely be provided.

    Dementia: What Are The Main Types

    Types of Dementia

    While ageing, the brain encounters significant modifications. For example, from the age of 60, it slowly starts to shrink. Heart diseases and head traumas can also have an important effect on the brain, sometimes causing dementia. A persons family history also influences the occurrence of this kind of syndrome.

    Dementia is a significant sign of progressive neurodegeneration. This causes the death of some brain cells as well as tissue loss. The most frequently affected areas are the memory, the thinking, the behaviour and the ability to do some tasks for the sick person.

    Continue below to learn what are the five different types of dementia.

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    Common Forms Of Dementia

    There are many different forms of dementia. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form and may contribute to 60-70% of cases. Other major forms include vascular dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies , and a group of diseases that contribute to frontotemporal dementia . Dementia may also develop after a stroke or in the context of certain infections such as HIV, harmful use of alcohol, repetitive physical injuries to the brain or nutritional deficiencies. The boundaries between different forms of dementia are indistinct and mixed forms often co-exist.

    Less Common Types Of Dementia

    Though they are much more rare, there are other types of dementia. 5% of all dementia cases in the UK are caused by rarer forms of dementia. It is thought that most forms of rare dementia are under-diagnosed in part because people do not know to look out for them. Some rarer forms of dementia have very specific symptoms that differ from other types of dementia.

    Below you can find out more about rare types of dementia:

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    Dementia Is The Umbrella Term For A Number Of Neurological Conditions Of Which The Major Symptom Includes A Global Decline In Brain Function

    It is a condition that has been noted in people for hundreds of years.

    Dementia was a relatively rare occurrence before the 20th century as fewer people lived to old age in pre-industrial society. It was not until the mid 1970s that dementia begun to be described as we know it today.

    We now know dementia is a disease symptom, and not a normal part of ageing.

    There are over 100 diseases that may cause dementia. The most common causes of dementia include Alzheimers disease, vascular dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Although the risk of getting dementia increase as we age, people in their 40s and 50s can also have dementia. The term younger onset dementia is used to describe any form of dementia diagnosed in people under the age of 65. To find out more go to the younger onset dementia hub.

    Visit the pages below to learn more about the causes of dementia:

    Dementia Associated With Corticobasal Degeneration

    vascular dementia symptoms

    Corticobasal degeneration , sometimes referred to as corticobasal ganglionic degeneration, is considered to be a part of the spectrum of Frontotemporal dementia . It is characterized by nerve cell death and atrophy or shrinkage of multiple areas of the brain, including the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia. CBD typically occurs in individuals between the ages of 45-70. Rarely, there is a family history of dementia, psychiatric problems or a movement disorder.

    Signs & Symptoms: Individuals with CBD usually present with either a movement disorder or cognitive deficits. As the disease progresses, they can go on to develop both types of symptoms.

    The movement symptoms can be very similar to Parkinsons disease, with slowness, and rigidity, but tremor is less common. These symptoms do not respond to Parkinsons disease medications. Many individuals with CBD experience a subtle change in sensation or an inability to make the affected limb follow commands. They may have difficulties completing some specific tasks such as brushing teeth, opening a door or using tools such as a can opener. When it affects the legs, a person can have difficulty dancing or may show an increased tendency to trip and fall. Other symptoms include involuntary stiffening, twisting or contraction , or uncontrolled movement of the affected limb .

    UCSF Memory and Aging Center

    For more information, visit the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke:

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