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What Is Alzheimer’s Disease And Dementia

What Is Dementia How Is It Different From Alzheimers Disease And What Are The Symptoms And Stages Of The Disease

What is Alzheimer’s disease?

YOU may have heard the terms dementia and Alzheimers used interchangeably and are confused about their meaning.

They affect millions of people around the world and are one of the leading causes of death, devastating large numbers of families.

Here we explain the difference between the two terms, along with everything you need to know

What To Do If You Suspect Alzheimers Disease

Getting checked by your healthcare provider can help determine if the symptoms you are experiencing are related to Alzheimers disease, or a more treatable conditions such as a vitamin deficiency or a side effect from medication. Early and accurate diagnosis also provides opportunities for you and your family to consider financial planning, develop advance directives, enroll in clinical trials, and anticipate care needs.

What Is Mild Cognitive Impairment

Mild cognitive impairment, or MCI, is a condition in which people have more memory problems than normal for their age but are still able to carry out their normal daily activities. A doctor can do thinking, memory, and language tests to see if a person has MCI. People with MCI are at a greater risk for developing Alzheimers disease, so its important to see a doctor or specialist regularly if you have this condition.

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Caring For Someone With Alzheimers Disease

Caring for someone with Alzheimers disease can be hard but also rewarding. Your emotional and physical support will be a great help when the person’s world seems confusing and hostile. Take advantage of the community support thats available for people with Alzheimers disease, their families and carers.

What Is The Difference Between Dementia And Alzheimers Disease

Grappling With Dementia On World Alzheimers Day ...

Dementia is caused by different diseases that affect the brain. Alzheimers disease is the most common of these diseases. Some other common types of dementia include vascular dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies.

This means that dementia is not a disease in its own right. Dementia is the name for a group of symptoms that commonly include problems with memory, thinking, problem solving, language and perception.

While there is a relationship between dementia and Alzheimers disease, there are key differences between the two.

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Epigenetic Age Analysis Of Different Brain Regions

The is the youngest brain region in centenarians according to an epigenetic biomarker of tissue age known as : it is about 15 years younger than expected in a centenarian. By contrast, all brain regions and brain cells appear to have roughly the same epigenetic age in subjects who are younger than 80. These findings suggest that the cerebellum is protected from aging effects, which in turn could explain why the cerebellum exhibits fewer neuropathological hallmarks of age related dementias compared to other brain regions.

Cholinergic Neurotransmission And Alzheimer Disease

The cholinergic system is involved in memory function, and cholinergic deficiency has been implicated in the cognitive decline and behavioral changes of AD. Activity of the synthetic enzyme choline acetyltransferase and the catabolic enzyme acetylcholinesterase are significantly reduced in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala in patients with AD.

The nucleus basalis of Meynert and diagonal band of Broca provide the main cholinergic input to the hippocampus, amygdala, and neocortex, which are lost in patients with AD. Loss of cortical CAT and decline in acetylcholine synthesis in biopsy specimens have been found to correlate with cognitive impairment and reaction-time performance. Because cholinergic dysfunction may contribute to the symptoms of patients with AD, enhancing cholinergic neurotransmission constitutes a rational basis for symptomatic treatment.

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How Alzheimer’s Disease Is Treated

There’s currently no cure for Alzheimer’s disease, but medicines are available that can help relieve some of the symptoms.

Various other types of support are also available to help people with Alzheimer’s live as independently as possible, such as making changes to your home environment so it’s easier to move around and remember daily tasks.

Psychological treatments such as cognitive stimulation therapy may also be offered to help support your memory, problem solving skills and language ability.

Read more about treating Alzheimer’s disease.

What Is Difference Between Senility And Dementia

What is dementia?

senilitydementiaDementiain a

  • Your local community health centre
  • National Dementia Helpline Dementia Australia Tel. 1800 100 500
  • Aged Care Assessment Services Tel. 1300 135 090
  • My Aged Care 1800 200 422
  • Cognitive Dementia and Memory Service clinics Tel. 1300 135 090
  • Carers Victoria Tel. 1800 242 636
  • Commonwealth Carelink and Respite Centres Australian Government Tel. 1800 052 222
  • Dementia Behaviour Management Advisory Service Tel. 1800 699 799 for 24-hour telephone advice for carers and care workers

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Emotion And Behavior Treatments

The emotional and behavioral changes linked with Alzheimers disease can be challenging to manage. People may increasingly experience irritability, anxiety, depression, restlessness, sleep problems, and other difficulties.

Treating the underlying causes of these changes can be helpful. Some may be side effects of medications, discomfort from other medical conditions, or problems with hearing or vision.

Identifying what triggered these behaviors and avoiding or changing these things can help people deal with the changes. Triggers may include changing environments, new caregivers, or being asked to bathe or change clothes.

It is often possible to change the environment to resolve obstacles and boost the persons comfort, security, and peace of mind.

The Alzheimers Association offer a list of helpful coping tips for caregivers.

In some cases, a doctor may recommend medications for these symptoms, such as:

  • antidepressants, for low mood

develops due to the death of brain cells. It is a neurodegenerative condition, which means that the brain cell death happens over time.

In a person with Alzheimers, the brain tissue has fewer and fewer nerve cells and connections, and tiny deposits, known as plaques and tangles, build up on the nerve tissue.

Plaques develop between the dying brain cells. They are made from a protein known as beta-amyloid. The tangles, meanwhile, occur within the nerve cells. They are made from another protein, called tau.

  • aging

Can You Prevent Alzheimers Disease

There is no sure way to prevent Alzheimers disease. However, you can reduce the risk of Alzheimers disease by caring for your health:

  • your heart whats good for your heart is good for your brain so stick to a healthy diet and dont smoke
  • your body regular physical activity increases blood flow to the brain so maintain an active lifestyle
  • your mind an active mind helps build brain cells and strengthens their connections so socialise, do things such as puzzles and crosswords, and learn new things, such as a language

Learn more about the risk factors associated with Alzheimers and other types of dementia, and what you can do to reduce your risk:

Read the related video transcript.

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What Are Some Complications Of Alzheimers Disease

Alzheimers disease is an irreversible form of dementia. The rate of progression differs between people: some people have it only in the last 5 years of their life, while others may have it for as long as 20 years. Alzheimers disease eventually leads to complete dependence and increasing frailty. This means a secondary illness, such as pneumonia, may eventually cause death.

Other complications of Alzheimers disease may include:

  • an inability to complete daily tasks such as planning meals and managing money
  • a tendency to wander from home
  • personality changes such as anxiety, depression and irritability that make relationships more difficult
  • delusions and hallucinations in advanced stages of the disease

Signs And Symptoms Of Alzheimer’s Disease

What is the difference between Alzheimers and Dementia?

Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive condition, which means the symptoms develop gradually over many years and eventually become more severe. It affects multiple brain functions.

The first sign of Alzheimer’s disease is usually minor memory problems.

For example, this could be forgetting about recent conversations or events, and forgetting the names of places and objects.

As the condition develops, memory problems become more severe and further symptoms can develop, such as:

  • confusion, disorientation and getting lost in familiar places
  • difficulty planning or making decisions
  • problems with speech and language
  • problems moving around without assistance or performing self-care tasks
  • personality changes, such as becoming aggressive, demanding and suspicious of others
  • hallucinations and delusions
  • low mood or anxiety

Read more about the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease.

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Stopping Dementia At The Nose Nasal Spray To Treat Prevent Alzheimers Disease

Via drug repositioning, Osaka City University creates combination of rifampicin and resveratrol and have shown in mouse models that the nasal administration improves cognitive function without the negative liver side effects of rifampicin alone.

Via drug repositioning, Osaka City University creates combination of rifampicin and resveratrol and have shown in mouse models that the nasal administration improves cognitive function without the negative liver side effects of rifampicin alone.

Dementia is thought to occur when proteins called amyloid-, tau, and -synuclein accumulate in the brain and form oligomers. A research group from the Department of Translational Neuroscience, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, had previously shown in a study using mice that the antibiotic rifampicin removes oligomers from the brain and improves cognitive function. However, the drug has been associated with side effects such as liver damage. Resveratrol, a naturally occurring antioxidant in plants, is used as a supplement in Europe and the United States. To combat the negative side effects of the existing drug rifampicin, we thought of combining it with the hepatoprotective effects of resveratrol, illustrates Professor Takami Tomiyama, who acted as lead investigator for the current study.

The results of this study were published online in the Swiss scientific journal Frontiers in Neuroscience on December 13, 2021.

What Is Dementia And What Are The Symptoms

Dementia is the term for a group of symptoms that occur when the brain is damaged by diseases. This includes Alzheimers disease or diseases of the blood vessels that can cause a stroke. These diseases can cause a significant decline in a persons mental abilities or cognitive function our capacity for things like memory, thinking and reasoning.

For a doctor to diagnose dementia, a persons symptoms must have become bad enough to significantly affect their daily life, not just be an occasional minor irritation. This means having new problems with everyday activities about the house, in the community or at work. For example, starting to have problems paying household bills, using the phone, managing medicines, driving safely or meeting up with friends.

If a person has symptoms that are worse than would normally be expected for a healthy person their age, but are not severe enough to significantly affect their daily life, a doctor may diagnose mild cognitive impairment . This is not a type of dementia, though some people who have MCI will go on to develop dementia.

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Causes Of Alzheimer’s Disease

The brain is made up of billions of nerve cells that connect to each other. In Alzheimers disease, connections between these cells are lost. This is because proteins build up and form abnormal structures called plaques and tangles. Eventually nerve cells die and brain tissue is lost.

The brain also contains important chemicals that help to send signals between cells. People with Alzheimers have less of some of these chemical messengers in their brain, so the signals are not passed on as well. There are some drug treatments for Alzheimers disease that can help boost the levels of some chemical messengers in the brain. This can help with some of the symptoms.

Alzheimers is a progressive disease. This means that gradually, over time, more parts of the brain are damaged. As this happens, more symptoms develop, and they also get worse.More than 520,000 people in the UK have dementia caused by Alzheimers disease and this figure is set to rise.

Dementia and the brain

Is There Treatment Available

What’s the Difference Between Alzheimer’s Disease and Dementia?

At present there is no cure for Alzheimer’s disease. However, one group of drugs called cholinergeric drugs appears to be providing some temporary improvement in cognitive functioning for some people with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease.

Drugs can also be prescribed for secondary symptoms such as restlessness or depression or to help the person with dementia sleep better.

Community support is available for the person with Alzheimer’s disease, their families and carers. This support can make a positive difference to managing dementia. Dementia Australia provides support, information and counselling for people affected by dementia. Dementia Australia also aims to provide up-to-date information about drug treatments.

Further help

For more information contact the National Dementia Helpline on 1800 100 500.

For a range of books and videos contact our Library.

For advice, common sense approaches and practical strategies on the issues most commonly raised about dementia, read our Help Sheets.

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What Is Vascular Dementia

Vascular dementia is the second most common type of dementia in the UK after Alzheimer’s disease. It occurs when the brain is damaged due to a lack of blood flow.

Sometimes people have both vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s, giving them a diagnosis of “mixed dementia”.

If the vascular system within the brain becomes damaged – so that the blood vessels leak or become blocked – then blood cannot reach the brain cells and they will eventually die.

This death of brain cells can cause problems with memory, thinking or reasoning, and when these cognitive problems are bad enough to impact on daily life, it is known as vascular dementia.

Dementia symptoms specific to vascular dementia include stroke-like symptoms, suchas as muscle weakness, movement and thinking problems and mood changes, such as depression.

There are several different types of vascular dementia, due to the varying levels of damage on the affected part of the brain.

They include stroke-related dementia, single-infarct and multi-infarct dementia and subcortical vascular dementia.

Ps1 And Ps2 Mutations

Approximately 50-70% of early-onset autosomal-dominant AD cases appear to be associated with a locus mapped by genetic linkage to the long arm of chromosome 14 . Numerous missense mutations have been identified on a strong candidate gene, called PS1.

At the same time, another autosomal dominant locus responsible for early-onset AD was localized to chromosome 1. Two mutations were identified on the candidate gene, designated PS2. The physiological role of presenilins and the pathogenic effects of their mutations are not yet well understood.

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The Difference Between Dementia And Senility

When an adult child begins to notice changes in a senior loved one, they might wonder if it is normal aging or something else. Its often hard for families to understand the differences when it comes to aging vs. dementia vs. senility. But there are distinct differences.The Differences Between Dementia and SenilityPeople often mistakenly think that dementia is just another name for Alzheimers disease, and that dementia and senility are one and the same.But dementia is actually a variety of medical conditions and illnesses that impair a persons cognitive health. Alzheimers disease is one type of dementia.Typical dementia symptoms can include memory loss, decline in abstract thought process, loss of verbal communication skills and a change in personality.

There are a number of different types of dementia. A few of the more common ones include:

  • Alzheimers disease accounting for as much as 70 80% of all dementias
  • Parkinsons dementia occurring in the later stages of Parkinsons disease
  • Vascular dementia caused by a stroke or other interruption of blood flow to the brain

Senility, by contrast, is an older term used to describe a decline in an older adults physical and cognitive health. Like dementia, senility can cause changes in mental health, such as memory loss or a decline in judgment.But senility symptoms can also include physical changes such as:

  • Stiff joints
  • Loss of vision or hearing
  • Brittle bones or bone loss

What Are The Stages Of Alzheimers Disease

What is the difference between Alzheimers and Dementia ...

Alzheimers Foundation of America follows the National Institutes of Healths National Institute on Aging in describing the disease in three stages early , middle and late .

  • Early

In this stage, people may:

  • Forget words or misplace objects
  • Forget something they just read
  • Ask the same question over and over
  • Have increasing trouble making plans or organizing
  • Not remember names when meeting new people
  • Middle

In this stage, people may have:

  • Increased memory loss and confusion
  • Problems recognizing family and friends
  • Continuously repeating stories, favorite wants, or motions
  • Lack of concern for hygiene and appearance
  • Requiring assistance in choosing proper clothingto wear for day, season, or occasion
  • Late

In this stage, there is almost total memory loss. The individual may:

  • Recognize faces but forget names
  • Mistake a person for someone else
  • Delusionssuch as thinking he/she needs to go to work may set in,even though he/she no longer has a job
  • There is a strong need for holding something close for tactile stimulation, nurturing, companionship and comfort
  • Basic abilities such as eating, walking, and sitting up fade during this period the individual may no longer recognize when he/she is thirsty or hungry and will need help with all basic activities of daily living.

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Early Symptoms Of Dementia

Although the early signs vary, common early symptoms of dementia include:

  • memory problems, particularly remembering recent events
  • increasing confusion
  • apathy and withdrawal or depression
  • loss of ability to do everyday tasks.

Sometimes, people fail to recognise that these symptoms indicate that something is wrong. They may mistakenly assume that such behaviour is a normal part of the ageing process. Symptoms may also develop gradually and go unnoticed for a long time. Also, some people may refuse to act, even when they know something is wrong.

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Who Has Alzheimers Disease

  • In 2020, as many as 5.8 million Americans were living with Alzheimers disease.1
  • Younger people may get Alzheimers disease, but it is less common.
  • The number of people living with the disease doubles every 5 years beyond age 65.
  • This number is projected to nearly triple to 14 million people by 2060.1
  • Symptoms of the disease can first appear after age 60, and the risk increases with age.

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