The Difference Between Frontal Lobe Dementia And Alzheimer’s Disease
There are differences between frontal lobe dementia and Alzheimers, just like there are differences in many other cognitive disorders.Dementia represents a group of different memory disorders in senior citizens, and Alzheimers disease is a form of dementia. It is known that Alzheimers disease makes up over 50% of all registered dementia related cases.So, although a large percentage of memory loss can be credited to Alzheimers disease, it can also be caused by atherosclerosis, neurological disorders, and strokes.It is possible to slow down Alzheimers disease by medication and non-drug treatments. In general, when doctors are treatingAlzheimers patients, they are normally trying to treat the symptoms that it is causing.Most dementia related disorders can be controlled by eating healthy foods with smaller portions, and through regular exercise. At Applewood Our House in Lakewood, Golden and Arvada, we have dietician created menus for our residents and many exercise related programs. In addition, patients who stop smoking and cut down on alcohol or quit, will notice immediate benefits. Dementia that is caused by heart problems and other cardiovascular issues can be helped by lowering the blood pressure.
Where Is The Frontal Lobe And What Does It Do
Each section has specific functions:
- The hindbrain controls involuntary functions like respiration and heart rate.
- The midbrain is associated with coordination, alertness, vision, and hearing.
- The forebrain controls a range of social, emotional, and cognitive functions, as well as motor function and memory.
The forebrain includes a major part of the brain called the cerebrum. The outer layer of the cerebrum is called the cerebral cortex.
Each of the four lobes has specific functions. Damage to any one of them will cause problems with these functions. The sections below describe the main functions of the frontal lobe.
Differences Between Ftd And Other Dementias
FTD differs markedly in several ways when compared to other dementias, especially Alzheimerâs disease:
- FTD is characterized by cerebral atrophy in the frontal and anterior temporal lobes of the brain, while Alzheimerâs affects the hippocampal, posterior temporal, and parietal regions.
- The neurofibrillary tangles, senile plaques, and Lewy bodies present in the brains of Alzheimerâs and other dementia patients are absent.
- Alzheimerâs patients experience severe memory loss. While FTD patients exhibit memory disturbances, they remain oriented to time and place and recall information about the present and past.
- FTD patients, even in late stages of the disease, retain visuo-spatial orientation, and they negotiate and locate their surroundings accurately.
- Intellectual failure in FTD is distinctly different from that of Alzheimerâs patients. Results of intelligence tests are normal in those with FTD until the point in the disease when disinterest results in lower scores.
- Life expectancy is slightly longer for FTD.
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How Is Frontal Lobe Dementia Treated
There is no specific treatment and no cure for any of the diseases that fall within the frontal lobe dementia spectrum. Treatment involves managing symptoms to the best extent possible. Here are five strategies commonly used:
- Antidepressants or antipsychotic medications: These meds have been used in some patients to manage behavioral symptoms.
- Alzheimers disease medications: Doctors have tried using these medications in some patients to manage their cognitive impairment.
- Speech therapy: Speech therapists who have experience with frontal lobe dementia can help identify tools and methods for communication as language impairment worsens.
- Occupational/physical therapy: These therapies can help patients deal with some of the rigidity and stiffness seen in the movement disorders. Therapists can also help identify assistance devices that can help facilitate better balance.
- Parkinsons disease medications: These drugs may be helpful in the short term for some patients suffering from frontotemporal dementia with Parkinsons.
Assembling a team of specialists that includes doctors, therapists, nurses, and patient advocates is ultimately the most important factor in managing frontal lobe dementia for both the patient and their caregiver.
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What Causes Picks Disease
Picks disease, along with other FTDs, is caused by abnormal amounts or types of nerve cell proteins, called tau. These proteins are found in all of your nerve cells. If you have Picks disease, they often accumulate into spherical clumps, known as Pick bodies or Pick cells. When they accumulate in the nerve cells of your brains frontal and temporal lobe, they cause the cells to die. This causes your brain tissue to shrink, leading to the symptoms of dementia.
Scientists dont yet know what causes these abnormal proteins to form. But geneticists have found abnormal genes linked to Picks disease and other FTDs. Theyve also documented the occurrence of the disease in related family members.
Theres no single diagnostic test that your doctor can use to learn if you have Picks disease. They will use your medical history, special imaging tests, and other tools to develop a diagnosis.
For example, your doctor may:
- take a complete medical history
- ask you to complete speech and writing tests
- conduct interviews with your family members to learn about your behavior
- conduct a physical examination and detailed neurologic examination
- use MRI, CT, or PET scans to examine your brain tissue
Imaging tests can help your doctor see the shape of your brain and changes that may be occurring. These tests can also help your doctor rule out other conditions that can cause symptoms of dementia, such as brain tumors or stroke.
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At What Stage Of Dementia Do Hallucinations Occur
Hallucinations are caused by changes in the brain which, if they occur at all, usually happen in the middle or later stages of the dementia journey. Hallucinations are more common in dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinsons dementia but they can also occur in Alzheimers and other types of dementia.
Frontotemporal Dementia Causes And Risk Factors
Scientists donât know for sure what causes FTD. But it starts when nerve cells in two parts, or âlobes,â of the brain — the front and the side — die. That causes the lobes to shrink.
Doctors believe FTD may be genetic. About 4 out of 10 people who have it also have a relative who had it or some other form of dementia.
Genetic FTD happens when you have a mutation, or change, in one of three genes:
The type of mutation you have affects the type of symptoms you have.
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What Are The Stages Of Frontotemporal Dementia
James M. Ellison, MD, MPH
Swank Center for Memory Care and Geriatric Consultation, ChristianaCare
- Expert Advice
Learn about the symptoms associated with the early, middle, and late stages of frontotemporal dementia.
On the surface, Joseph, Barbara, and Lloyd may not seem to be experiencing related changes. Each of them, though, turned out to be in the early stage of frontotemporal dementia . FTD is the diagnosis for about 5 percent of people with major neurocognitive disorders . About 70 percent of cases begin before age 65, so it is a more common dementia among the young old. FTD involves degeneration of the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. The frontal lobes are important regulators of behavior and the temporal lobes assist in our understanding and expression of language. The symptoms of FTD, therefore, include major changes in behavior, impairment of language, or both.
How Is Frontotemporal Dementia Diagnosed And Treated
Frontotemporal dementia can be hard to diagnose because symptoms are similar to other conditions. Also, because these disorders are rare, physicians may be unfamiliar with the signs and symptoms.
Talking with patients, family members, and caregivers can help doctors make a diagnosis. It is important to tell the doctor about any symptoms involving changes in personality and behavior and difficulties with speech or movement.
To diagnose frontotemporal dementia, a doctor may perform an exam and ask about symptoms, look at personal and family medical history, use tests to help rule out other conditions, order genetic testing, conduct an assessment of the mind and behavior, and order imaging of the brain. Only genetic tests in familial cases or a brain autopsy after a person dies can confirm a diagnosis of frontotemporal dementia. Researchers are studying ways to diagnose the disorders earlier and more accurately and to distinguish them from other types of dementia.
There is no cure for frontotemporal dementia and no way to slow down or prevent it. However, there are ways to help manage symptoms:
Support groups can also be a valuable resource for people with frontotemporal dementias and their caregivers, allowing them to share experiences and tips with others who may be in the same situation. Nonprofit organizations and community organizations may provide online or in-person support groups. Alzheimers Disease Research Centers may also offer education and support groups.
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What Are The Types And Symptoms Of Ftd
In the early stages, it can be hard to know which type of FTD a person has because symptoms and the order in which they appear can vary from one person to another. Also, the same symptoms can appear across different disorders and vary from one stage of the disease to the next as different parts of the brain are affected.
Symptoms of FTD are often misunderstood. Family members and friends may think that a person is misbehaving, leading to anger and conflict. It is important to understand that people with these disorders cannot control their behaviors and other symptoms and lack any awareness of their illness.
There are three types of frontotemporal disorders : behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia , primary progressive aphasia , and movement disorders.
Diagnosis Of Frontal Lobe Brain Injury
An MRI creates a two or three dimensional image of the brain using a magnetic field and radio waves. A CT scan creates a 3D image from multiple X-rays.
Some causes, like dementia or a traumatic brain injury, may appear on a scan as atrophy, or brain tissue loss. The scan may also show nothing.
MRI and CT scans are both effective tools for diagnosing vascular dementia.
A complete neuropsychological evaluation or a concussion test can help a healthcare provider assess damage to the frontal lobe. These tests look at:
- Speech skills
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Treatments For Frontotemporal Dementia
There’s currently no cure for frontotemporal dementia or any treatment that will slow it down.
But there are treatments that can help control some of the symptoms, possibly for several years.
- medicines to control some of the behavioural problems
- therapies such as physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and speech and language therapy for problems with movement, everyday tasks and communication
- dementia activities such as memory cafes, which are drop-in sessions for people with memory problems and their carers to get support and advice
- support groups who can offer tips on managing symptoms from dementia experts and people living with frontotemporal dementia, and their families
How Do You Prevent Frontal Lobe Dementia
Frontotemporal dementia is a neurodegenerative condition that tends to strike people between the ages of 45 and 65. Researchers say lifestyle changes can reduce a younger adults risk of getting this disease. Experts recommend moderate physical exercise, mental games such as puzzles, and quality sleep.
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How Does Ftd Progress
The progression of symptoms in behavior, language, and/or movement varies by individual, but FTD brings an inevitable decline in functioning. The length of progression varies from 2 to over 20 years.
As the disease progresses, the person affected may experience increasing difficulty in planning or organizing activities. They may behave inappropriately in social or work settings, and have trouble communicating with others, or relating to loved ones.
Over time, FTD predisposes an individual to physical complications such as pneumonia, infection, or injury from a fall. Average life expectancy is 7 to 13 years after the start of symptoms . The most common cause of death is pneumonia.
What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Frontotemporal Dementia
The signs and symptoms of frontotemporal dementia vary from person to person and the order in which they appear can also vary. Changes in the frontal lobe of the brain are generally associated with behavioral symptoms and may also lead to movement symptoms. Changes in the temporal lobe generally lead to disorders of language and emotion.
Symptoms of frontotemporal dementia and associated disorders may include:
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Alzheimer Disease And Ftd
Alzheimer disease, by far the most common dementing pathology, has also been associated with syndromes of PPA and FTD in some cases. Alzheimer disease is uncommonly found at autopsy in patients with primary progressive, nonfluent aphasia, but the association is more common in semantic dementia and is especially frequent in patients with logopenic progressive aphasia. The relationship of Alzheimer disease to the primary progressive aphasia syndromes is covered in more detail in the section on Primary Progressive Aphasia. In addition, there is now a recognized syndrome of frontal variant Alzheimer disease.
The Difference Between Frontal Lobe Dementia And Alzheimers Disease
Frontal lobe dementia directly affects the frontal lobe that is found behind the forehead. It also impacts the temporal lobe region that sits behind your ears. Therefore, it is also referred to as frontotemporal dementia.Here are the major differences between frontal lobe dementia and Alzheimers disease:
- Hallucinations Delusions and hallucinations are prevalent in Alzheimers disease, but are seldom seen in frontal lobe dementia.
- Getting Lost Alzheimers patients are more likely to suffer from the affects of spatial orientation, wander off, and not remember where they are.
- Earlier Diagnosis Frontal lobe dementia sufferers tend to be diagnosed much earlier than Alzheimers patients.
- Change in Behavior Behavioral changes normally occur later in Alzheimers disease cases, but are usually one of the early signs in frontal lobe dementia.
- Memory Loss Alzheimers disease is likely to cause memory loss much early than frontal lobe dementia.
- Speech Issues Frontal lobe dementia sufferers have more difficulty with speech disorders than Alzheimers patients. Alzheimers patients can also have problems with forgetting words and thoughts.
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How Is Frontal Lobe Dementia Diagnosed
Diagnosing this group of disorders can be difficult because the behavior and language changes can mimic psychiatric disorders and the movement impairments can mimic other degenerative neurologic conditions. Unless an individual has an inherited form of the disease and can be tested for one of the known mutations, the diagnosis is made by taking a detailed personal and medical history , performing a thorough physical exam, obtaining laboratory testing to rule out metabolic causes of dementia, and using imaging studies to identify abnormalities in the frontal or temporal lobes.
Magnetic resonance imaging can reveal structural abnormalities and positron emission tomography or single photon emission computed tomography can evaluate activity, including glucose and oxygen usage, in these areas of the brain.
What Are The Causes Of Frontotemporal Dementia
4.9/5Frontotemporal dementiacausedread here
Frontotemporal dementia , a common cause of dementia, is a group of disorders that occur when nerve cells in the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain are lost. This causes the lobes to shrink.
Also, what is frontotemporal dementia? Frontotemporal dementiais an umbrella term for a group of uncommon brain disorders that primarily affect the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. These areas of the brain are generally associated with personality, behavior and language.
Correspondingly, what are the signs and symptoms of frontotemporal dementia?
Signs and Symptoms of Frontotemporal Dementia
- Poor judgment.
- Inability to concentrate or plan.
- Frequent, abrupt mood changes.
- Speech difficulties.
How quickly does frontotemporal dementia progress?
Understanding the Progression of Frontotemporal Dementia. Each type of FTD typically follows a pattern. The symptoms initially seen in the milder initial stage will become more disabling and pronounced over the course of eight to ten years, as the disease runs its course.
In late stage FTD symptoms include:
- A gradual reduction in speech, culminating in mutism.
- Hyperoral traits.
- Failure or inability to make motor responses to verbal commands.
- Akinesia and rigidity with death due to complications of immobility.
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Be A Part Of Finding Better Treatments
Do you or a family member have frontotemporal dementia? Researchers are looking for people like you to participate in a study to track disease progression and advance treatments the ARTFL-LEFFTDS Longitudinal Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration Research Consortium.
Frontal Lobe Dementia Or Frontotemporal Dementia Refers To A Group Of Disorders Characterized By Progressive Loss Of Nerve Cells In The Brain With Potentially Debilitating Consequences A Diagnosis Can Be Overwhelming For Patients And Their Caregivers
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Frontal lobe dementia or frontotemporal dementia represents a unique group of neurodegenerative disorders that account for approximately 10 percent of all cases of dementia and tend to occur in people between the ages of 45 and 64. The symptoms of each disorder can vary, depending on the part of the frontal or temporal lobes affected, but can include behavior and personality changes, language dysfunction, and motor skill impairment.
There are three main types of frontal lobe dementia or frontotemporal dementia, some of which are divided into subtypes:
- behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia
- primary progressive aphasia
- frontotemporal movement disorders
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