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What Tests Are Used To Diagnose Dementia

Dementia Blood Test Panel

Researchers find way to assess dementia process using blood tests

A Dementia Blood Test Panel is commonly ordered tests used to differentiate between Alzheimer’s and other forms of Dementia. Includes CBC, Electrolytes, TSH, T4 total, Vitamin B12, CRP, and Sedimentation Rate.

Also Known As:

Methodology: See Individual Tests

Preparation: Fasting for 12 hours is required. Refrain from taking vitamin C supplements and fruits 24 hours before the collection and biotin for at least 72 hours prior to the collection. Must draw before Schilling test, transfusions or B12 therapy is started.

Test Results: 3-5 days. May take longer based on weather, holiday or lab delays.

Also Known As:

Methodology: See Individual Tests

Preparation: Fasting for 12 hours is required. Refrain from taking vitamin C supplements and fruits 24 hours before the collection and biotin for at least 72 hours prior to the collection. Must draw before Schilling test, transfusions or B12 therapy is started.

Test Results: 3-5 days. May take longer based on weather, holiday or lab delays.

Evaluating Cognitive Impairment And Dementia

Screening includes office-based assessments of cognitive function, as well as laboratory testing and neuroimaging. All patients suspected of having dementia should have a physical examination, including a screening neurological examination and review of medications, as a part of the evaluation.

Quick Cognitive Screening Tests

Mini-Mental State Examination

The Mini-Mental State Examination is an 11-item test that takes five to 10 minutes to administer .

  • Scoring: suggested cut-off of 24 or less out of 30 should raise concerns about possible dementia.
  • Performance affected by age and education
  • Test items that are most sensitive to detection: orientation to date , delayed word recall and intersecting pentagons
  • Pros: familiar and takes a relatively short time to administer
  • Cons: takes longer than other similar tests tests a limited number of cognitive domains often not sensitive to early cognitive change
Mini-Cog

The Mini-Cog is a first-line cognitive screen for primary care, although it has not been evaluated as extensively as the MMSE or the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. The Mini-Cog combines the delayed three-word recall test and the clock-drawing test .

Delayed three-word recall test

  • Tell the patient: I am going to say three words. I want you to repeat them back to me. Explain that you will later ask the patient to recall the words.
  • Ask the patient to recall the three words.
  • Clock-drawing test

    This test involves one item, and takes one to two minutes to administer.

    Can Dementia Be Diagnosed During A Single Visit

    So can dementia be diagnosed during a single visit? As you can see from above, it depends on how much information is easily available at that visit. It also depends on the symptoms and circumstances of the older adult being evaluated.

    Memory clinics are more likely to provide a diagnosis during the visit, or shortly afterwards. Thats because they usually request a lot of relevant medical information ahead of time, send the patient for tests if needed, and interview the patient and informers extensively during the visit.

    But in the primary care setting, and in my own geriatric consultations, I find that clinicians need more than one visit to diagnose dementia or probable dementia. Thats because we usually need to order tests, request past medical records for review, and gather more information from the people who know the senior being evaluated. Its a bit like a detectives investigation!

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    Early Warning Signs And Diagnosis

    Alzheimers Disease can be caught in the early stageswhen the best treatments are availableby watching for telltale warning signs. If you recognize the warning signs in yourself or a loved one, make an appointment to see your physician right away. Brain imaging technology can diagnose Alzheimers early, improving the opportunities for symptom management.

    How The Blood Test For Dementia Works

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    Also known as the Precitivity AD, the C2N test or blood test for dementia uses mass spectrometry. An analytic technique used to detect specific beta-amyloid protein fragment that is one of the most common hallmarks of Alzheimers.

    The beta-amyloid proteins normally accumulate and form plaques which can be seen on the brain 2 decades after an individual starts to notice they have memory issues.

    The levels of beta-amyloid start to decline in the surrounding fluids as the plaques continue to build up in the brain. These changes can be measured in spinal fluid samples.

    It is also possible to measure them in the blood where beta-amyloid concentrations are usually lower.

    PrecivityAD is one of the first blood tests for Alzheimers that could enable early detection of the neurodegenerative illness.

    HOPEFULLY, decades before the first symptoms appear.

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    If You Or Someone Else Suspects Early Signs Of Memory Loss Here’s How You Can Find Out If There’s A Problem

    There’s no cure for dementia, and you cannot substantially reverse its effects, but there are ways to possibly slow its progression. But first, you need to know if you or a loved one may have a memory disorder. “Unfortunately, there is not one single test that confirms dementia while you are alive,” says Dr. Julie Brody Magid, clinical director of the Harvard-affiliated McLean Hospital Memory Disorders Assessment Clinic. “The testing process is multilayered and takes many things into consideration. Going through this evaluation may help identify memory problems before they get worse.”

    Medical Tests Used To Diagnose Alzheimers Disease

    There is no single Alzheimers test that can determine whether a person has the disease. Currently, Alzheimers disease can only be confirmed after death through examination of brain tissue in an autopsy. Diagnosing Alzheimers and other types of dementia while patients are still alive is not yet an exact science, but doctors do have an arsenal of tests that can narrow down the underlying reason for a patients symptoms, such as memory problems and changes in behavior. However, it is important to keep in mind that these mental and physical tests are conducted to rule out all other possible causes, not to verify the presence of AD.

    Clinicians are about 80 percent accurate in determining whether someone has AD, but a lot of cases arent black and white, explains David Morgan, Ph.D., CEO and director of the Byrd Alzheimers Center and Research Institute at the University of South Florida.

    While this figure may not seem reassuring, it is still crucial for patients to undergo testing as soon as they begin exhibiting symptoms. The results will help physicians provide a diagnosis and appropriate treatment suggestions, which will enable patients and their families to make plans and prepare for the future.

    Read:A Dementia Diagnosis: Bane or Blessing?

    So, when should one seek medical attention for suspected Alzheimers?

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    Can Dementia Suddenly Get Worse

    The progression of dementia depends on the underlying disease. Some diseases have a rapid progression. Others progress more slowly. Any sudden change with either slow or rapid progression should be evaluated for another cause. In most cases, changes with dementia may seem like they came out of the blue when they actually may have been slowly developing in the background. The best way to prepare for changes and manage expectations is through information. Your doctor and medical team will be a valuable resource. There are a variety of educational resources that are also available through the Alzheimer’s Association.

    Reasons The Blood Test For Dementia Is Important

    Is there a quick test for dementia or is diagnosing much more complicated than that?

    When compared to the difficult and invasive procedures, the blood test for dementia, opens up more exciting possibilities.

    Not only for clinical use but therapeutic development explains Adam Boxer a neurologist who works at the University of California, San Francisco.

    Blood tests are also very convenient. They can be collected in a persons home or REMOTE LOCATIONS.

    While there is still no medication for Alzheimers and other types of dementia, early tests that are readily available can enhance treatment.

    They can allow affected persons to take appropriate measures to stay healthy, participate in clinical trials, and plan for their future.

    Blood tests are also important because they can help identify the people who are at risk of developing the disease explains Mielke.

    The rest can also be used to screen potential participants who can benefit from experimental drugs.

    Elisabeth Thijssen a researcher studying blood biomarkers for Alzheimers at Amsterdam University Medical Centers in the Netherlands said that affordable blood tests can also lower the cost of clinical trials which will give an opportunity for potential treatments to be tested.

    This can increase the chance of finally landing a cure.

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    How Will A Specialist Test For Dementia

    Going to a specialist appointment can feel scary and confusing if you have possible symptoms of dementia.

    But a specialists assessment will be similar to those you have already done at your GP surgery. It will just be more detailed to give them as much information as possible. This includes taking a history, and physical examinations and tests.

    The specialist may ask you questions that feel quite personal, about your life, relationships, home environment and mental health. They need as much information about you as possible to understand what could be causing your symptoms.

    Talking to your GP about dementia

    If you’re preparing to talk to your GP about memory problems, read our advice to help you make the most of your conversation.

    How To Cope With Senior Memory Loss

    It is difficult for most seniors to accept gradual memory loss. There will likely be anger and denial, and these emotions are entirely normal. To deal with the negative emotions, seniors need a sense of purpose, they need to be reassured that they still matter.

    Either on their own or with a caregiver, there are a number of activities that may help seniors ease the pain of memory loss:

  • Bake or try new recipes. These can be shared with family or grateful neighbors.
  • Singing to their favorite tunes. This works very well with a group of people around.
  • Gardening.
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    How Biomarkers Help Diagnose Dementia

    On this page:

  • How you can help move biomarker research forward
  • Biomarkers are measurable indicators of whats happening in the body. These can be found in blood, other body fluids, organs, and tissues. Some can even be measured digitally. Biomarkers can help doctors and researchers track healthy processes, diagnose diseases and other health conditions, monitor responses to medication, and identify health risks in a person. For example, an increased level of cholesterol in the blood is a biomarker for heart attack risk.

    Before the early 2000s, the only sure way to know whether a person had Alzheimers disease or another form of dementia was after death through autopsy. But thanks to advances in research, tests are now available to help doctors and researchers see biomarkers associated with dementia in a living person.

    The different types of biomarkers for dementia detection and diagnosis are outlined below. When combined with other tests, these biomarkers can help doctors determine whether a person might have or be at risk of developing Alzheimers or a related dementia. However, no single test can alone diagnosis these conditions. Biomarkers are only part of a complete assessment. Read more about diagnosing dementia.

    Schedule An Imaging Appointment At Health Images

    World

    If you or someone you love may need a dementia diagnosing imaging test, schedule an appointment with the caring team at Health Images. At Health Images, our top priorities are excellent patient care and accurate, immediate imaging results. We provide each of our patients with dependable, world-class diagnostic imaging so they can determine the correct treatment path to take.

    To book an imaging appointment with a health center you can trust, find a Health Images location near you today.

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    Information To The Patient And The Relatives

    Within the diagnostic framework, it is important that the patient’s relatives are well informed by the physician about the possible causes of the dementia and about the test results in order to obtain a satisfactory impression about the steps which have been undertaken.

    Everybody has the right to be informed about medical diagnoses, even if the diagnosis is hard to cope with. This might enable the patient to decide how to spend their time and to make their own decisions for the future. There are varied opinions in medical circles about disclosure of the diagnosis of dementia. Disclosing a diagnosis should always be followed by joint discussions about the next steps to be undertaken. The current point of view is that every patient, according to the stage of illness and to their personality, has the right to know but also the right not to know. This results in a step by step procedure for the information process. The patient is given part of the information in a way s/he can understand and s/he is asked if s/he wants to know more. Informing the relatives almost always needs prior consent of the patient.

    What Is Mixed Dementia

    It is common for people with dementia to have more than one form of dementia. For example, many people with dementia have both Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia.

    Researchers who have conducted autopsy studies have looked at the brains of people who had dementia, and have suggested that most people age 80 and older probably have mixed dementia caused by a combination of brain changes related to Alzheimer’s disease,vascular disease-related processes, or another condition that involves the loss of nerve cell function or structure and nerve cell death .

    Scientists are investigating how the underlying disease processes in mixed dementia start and influence each other. Further knowledge gains in this area will help researchers better understand these conditions and develop more personalized prevention and treatment strategies.

    Other conditions that cause dementia-like symptoms can be halted or even reversed with treatment. For example, normal pressure hydrocephalus, an abnormal buildup of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain, often resolves with treatment.

    In addition, medical conditions such as stress, anxiety, depression, and delirium can cause serious memory problems that resemble dementia, as can side effects of certain medicines.

    Researchers have also identified many other conditions that can cause dementia or dementia-like symptoms. These conditions include:

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    How To Diagnose Alzheimers Vs Dementia

    Alzheimers is a progressive and fatal brain disorder. Dementia is not a specific disease, but an umbrella term that defines a syndrome and used to refer to a specific group of symptoms related to a decline in mental ability. Alzheimers is one of the most common causes of dementia. Both Alzheimers and dementia are diagnosed using a variety of different assessments and tests, including a physical exam, lab tests, cognitive and neuropsychological tests, and an analysis of changes in behavior.

    What Doctors Need To Do To Diagnose Dementia

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    Now that we reviewed the five key features of dementia, lets talk about how I or another doctor might go about checking for these.

    Basically, for each feature, the doctor needs to evaluate, and document what she finds.

    1. Difficulty with mental functions. To evaluate this, its best to combine an office-based cognitive test with documentation of real-world problems, as reported by the patient and by knowledgeable observers

    For cognitive testing, I generally use the Mini-Cog, or the MOCA. The MOCA provides more information but it takes more time, and many seniors are either unwilling or unable to go through the whole test.

    Completing office-based tests is important because its a standardized way to document cognitive abilities. But the results dont tell the doctor much about whats going on in the persons actual life.

    So I always ask patients to tell me if theyve noticed any trouble with memory or thinking. I also try to get information from family members about any of the eight behaviors that are common in Alzheimers. Lastly, I make note of whether there seem to be any problems managing activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living .

    Driving and managing finances require a lot of mental coordination, so as dementia develops, these are often the life tasks that people struggle with first.

    Checking for many of these causes of cognitive impairment requires laboratory testing, and sometimes additional evaluation.

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    What Conditions Can Be Mistaken For Dementia

    The term dementia refers to a specific group of symptoms related to a decline in mental ability. Often, people who experience subtle short-term memory changes, are easily confused, or exhibit different behaviors or personality traits are mistakenly thought to have dementia. These symptoms could be the result of a variety of other conditions or disorders, including other neurocognitive disorders such as Parkinsons disease, brain growths or tumors, mild cognitive impairment , and mood disorders, like depression.

    What Are The Different Types Of Dementia

    Various disorders and factors contribute to the development of dementia. Neurodegenerative disorders result in a progressive and irreversible loss of neurons and brain functioning. Currently, there are no cures for these diseases.

    The five most common forms of dementia are:

    • Alzheimers disease, the most common dementia diagnosis among older adults. It is caused by changes in the brain, including abnormal buildups of proteins, known as amyloid plaques and tau tangles.
    • Frontotemporal dementia, a rare form of dementia that tends to occur in people younger than 60. It is associated with abnormal amounts or forms of the proteins tau and TDP-43.
    • Lewy body dementia, a form of dementia caused by abnormal deposits of the protein alpha-synuclein, called Lewy bodies.
    • Vascular dementia, a form of dementia caused by conditions that damage blood vessels in the brain or interrupt the flow of blood and oxygen to the brain.
    • Mixed dementia, a combination of two or more types of dementia.

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    Differentiating Delirium From Look

    Delirium can be mistaken for dementia or for psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia. Hypoactive delirium is often confused with depression. Certain rare forms of epilepsy can also closely resemble delirium. However, in epilepsy there is usually a history of seizures before the episode of sudden confusion.

    Different characteristics of dementia and delirium

    Delirium and dementia share several characteristics that often make it hard to tell them apart. For example, both syndromes involve memory loss and language difficulties. Also, since dementia greatly increases the risk of delirium, they can exist at the same time.

    DEMENTIA

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