Causes Of Frontotemporal Dementia
This is an important cause of dementia in younger people. It’s most often diagnosed between the ages of 45 and 65.
It’s caused by an abnormal clumping of proteins, including tau, in the frontal and temporal lobes at the front and sides of the brain.
The clumping of these proteins damages nerve cells in the frontal and temporal lobes, causing brain cells to die. This leads to shrinking of these areas of the brain.
Frontotemporal dementia is more likely to run in families than other, more common causes of dementia.
Read more about frontotemporal dementia.
Back To Top 22 The Person Doesnt Remember Our Last Visit But I See Them Regularly Should I Remind Them That I Visit Often
The person is missing you. Validate that feeling. Respond to the emotion and spend time with them, perhaps doing a favourite activity. Do not try to correct the person or argue.
The person may not recall your last visit because of the impact of dementia on their short-term memory. Try not to take it personally because it is simply the nature of the disease thats affecting their brain
Cultural And Linguistic Considerations
Treatment occurs in the language used by the person with dementia, either by a bilingual SLP or through the use of trained interpreters, when necessary. See ASHA’s Practice Portal page on Bilingual Service Delivery.
Cultural influences and familial expectations may affect treatment decisions .
Cultural values, views of the aging process, and religious and spiritual beliefs relative to cognitive decline may influence a family’s decisions about therapeutic services. For example, families may not seek help, or they may delay seeking help until symptoms are beyond early or mild stages . Families may fear the stigma of dementia, and this can also affect decisions about seeking help .
Dementia can have a significant impact on individuals in the LGBTQ community. For example, transgender individuals with dementia may experience periods of confusion about medical issues related to their natal gender , or about self-care and other daily tasks related to external gender changes . Dementia may also make it challenging for LGBTQ individuals to manage disclosurethey may lose some ability to determine whom they share this information with .
Older LGBTQ individuals with dementia often experience a loss of identity, as a lack of cultural competence can lead to discrimination on the basis of age, sexuality and the stigma associated with dementia . Care facilities should be sensitive to the needs of older LGBTQ patients and provide them with accommodations consistent with their expression .
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The Signs Of Normal Ageing And Dementia
The table below lists some of the possible changes due to both normal ageing and early dementia. However, it is important to remember that everyone is different and not everyone with dementia will have all of these changes.
Other conditions may also account for some of them. For example, a person with depression can have problems making decisions, get confused easily and appear withdrawn or irritable.
Impact Of Cognitive Changes On Communication
The cognitive changes associated with dementia can have a significant impact on day-to-day communication. For example, a decline in memory, attention, executive functioning, and/or language processing can make it difficult to follow and participate in conversation.
With more significant cognitive decline,
- they may become disoriented to time and place;
- they may have difficulty remembering recent events;
- their verbal output may be reduced and less substantive; and
- their ability to express thoughts, wants, and needs may be affected.
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Conditions With Symptoms Similar To Dementia
Remember that many conditions have symptoms similar to dementia, so it is important not to assume that someone has dementia just because some of the above symptoms are present. Strokes, depression, excessive long-term alcohol consumption, infections, hormonal disorders, nutritional deficiencies and brain tumours can all cause dementia-like symptoms. Many of these conditions can be treated.
Normal Memory Changes Vs Dementia Symptoms
Its something we all have to face but the inevitable changes of aging can still be both humbling and surprising. But while experiencing wrinkling skin, fading hair color, and mild, short-term memory loss is common as we age, severe and rapid memory loss is definitely NOT a part of normal aging. In fact, many people are able to preserve their brainpower as they get older by staying mentally and physically active and making other healthy lifestyle choices.
Differentiating the signs of dementia from normal aging can help to either set your mind at rest or encourage you to begin taking steps to slow the progression of symptoms. In broad terms, normal memory changes associated with aging dont significantly interfere with your ability to function in your daily life. These may include:
Slower thinking and problem solving The speed of learning slows down; short-term memory takes longer to function; reaction time increases.
More distractedness. All of the interruptions make learning more difficult.
Slower recall A greater need for hints to jog the memory.
Distinguishing between normal memory loss and dementia symptoms is not an exact science but there are some clues to look for:
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Take Part In Dementia Research
There are many dementia research projects and clinical trials going on around the world, many of which are based in the UK.
If you have a dementia diagnosis or are worried about memory problems, you can help scientists understand more about it, and develop possible treatments, by taking part in research.
Carers can also take part, as there are studies into the best ways to care for someone with a dementia diagnosis.
How Is Dementia Diagnosed
To diagnose dementia, doctors first assess whether a person has an underlying, potentially treatable, condition that may relate to cognitive difficulties. A physical exam to measure blood pressure and other vital signs, as well as laboratory tests of blood and other fluids to check levels of various chemicals, hormones, and vitamins, can help uncover or rule out possible causes of symptoms.
A review of a persons medical and family history can provide important clues about risk for dementia. Typical questions might include asking about whether dementia runs in the family, how and when symptoms began, changes in behavior and personality, and if the person is taking certain medications that might cause or worsen symptoms.
The following procedures also may be used to diagnose dementia:
Early detection of symptoms is important, as some causes can be treated. However, in many cases, the cause of dementia is unknown and cannot be treated. Still, obtaining an early diagnosis can help with managing the condition and planning ahead.
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What Research Is Being Done
Scientists all over the world are working hard to gain a better understanding of the many different aspects of dementia. This might help to develop preventive measures, improved early detection diagnostic tools, better and longer-lasting treatments, and even cures.
For example, early research suggests a common asthma drug called zileuton might slow, stop, and potentially reverse the development of proteins in the brain. These proteins are common in people with Alzheimers disease.
Another recent research development suggests deep brain stimulation could be an effective way to limit symptoms of Alzheimers in older patients. This method has been used to treat symptoms of Parkinsons disease, such as tremors, for decades.
Now, researchers are looking at the possibility of slowing the progression of Alzheimers.
Scientists are investigating a variety of factors they think might influence the development of dementia, including:
- genetic factors
Back To Top 13 Is There A Link Between Alcohol Smoking Or Drug Use And Dementia
Alcohol: Heavy and long-term alcohol consumption can cause alcohol-related dementia. Mild to moderate intake of alcohol is not associated with an increased risk of dementia.
Smoking: Associated with an increased risk of dementia.
Drug use: Long-term use of a group of medications called benzodiazepines have been associated with a higher risk of cognitive decline. The impact of other drugs on dementia is not very clear. Excess drug use is believed to adversely impact cognitive functioning.
Reversible Or Treatable Causes Of Dementias
Most of the conditions that cause dementia cannot be reversed, but some can be treated and may be called reversible dementia. Treatment can often cure these dementias if the brain has not been damaged too much. If brain damage is more extensive, treatment often does not reverse the damage, but it can prevent new damage.
Conditions that cause reversible dementia include the following:
In Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, dementia progresses rapidly and continuously.
The rate of progression also varies from person to person. Looking back at how fast it worsened during the previous year often gives an indication about the coming year. Symptoms may worsen when people with dementia are moved to a nursing home or another institution because people with dementia have difficulty learning and remembering new rules and routines.
Problems, such as pain, shortness of breath, retention of urine, and constipation, may cause delirium with rapidly worsening confusion in people who have dementia. If these problems are corrected, people usually return to the level of functioning they had before the problem.
Can Dementia Be Prevented
Although dementia cannot be prevented, living a health-focused life might influence risk factors for certain types of dementia. Keeping blood vessels clear of cholesterol buildup, maintaining normal blood pressure, controlling blood sugar, staying at a healthy weight basically, staying as healthy as one can can keep the brain fueled with the oxygen and nutrients it needs to function at its highest possible level. Specific healthful steps you can take include:
- Follow a Mediterranean diet, which is one filled with whole grains, vegetables, fruits, fish and shellfish, nuts, beans, olive oil and only limited amounts of red meats.
- Exercise. Get at least 30 minutes of exercise most days of the week.
- Keep your brain engaged. Solve puzzles, play word games, and try other mentally stimulating activities. These activities may delay the start of dementia.
- Stay socially active. Interact with people; discuss current events; keep your mind, heart, and soul engaged.
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The Kensington White Plains Experts In Dementia Care
The health professionals at The Kensington are devoted to providing the highest quality memory care to your loved one. Our promise is simple: We will love and care for your family as we do our own, and we live that promise in every aspect.
The decision to move a loved one to an assisted living community for memory care is not one that should be taken lightly. Our team has a deep understanding of Alzheimers and dementia, and our goal is to always capitalize on the strengths of our residents no matter where they are at in their journey.
With two thoughtfully designed memory care neighborhoods Connections and Haven and around-the-clock care and support, you can have peace of mind knowing your loved one is always in the hands of professionals. The Connections neighborhood was created for early to middle stage Alzheimers and dementia care, and Haven is for middle to late stage. Each floor provides the required level of assistance and security, in a cozy living space, to ensure the best care.
Please to speak to our team and learn more about our programs, staff, residents, and dedication to giving your loved one top-level care and fulfillment.
E Staging Of Dementia
Progressive dementias are generally staged according to the level of functional impairment, and the same categories may be used to describe the degree of severity of any dementia . The ability to perform a specific function depends on baseline skills, deficits, and the social environment, so the severity of illness should be assessed in the context of past functioning in several domains. Individuals with questionable impairment show borderline functioning in several areas but definite impairment in none. Such individuals are not considered demented, but they should be evaluated over time: some may progress to a dementing disorder, some may return to normal functioning, and others may remain in a questionable state. Individuals with mild impairment are likely to have difficulties with balancing a checkbook, preparing a complex meal, or managing a difficult medication schedule. Those with moderate impairment also have difficulties with simpler food preparation, household cleanup, and yard work and may require assistance with some aspects of self-care . Those whose dementia is severe require considerable assistance with personal care, including feeding, grooming, and toileting. In profound dementia, the patients may become largely oblivious to their surroundings and are almost totally dependent on caregivers. In the terminal phase, patients are generally bed bound, require constant care, and may be susceptible to accidents and infectious diseases, which often prove fatal.
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Research Into The Cause Of Frontotemporal Dementia
Frontotemporal dementia is the name given to a group of dementias when there is degeneration in one or both of the frontal or temporal lobes of the brain. The behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia involves the frontal lobes and includes Picks disease. The language variant involves the temporal lobes and includes Progressive non-fluent aphasia and Semantic dementia.
The genetics of frontotemporal dementia are not fully understood and are the subject of ongoing research. About 30% of people with frontotemporal dementia have a family history of the disease. Only about 15% have a known genetic mutation that causes the disease. Mutations have been identified in the MAPT and PGN genes on chromosome 17, which code for the tau and progranulin proteins respectively. Other genes such as VCP and CHMP2B have been found to be affected in several rare cases of the disorder.
These gene mutations are inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. This means that each child of someone with the mutation has a 50% chance of inheriting it. Those with the mutation are destined to develop the dementia. Together, the MAPT and PGN gene mutations account for about half of the cases of familial frontotemporal dementia. This means that there are other responsible genes yet to be discovered.
For more information about research into frontotemporal dementia, visit the website of;Frontier research group on frontotemporal dementia at Brain Mind Centre.;
Back To Top 19 How Should I Respond To Repetitive Questions
A person living with dementia is experiencing changes within their brain that create difficulties with short-term memory. They simply cant recall the answer you just provided. Try to understand the reason behind their questions. Could they have any unmet needs, fear, loneliness or frustration? Acknowledge and validate the emotion and then respond to the emotion. You can also try gentle distraction or redirection to a favourite activity or object. We have a workshop to help with this.
Back To Top 24 Are Routines Helpful For People With Dementia
The world is constantly changing for us and we can only imagine how this must feel for a person with dementia. This is complicated by the losses and the new challenges they experience as the disease progresses. Having routines and a structured schedule will help establish a sense of normalcy for the person. Many people find it helpful to have a routine that they stick to as closely as possible.
What Are The Symptoms Of Dementia
Early symptoms of dementia include :
- Forgetting recent events or information
- Repeating comments or questions over a very short period of time
- Misplacing commonly used items or placing them in usual spots
- Not knowing the date or time
- Having difficulty coming up with the right words
- Experiencing a change in mood, behavior or interests
Signs that dementia is getting worse include:
- Ability to remember and make decisions further declines
- Talking and finding the right words becomes more difficult
- Daily complex tasks, such as brushing teeth, making a cup of coffee, working a tv remote, cooking, and paying bills become more challenging
- Rational thinking and behavior and ability to problem solve lessen
- Sleeping pattern change
- Anxiety, frustration, confusion, agitation, suspiciousness, sadness and/or depression increase
- More help with activities of daily living grooming, toileting, bathing, eating is needed
- Hallucinations may develop
The symptoms mentioned above are general symptoms of dementia. Each person diagnosed with dementia has different symptoms, depending on what area of the brain is damaged. Additional symptoms and/or unique symptoms occur with specific types of dementia.
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Causes Of Alzheimer’s Disease
Alzheimer’s disease is the most common type of dementia.
Alzheimer’s disease is thought to be caused by the abnormal build-up of 2 proteins called amyloid and tau.
Deposits of amyloid, called plaques, build up around brain cells. Deposits of tau form “tangles” within brain cells.
Researchers do not fully understand how amyloid and tau are involved in the loss of brain cells, but research into this is continuing.
As brain cells become affected in Alzheimer’s, there’s also a decrease in chemical messengers involved in sending messages, or signals, between brain cells.
Levels of 1 neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, are particularly low in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease.
Medicines like donepezil increase levels of acetylcholine, and improve brain function and symptoms.
These treatments are not a cure for Alzheimer’s disease, but they do help improve symptoms.
Read more about treatments for dementia.
The symptoms that people develop depend on the areas of the brain that have been damaged by the disease.
The hippocampus is often affected early on in Alzheimer’s disease. This area of the brain is responsible for laying down new memories. That’s why memory problems are one of the earliest symptoms in Alzheimer’s.
Unusual forms of Alzheimer’s disease can start with problems with vision or with language.
Read more about Alzheimer’s disease.