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How Can Stem Cells Treat Alzheimer’s

Stem Cell Treatment In Ad Modeling

Can stem cells treat Alzheimer’s and related dementias? with Mathew Blurton-Jones, PhD

Some drugs have been approved to slow down cognitive deficiency and neuronal loss in AD. Although these drugs can improve some AD symptoms, fewer than 20% of patients with AD will benefit, whereas over 60% of patients develop tolerance and side effects . With rapid growing achievements in stem cell research, stem cellbased therapy provides a new option for AD treatment.

Mesenchymal And Hematopoietic Stem Cells

Among the different ASC lines, mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cells can be easily obtained and thus have been the ones most widely studied as possible therapeutics for AD. MSCs are hierarchical postnatal stem cells, capable of self-renewing and retaining diverse differentiation potency . MSCs may be isolated from multiple sources and can differentiate into multiple types of tissue, have high expansion capacity and low immunogenicity and carcinogenic potential . Concerning their effects in AD pathology, MSCs have been reported to enhance neurogenesis through the release of neurotrophic factors, enhance A clearance, modify innate and adaptive immune cell responses through upregulating neuroprotective cytokines such as IL-10 while decreasing the amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF- and IL-1 . Reduction in amyloid-beta deposition and increased microglial phagocytic activity has also been observed .

How Do Stem Cells Help Alzheimer’s

Mesenchymal Stem Cells or stromal stem cells can differentiate into many different types of cells within the body, including bone cells, cartilage, muscle cells, and even neural cells. They are primarily found in the bone marrow of every person and remain dormant until called upon to promote healing within the body. They age as we age, and their number and effectiveness decreases over the years.

According to Sung S. Choi and colleagues in a 2014 study titled Alzheimerâs Disease and Stem Cell Therapy

âStem cells have therapeutic effects using regeneration and substitution of cells and tissues themselves. The therapeutic strategy of stem cells has two directions. One is to induce the activation of endogenous stem cell, and the other is to regenerate the injured cell or tissues through stem cell transplantationâ

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Pathological Protein Accumulation And Prion

The prion transmission theory of neurodegenerative diseases was initially a controversial theory, but is now widely accepted. This theory states that in each neurodegenerative disease, misfolded protein that adopt an aberrant conformation can provide a template for their own polymerization and thus enable propagation between adjacent cells . As we all know, AD is characterized by presence of hyperphosphorylated Tau and amyloid beta. These pathological proteins, especially amyloid beta, can from prion-like seeds . These amyloid seeds can continuously replicate, release, and be propagated between adjacent cells in a manner similar to the spread of prion protein lesions. These pathological proteins can also follow the axonal plasm and transported forward or backward to achieve long-distance transmission .

How Can Stem Cells Accelerate And Improve Drug Discovery

124 best images about Stem Cell Therapy on Pinterest

A lot of the drugs are developed using different types of animal models, and in many cases, these animals have not really been predictive of the way that these diseases and drugs work in humans, noted Dr. Noggle.

Because of this, many drugs dont make it through clinical trials.

80 to 90% of drugs fail clinical trials. And for the ones that do make it, the process is long and costly, and many of the drugs dont actually work well in all patients.

With stem cells, scientists can test drugs on the actual human cells affected by a disease.

Labs such as that of Kevin Eggan, PhD, and NYSCF Robertson Stem Cell Investigator Brian Wainger, MD, PhD, have been using motor neurons derived from the stem cells of ALS patients to see if they could understand what might be going wrong in the brain, said Dr. Noggle.

They noticed that the neurons they made from ALS patient stem cells were hyperactive. They then did a drug screen to look at whether any existing drugs could reverse this, and they found that an epilepsy drug called ezogabine could do this. Theyve now performed clinical trials to show that in patients, this drug actually could quell the overactive motor neurons.

Dr. Noggle also wants to make sure the drugs scientists find are safe. One of the major reasons why drugs fail is that theyre toxic to different cells in the body.

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How Are The Stem Cells Collected

We use only umbilical cord stem cells that are derived exclusively from umbilical cord donations. The umbilical cord stem cells are collected after informed consent has been given by the parent, or parents, and only after the delivery of the baby.The collection follows strict ethical protocols ensuring the stem cells are from safe, reliable sources using a non-invasive, simple and painless procedure.Once collected, the cord blood is then screened for disease. Once the cells are collected, our lab uses the most advanced technology to isolate, cultivate, expand and test the mesenchymal stem cells. The entire process takes three weeks to ensure the lab produces stemcells that are safe and efficacious.

Proposed Mechanisms Of Action Of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Therapy In Alzheimers Disease

Different mechanisms have been proposed for MSCs therapy in AD. The main mechanisms of action of MSCs therapy have long been considered to be cell replacement. But increasing evidence have shown transplanted MSCs can only survive in the host for a very limited amount of time. Intravenously administered MSCs mostly are trapped in the lung and the spleen .

Recent studies have shown early in AD, there is impaired endogenous neurogenesis and decrease neural stem cell pool in adult hippocampus neurogenic regions . MSCs transplantation can potentially take effect by replenishing the endogenous neural stem cell pool and stimulating neurogenesis. Yan et al. reported increased neurogenesis in SVZ and SGZ hippocampal regions after adipose tissue derived MSCs transplantation in APP/PS1 mice model.

Other mechanisms being implicated for MSCs therapy in AD include enhancing autophagy, decrease ROS , renormalization of BBB and NVU .

Different mechanisms for MSCs therapy in AD are illustrated in Figure 4. At present, there are 17 clinical trial studies of mesenchymal stem cell treatment of Alzheimers disease registered on the United States clinicaltrial.gov website. A table of current ongoing MSCs clinical trials for AD is listed in Table 1.

Table 1. Major MSCs clinical trials for AD.

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Approved Neuron Replacement Therapy

To push growth factors into the brain, somatic motor neurons can also be modified using cell growth factors. Studies indicate that the full-grown brain of the mammals preserves the capability to produce new neurons from the neural stem or progenitor cells. Stemcells for memory loss is one of the most practical and effective ways to repair the damages brought about by Brain Injuries, Strokes, Alzheimers , help to restore intellectual function with quality of life for the patient affected by the disease.

Neural Stem cells and isolated exosomes extracellular vesicles provide the potential to repair the damage caused by Alzheimers and improvement in the cognitive function of patients affected with brain injuries and motor neuron disease.

Why Use Umbilical Cord Tissue

Experts question claims stem cells can treat Alzheimers disease

Cord tissue is rich in mesenchymal stem cells, potentially used to help heal, regenerate & treat a variety of conditions. Mesenchymal Stem Cells derived from umbilical cord tissue have shown the ability to avoid a negative response from a personâs immune system, allowing the cells to be transplanted in a wide range of people without fear of rejection. These transplants may have the ability to vastly increase the bodyâs natural healing abilities and have robust anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive responses. For an in depth comparison about different cell types please review this article.

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Stem Cell Research For Alzheimer’s Disease

Stem cell research has proven the safety of using mesenchymal stem cells to treat a range of conditions. The efficacy of stem cell therapy ranges as per condition however, the literature is well on its way to solidifying the effectiveness of treatment for certain conditions, Alzheimer’s being one of them.

References:

1) Alzheimerâs Disease. . Retrieved from.

2) van der Kant, R., Goldstein, L.S.B. & Ossenkoppele, R. Amyloid-β-independent regulators of tau pathology in Alzheimer disease. Nat Rev Neurosci 21, 21â35 doi:10.1038/s41583-019-0240-3

3) Choi, S. S., Lee, S.-R., Kim, S. U., & Lee, H. J. . Alzheimer’s disease and stem cell therapy. Retrieved from /.

4) Wei, L., Wei, Z. Z., Jiang, M. Q., Mohamad, O., & Yu, S. P. . Stem cell transplantation therapy for multifaceted therapeutic benefits after stroke. Retrieved from/.

The Role Of Stem Cells In Treating Alzheimers Disease

Stem cells are those cells that can easily become the cells of different organs where their need arises. This means that stem cells can evolve into cells of the brain, heart, muscle, organ, tissue or cartilage and so to treat many complex diseases such as Alzheimers Disease, Parkinsons Disease, Diabetes, Rheumatoid Arthritis, etc. Stem cell therapy is at the heart of a new field of science and medicine called regenerative medicine.

Since stem cells have the unique ability to renew themselves and give birth to generations of cells with different degrees of differentiation, the use of this therapy becomes extremely encouraging and promising for those who suffer with debilitating diseases. They also replace damaged cells in different body parts without any risk of being rejected and without causing any side effects.

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Stem Cell Therapy For Dementia: Patient Results

A clinical trial showed such therapeutic effects of stem cell transplantation in dementia treatment as:

  • increasing acetylcholine levels to improve cognition and memory
  • modulation of neuroplasticity and neurogenesis due to secreting neurotrophic factors by stem cells
  • increasing neuronal survival and neuronal differentiation
  • improving neuropathological and behavioral recovery
  • activation of microglia .

Together, these effects lead to reducing symptoms.

Patients family experience who underwent stem cell treatment for dementia at Swiss Medica:

My mom is walking better, she is holding a conversation better with me and our family .

More information on a typical case of dementia:

Advances In Stem Cell Therapy In Alzheimers Disease: A Comprehensive Clinical Trial Review

Stem Cell Therapy for Alzheimer

Nikolaos Karvelas1#^, Samuel Bennett2#^, Georgios Politis1, Nikolaos-Iasonas Kouris1^, Christo Kole1^

1 Faculty of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athina , Emory University School of Medicine , , USA

Contributions: Conception and design: C Kole Administrative support: NI Kouris Provision of study materials or patients: N Karvelas, S Bennett, C Kole Collection and assembly of data: N Karvelas, S Bennett, G Politis, NI Kouris Data analysis and interpretation: N Karvelas, S Bennett, C Kole Manuscript writing: All authors Final approval of manuscript: All authors.

#These authors contributed equally in this work.

^ORCID: Nikolaos Karvelas, 0000-0003-1452-1192 Samuel Bennett, 0000-0002-4514-4388 Nikolaos-Iasonas Kouris, 0000-0002-1659-075X Christo Kole, 0000-0003-4695-3723.

Correspondence to:

Keywords: Alzheimers disease stem cell therapy embryonic stem cells mesenchymal stem cells induced pluripotent stem cells

Received: 11 November 2021 Accepted: 27 January 2022 Published: 21 February 2022.

doi: 10.21037/sci-2021-063

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In Dementia Stem Cells Treatment Has What Kind Of Role

Stem cells treatment for dementia has been revealed to produce a group of neurotrophins, growth factors and other supportive substances. This helps in better survival of the neurons through facilitation of neuroprotective responses like angiogenesis, axonal guidance and regeneration, which may further result in improved cognitive function.

How Does Stem Cell Therapy Work

Mesenchymal stem cells utilize their self-renewal, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, signaling, and differentiation properties to influence positive change within the body. Mesenchymal stem cells also have the capacity to self-renew by dividing and developing into multiple specialized cell types present in a specific tissue or organ. Mesenchymal stem cells are adult stem cells, meaning they present no ethical concerns, MSCs are not sourced from embryonic material.

“The characteristics of presenting no major ethical concerns, having low immunogenicity, and possessing immune modulation functions make MSCs promising candidates for stem cell therapies.” – Jiang, et al.

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How Can Stem Cells Help Alzheimers

Alzheimer is the most common cause of dementia. This complex disease affects the nerve cells in the brain, making operative treatment very challenging. As the disease progresses, nerve cells or neurons become damaged or lost. Thus, being a neurodegenerative disease, can cell therapy for Alzheimers disease tackle this challenge?

Neurotrophic And Neuroprotective Activity

Alzheimer’s prevention with Intrathecal Stem Cell Treatment

Despite the pathognomonic accumulation of plaques and tangles in AD, it is the loss of synapses that correlates most closely with dementia 10. Synapse loss also appears to precede neuronal loss in AD . One of the principle mechanisms by which synaptic strength and number is regulated is via the activity-dependent release of target-derived neurotrophins. Likely contributing to the loss of synapses in AD, production of several key neurotrophins is dramatically reduced early in the disease course 11. Among these, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor in particular play critical functions in synaptic plasticity. BDNF expression and activity is especially important within the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus, two areas critically involved in learning and memory that are dramatically affected in AD. Likewise NGF produced in the cortex and hippocampus influences the survival and function of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons, another important population that influences learning and memory and undergoes dramatic degeneration in AD 12.

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Alzheimers Disease Cord Blood And Stem Cells

There are currently 17 clinical trials investigating the application of stem cells in Alzheimers disease.

Studies using mice have shown some promise using stem cells to treat Alzheimers. One study found that the mice which had received human umbilical cord blood showed improved cognitive capacities, particularly learning, memory and motor function. The team conducting the study found that monocytes derived from human umbilical cord blood consumed and cleared the plaque fragments responsible for AD .

Scientists in Japan are treating the condition in trial stages by transplanting mesenchymal stem cells from patients fat tissue to the blood stream. Results so far offer hope that a cure could be found in the next few decades.

Human trials are currently underway to determine the safety and effectiveness of cord blood stem cells in Alzheimers. A combined phase 1/2a trial is expected to conclude in December 2015 .

Induced pluripotent stem cells are playing a crucial role in the study of Alzheimers disease. Taking skin cells from patients with Alzheimers scientists are able to reprogramme the cells to create neurons. These neurons show some of the key features of Alzheimers and could enable scientists to better understand how and why the brain produces the plaques and tangles that cause the disease. This in turn can lead to the development of effective therapies being developed .

I Came Across A Site That Said That There Are Different Types Of Dementia Can You Please Elaborate On That

Yes there are different types of dementia. Many individuals suffer from various types of dementia like Vascular, Alzheimers and Fronto temporal dementia. Each of these cases requires individual care and a tailor made adaption to meet their needs. We aspire to offer our patients in an environment that is healthy and enriching for them.

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Endogenous Neurogenesis And Axonal Transport

Growing evidence suggests that adult neurogenesis contributes to learning and memory 45. The generation of new-born neurons within the hippocampus is also dramatically reduced with age and appears further influenced by AD pathogenesis 46, 47. Interestingly, a variety of extrinsic factors can influence adult neurogenesis. Peripheral levels of the chemokine CCL11/eotaxin, for example, can modulate neurogenesis in an age-dependent manner 48. Transplantation of NSCs can also influence endogenous host neurogenesis. In some cases, NSC transplantation has been shown to enhance endogenous neurogenesis following stroke 49, whereas in others, neurogenesis is reduced as a result of increased microglia activation 50. It also appears that the interaction between host neurogenesis and NSC transplants can be reciprocal as changes in neurogenesis can in turn influence NSC graft survival and differentiation 51. To date, no studies have examined the effect of NSC transplantation on endogenous neurogenesis in AD models. However, findings from the stroke field suggest that such mechanisms are likely involved.

What Is Stem Cell Therapy

Affordable and Low Cost Benefits Stem Cell Therapy For Alzheimer

Stem cell therapy is a non-invasive treatment that aims to replace damaged cells within the body. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy can be deployed systemically via IV or injected locally to target specific sites, depending on patient needs.

Stem cell therapy is a non-invasive treatment that aims to replace damaged cells within the body. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy can be deployed systemically via IV or injected locally to target specific sites, depending on patient needs.

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A Better Way To Study Disease

Harvard Stem Cell Institute scientists use a different set of tools to understand disease. With the advent of induced pluripotent stem cell technology the biological reprogramming of mature cells into stem cells it is possible to generate stem cells from the skin of an adult Alzheimers patient and then direct these cells to become different types of brain cells. HSCI investigators can direct patient stem cells to become brain cells both affected and not affected in Alzheimers disease. Our scientists plan to examine the types and amounts of Aß proteins generated by these cell types, and to look at how the different cell types respond to plaques.

None of the Food and Drug Administration approved treatments on the market for Alzheimers tackle the underlying cause of the disease. Rather, they attempt to alleviate symptoms associated with the loss of brain cells. Using stem cells, HSCI scientists can reveal potential targets for therapeutic intervention by studying the differences between brain cell types, and between those suffering from the disease and those who are healthy.

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