Predictors Of Dementia Or Ad
In a series of logistic models that included age and one additional variable , older age was consistently associated with an increased risk of dementia . In these trivariate models, more years of education were associated with a lower risk of dementia . There was no significant difference in dementia risk between males and females . African Americans were at greater risk for dementia . As expected, the presence of one or two APOE 4 alleles was significantly associated with an increased risk of dementia.
As shown in table , in the multivariate models, dementia risk increased with older age, fewer years of education and the presence of at least one APOE 4 allele. In the presence of these variables, gender and race were not significantly associated with risk of dementia.
Common Types Of Dementia In Younger People
- Alzheimer’s disease;is the most common form of dementia in younger people, accounting for around a third of young people with dementia.
- Vascular dementia;is the second most common form of dementia in young people. ;Around 20% of young people with dementia have vascular dementia.
- Around 12% of young people with dementia have;frontotemporal dementia. ;It most commonly occurs between the ages of 45-65. ;In about 40% of cases there is a family history of the condition.
- Korsakoff’s syndrome;- around 10% of dementias in young people are caused by a lack of vitamin B1 , most commonly associated with alcohol abuse.
- Around 10% of young people with dementia have dementia with;Lewy bodies.
- Around 20% of young people with dementia have a ‘rarer’ form of the condition. ;Examples include conditions that can lead to dementia including Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease and Creutzfeld Jakob disease.
John took the first step himself and went to his GP.; His doctor told him he needed to use his brain more.; John had recently completed his Masters degree!
– Liz, supporting her brother John, with FTD
Trends In Dementia Caregiving
There is some indication that families are now better at managing the care they provide to relatives with dementia than in the past. From 1999 to 2015, dementia caregivers were significantly less likely to report physical difficulties and financial difficulties related to care provision. In addition, use of respite care by dementia caregivers increased substantially . However, as noted earlier, more work is needed to ensure that interventions for dementia caregivers are available and accessible to those who need them. A 2016 study of the Older Americans Act’s National Family Caregiver Support Program found that over half of Area Agencies on Aging did not offer evidence-based family caregiver interventions.
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What To Do If A Loved One Is Suspicious Of Having Dementia
- Discuss with loved one.;Talk about seeing a medical provider about the observed changes soon. Talk about the issue of driving and always carrying an ID.
- Medical assessment.;Be with a provider that you are comfortable with. Ask about the Medicare Annual Wellness exam.
- Family Meeting.;Start planning, and gather documents like the Health Care Directive, Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care, Estate Plan.
What Are The Symptoms
Usually the first symptom is memory loss. Often the person who has a memory problem doesn’t notice it, but family and friends do. As dementia gets worse:
- You may have more trouble doing things that take planning, like making a list and going shopping.
- You may have trouble using or understanding words.
- You may get lost in places you know well.
Over time, people with dementia may begin to act very differently. They may become scared and strike out at others, or they may become clingy and childlike. They may stop brushing their teeth or bathing.
Later, they cannot take care of themselves. They may not know where they are. They may not know their loved ones when they see them.
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Specific Information In This Report
Alzheimer’s Disease Facts and Figures
- Brain changes that occur with Alzheimer’s disease.
- Risk factors for Alzheimer’s dementia.
- Number of Americans with Alzheimer’s dementia nationally and for each state.
- Lifetime risk for developing Alzheimer’s dementia.
- Proportion of women and men with Alzheimer’s and other dementias.
- Number of deaths due to Alzheimer’s disease nationally and for each state, and death rates by age.
- Number of family caregivers, hours of care provided, and economic value of unpaid care nationally and for each state.
- The impact of caregiving on caregivers.
- National cost of care for individuals with Alzheimer’s or other dementias, including costs paid by Medicare and Medicaid and costs paid out of pocket.
- Medicare payments for people with dementia compared with people without dementia.
- Number of geriatricians needed by state in 2050.
The Appendices detail sources and methods used to derive statistics in this report.
When possible, specific information about Alzheimer’s disease is provided; in other cases, the reference may be a more general one of âAlzheimer’s or other dementias.â
How Is Alzheimers Disease Treated
Medical management can improve quality of life for individuals living with Alzheimers disease and for their caregivers. There is currently no known cure for Alzheimers disease. Treatment addresses several areas:
- Helping people maintain brain health.
- Managing behavioral symptoms.
- Slowing or delaying symptoms of the disease.
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What Is Dementia And What Is Alzheimer’s Disease
Dementia refers to a set of symptoms and signs associated with a progressive deterioration of cognitive functions that affects daily activities. It is caused by various brain diseases and injuries. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of dementia. Vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and Lewy body dementia constitute other common types. Symptoms of dementia can include memory loss, judgement and reasoning problems, and changes in behaviour, mood and communication abilities.Footnote 4
Prevalence Of Young Onset Dementia In The Uk
- It is estimated that there are 42,325 people in the UK who have been diagnosed;with young onset dementia. ;.; They represent around 5% of the 850,000 people with dementia.; For the overview report click here.
- The actual;figure could be higher because of the difficulties of diagnosing the condition and might be closer to 6-9% of all people with dementia.; Awareness amongst GPs is still relatively low and when people are still at work, symptoms are often attributed to stress or depression. ;
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Active Management Of Alzheimers Dementia
- Appropriate use of available treatment options.
- Effective management of coexisting conditions.
- Providing family caregivers with effective training in managing the day-to-day life of the care recipient.
- Coordination of care among physicians, other health care professionals and lay caregivers.
- Participation in activities that are meaningful to the individual with dementia and bring purpose to his or her life.
- Having opportunities to connect with others living with dementia; support groups and supportive services are examples of such opportunities.
- Becoming educated about the disease.
- Planning for the future.
To learn more about Alzheimers disease, as well as practical information for living with Alzheimers and being a caregiver, visit alz.org.
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Trends In The Prevalence And Incidence Of Alzheimer’s Dementia Over Time
A growing number of studies indicate that the prevalence, – and incidence, , – of Alzheimer’s and other dementias in the United States and other higher-income Western countries may have declined in the past 25 years,, , – though results are mixed., , , These declines have been attributed to increasing levels of education and improved control of cardiovascular risk factors., , , , , Such findings are promising and suggest that identifying and reducing risk factors for Alzheimer’s and other dementias may be effective. Although these findings indicate that a person’s risk of dementia at any given age may be decreasing slightly, the total number of people with Alzheimer’s or other dementias in the United States and other high-income Western countries is expected to continue to increase dramatically because of the increase in the number of people at the oldest ages.
3.7.1 Looking to the future: Aging of the baby boom generation
- By 2025, the number of people age 65 and older with Alzheimer’s dementia is projected to reach 7.1 million â almost a 22% increase from the 5.8 million age 65 and older affected in 2020.,
- By 2050, the number of people age 65 and older with Alzheimer’s dementia is projected to reach 13.8 million, barring the development of medical breakthroughs to prevent, slow or cure Alzheimer’s disease.,
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Stage : Mild Dementia
At this stage, individuals may start to become socially withdrawn and show changes in personality and mood. Denial of symptoms as a defense mechanism is commonly seen in stage 4. Behaviors to look for include:
- Difficulty remembering things about one’s personal history
- Difficulty recognizing faces and people
In stage 4 dementia, individuals have no trouble recognizing familiar faces or traveling to familiar locations. However, patients in this stage will often avoid challenging situations in order to hide symptoms or prevent stress or anxiety.
Estimates Of The Number Of People With Alzheimer’s Dementia By State
Table lists the estimated number of people age 65 and older with Alzheimer’s dementia by state for 2020, the projected number for 2025, and the projected percentage change in the number of people with Alzheimer’s between 2020 and 2025.,
|Projected Number with Alzheimer’s||Percentage Increase|
- Created from data provided to the Alzheimer’s Association by Weuve et al.,
As shown in Figure , between 2020 and 2025 every state across the country is expected to experience an increase of at least 6.7% in the number of people with Alzheimer’s. These projected increases in the number of people with Alzheimer’s are due solely to projected increases in the population age 65 and older in these states. Because risk factors for dementia such as midlife obesity and diabetes can vary dramatically by region and state, the regional patterns of future burden may be different than reported here. Based on these projections, the West and Southeast are expected to experience the largest percentage increases in people with Alzheimer’s dementia between 2020 and 2025. These increases will have a marked impact on statesâ health care systems, as well as the Medicaid program, which covers the costs of long-term care and support for many older residents with dementia, including more than a quarter of Medicare beneficiaries with Alzheimer’s or other dementias.
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More Deaths From Alzheimers Disease And Other Dementias In 2020 Report Says
A year ago, Marc and Kathy Cochran were looking forward to a summer trip to Greece. Kathy, 68, had been diagnosed with early-onset Alzheimers disease in 2012, but she was functioning well and enjoying herself, which her husband of 48;years attributed to regular exercise and an active and varied social life.
That crashed to a halt when the novel coronavirus hit. The couple stopped going to restaurants, visiting friends or seeing their adult children. They even had to stop walking their dogs because the gregarious Kathy liked to run up and hug her neighbors and did not understand why that had become unsafe.
The changes put her into a tailspin. It was just like the bottom dropped out, Marc said. I couldnt get her to be calm. In the ensuing months, her cognitive function declined so precipitously that she was moved to a memory-care facility, and she died in September.
Her husband blames the pandemic. I cant tell you that she wouldnt have, but I could see a definite demarcation point from the time we shut down to the time she had to go into memory care, he said. One of the things that made her happy was seeing people, smiling at them, laughing with them, hugging them, and when she couldnt do that … she would become agitated.
About 40;percent of covid-19 deaths in the United States have been residents or staffers of long-term-care facilities, said the report, which is the organizations annual Facts and Figures assessment.
Knowing The Stages Of Dementia Helps You Plan
Even if the stages arent exact and symptoms can still be unpredictable, being able to plan ahead is essential.
The truth is that Alzheimers and dementia care is expensive and time-consuming. Being financially prepared for increasing care needs is a necessity.
On an emotional level, having an idea of what symptoms to expect helps you find ways to cope with challenging behaviors.;
It also gives you a chance to mentally prepare yourself for the inevitable changes in your older adult.
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How Common Is Dementia
Research shows there are more than 850,000 people in the UK who have dementia. One in;14 people over the age of 65 have dementia, and the condition affects 1 in 6 people over 80.
The number of people with dementia is increasing because people are living longer. It is estimated that by 2025, the number of people with dementia in the UK will be more than 1 million.
What About Treatments And Research
There is no cure for Alzheimer’s disease or any other type of dementia. Delaying the onset of dementia by five years would halve the number of deaths from the condition, saving 30,000 lives a year.
Dementia research is desperately underfunded. For every person living with dementia, the annual cost to the UK economy is over £30,000 and yet only £90 is spent on dementia research each year.
There are not enough researchers and clinicians joining the fight against dementia. Five times fewer researchers choose to work on dementia than on cancer.
Alzheimer’s Society is committed to spending at least £150 million over the next decade on dementia research to improve care for people today and find a cure for tomorrow. This includes £50 million to develop the UKs first dedicated Dementia Research Institute.
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Can Dementia Be Prevented
Although dementia cannot be prevented, living a health-focused life might influence risk factors for certain types of dementia. Keeping blood vessels clear of cholesterol buildup, maintaining normal blood pressure, controlling blood sugar, staying at a healthy weight basically, staying as healthy as one can can keep the brain fueled with the oxygen and nutrients it needs to function at its highest possible level. Specific healthful steps you can take include:
- Follow a Mediterranean diet, which is one filled with whole grains, vegetables, fruits, fish and shellfish, nuts, beans, olive oil and only limited amounts of red meats.
- Exercise. Get at least 30 minutes of exercise most days of the week.
- Keep your brain engaged. Solve puzzles, play word games, and try other mentally stimulating activities. These activities may delay the start of dementia.
- Stay socially active. Interact with people; discuss current events; keep your mind, heart, and soul engaged.
Stage : Age Associated Memory Impairment
This stage features occasional lapses of memory most frequently seen in:
- Forgetting where one has placed an object
- Forgetting names that were once very familiar
Oftentimes, this mild decline in memory is merely normal age-related cognitive decline, but it can also be one of the earliest signs of degenerative dementia. At this stage, signs are still virtually undetectable through clinical testing. Concern for early onset of dementia should arise with respect to other symptoms.
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How Many Canadians Live With Dementia Including Alzheimer’s Disease And How Many Are Newly Diagnosed Each Year
According to the most recent data available , more than 402,000 seniors are living with dementia in Canada . This represents a prevalence of 7.1%. About two-thirds of Canadian seniors living with dementia are women. Annually, there are approximately 76,000 new cases of dementia diagnosed in Canada. This represents an incidence of 14.3 new cases per 1,000 in the senior population . The incidence is higher among women than men. The prevalence and the incidence increase with age, as does the differential in prevalence and incidence estimates between men and women .
Notes: Data do not include Saskatchewan’s data. The 95% confidence interval shows an estimated range of values which is likely to include the true value 19 times out of 20.
Data source: Public Health Agency of Canada, using Canadian Chronic Disease Surveillance System data files contributed by provinces and territories, April 2017.
Over a ten-year period , the age-standardized prevalence of dementia increased by 21.2%. During the same period, fluctuations in incidence have been observed. Drug data, one of the criteria used for case identification , became available in Alberta and Prince Edward Island in 20092010, which contributed to the temporary peak in incidence that year. Since then, incidence data suggest a decline .
People Who Have Alzheimer’s Disease Need Others To Care For Them And Many Of Those Providing Care Are Not Paid For Their Time And Services
- More than 16 million Americans, usually family and friends, provide unpaid care for someone with Alzheimer’s disease or dementias.10 According to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics11, that would be just shy of a tenth of the entire US workforce. In 2017, these people provided an estimated 18.5 billion hours of unpaid care, a contribution valued at more than $234 billion.1 This would be about 46% of Walmarts total revenue in 2017 12 and 10 times the total revenue of McDonald’s in 2017 .13
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