More Evidence That Alzheimers Disease May Be Inherited From Your Mother
The American Academy of Neurology, an association of more than 22,500 neurologists and neuroscience professionals, is dedicated to promoting the highest quality patient-centered neurologic care. A neurologist is a doctor with specialized training in diagnosing, treating and managing disorders of the brain and nervous system such as Alzheimers disease, stroke, migraine, multiple sclerosis, brain injury, Parkinsons disease and epilepsy.For more information about the American Academy of Neurology, visit
Who Is Most Likely To Get Alzheimers
The greatest known risk factor for Alzheimers and other dementias is increasing age, but these disorders are not a normal part of aging. While age increases risk, it is not a direct cause of Alzheimers. Most individuals with the disease are 65 and older. After age 65, the risk of Alzheimers doubles every five years.
The Genetics Of Alzheimer’s Disease And Frontotemporal Disorders
The Genetics of Alzheimer’s Disease
Most cases of Alzheimers disease-type dementia result from a mix of genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors. Overall, 65 year olds have a 10 percent risk of developing symptoms. In other words, 1 in 10 people over age 65 will develop it, and those who reach 85 or older, the rate rises to 1 in 3. That level of risk varies in subtle ways across individuals. About 20 gene variants are known to confer low levels of increased risk for late-onset Alzheimers disease, while others endow resilience.
Some cases of Alzheimer’s disease, and other neurodegenerative diseases such as frontotemporal dementia, are caused by a genetic mutation, or permanent change in one or more specific genes. About 3% of Alzheimer cases are familial, or caused by single mutations inherited from a parent. Familial Alzheimer’s disease usually onsets before age 65. Read on to learn about the genetic differences between early- and late-onset Alzheimer’s disease, and frontotemporal degeneration .
Identifying genetic variants may help researchers find the most effective ways to treat or prevent diseases such as Alzheimer’s or frontotemporal degeneration in an individual. This approach, called precision medicine, takes into account individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle for each person.
Late-Onset Alzheimers Disease Genetics
* Adapted from the National Institute on Aging: Alzheimer’s Education and Referral Center
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Is Alzheimers Inherited From Mother Or Father
We all inherit a copy of some form of APOE from each parent. Those who inherit one copy of APOE-e4 from their mother or father have an increased risk of developing Alzheimers. Those who inherit two copies from their mother and father have an even higher risk, but not a certainty.
Will I Inherit My Fathers Alzheimers Disease
The role genetics can play in Alzheimers remains unclear. What research seems to indicate is people who have a first degree relative with Alzheimers disease may be at higher risk.
The Genetics of Alzheimers Disease
Some dementia researchers believe genetics may indeed increase your risk for developing Alzheimers by as much as 30%. Having a parent or sibling who has been diagnosed with Alzheimers disease appears to be where your gene pool comes in to the equation. The younger the family member was at the time of their diagnosis, the higher your personal risk.
Where the science is clearer is in cases of Early-onset Alzheimers. This form of the disease, also referred to as Familial Alzheimers disease , strikes adults between the ages of 30 and 60. Researchers have linked it to a gene mutation. An adult child of a parent with FAD has a 50/50 chance of inheriting the disease.
Steps to Take to Prevent Alzheimers Disease
Age continues to be the greatest risk factor for developing Alzheimers disease. After the age of 65, your risk for it doubles every five years. While researchers havent been able to figure out why that is, they do believe there are controllable risk factors.
Here are a few steps you can take that may help prevent or delay this disease:
Taking a proactive approach to managing your health may cut your risk for developing Alzheimers disease.
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Alzheimers Is Only Properly Diagnosed After Death
Further to the last point about doctors being able to see the effects of Alzheimers on the brain tissue, this can only be confirmed after the patient has died, notes LiveScience.com. Alzheimers can be diagnosed with complete accuracy only after death, when the brain is thoroughly examined during an autopsy, explains the source.
It notes a microscopic analysis of the brain tissue will reveal the plaques and tangles, which are the proteins we mentioned that are connected to Alzheimers disease. Until the patient passes away, doctors cannot rule out other causes, but can provide a diagnosis of dementia based on certain criteria.
If You Are The Caregiver For A Senior Loved One Who Has Alzheimers Youve Likely Wondered Whether Their Diagnosis Increases Your Own Risk For Developing The Disease
Its an understandable concern given how tough it is to watch someone you love struggle with difficult symptoms, such as agitation, memory problems, and a loss of verbal skills.
Is Alzheimers disease tied to genetics? The question isnt an easy one to answer with any degree of certainty. While scientists have identified some genetic involvement, it is not fully understood how heredity links us to the disease.
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Mother’s Genes Appear To Pass On Tendency For The Disease To Children
by Elizabeth Agnvall, AARP Bulletin, March 1, 2011| 0
The study adds to a growing body of evidence that a tendency for the disease appears to be passed down through the mother’s genes. Previous studies have found that people who have a close relative mother, father, brother, sister with the disease are four to 10 times more likely to develop Alzheimer’s compared with those who have no direct family history.
Experts say the research may one day lead to gene manipulation that could prevent the disease. For now, though, it should encourage those with a family history of Alzheimer’s to eat healthy foods and exercise, two strategies linked to a lower risk of the disease.
For this study, researchers at the University of Kansas followed 53 healthy men and women age 60 and over for two years. Eleven of them had a mother with Alzheimer’s disease, 10 had a father with the disease and 32 had no family history. The groups were given brain scans and memory tests throughout the study.
Today, more than 5 million Americans have Alzheimer’s, and yet there is no proven treatment or cure.
What Causes Alzheimers Disease
One of the main mechanisms that lead to Alzheimers disease is the accumulation of a substance called beta-amyloid or amyloid beta in our brains. This peptide collects in the extracellular space between our brain cells and forms amyloid plaques, impeding normal brain function.
Other substances, called tau proteins, accumulate in the intracellular space. Abnormalities in the metabolism of tau proteins lead to the formation of neurofibrillary tangles.1
Healthy seniors can also develop some plaques and tangles as part of the normal aging process however, the plaques and tangles observed in these cases arent as severe as the ones found in patients with Alzheimers.
Over time, Alzheimers disease leads to a significant loss of neurons and synapses. Studies have even found that certain areas of the brain shrink as the disease progresses.
But why do some people get Alzheimers disease, while others do not?
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People Affected By Dementia Are Often Concerned About Whether The Condition Can Be Passed Along In Families
Here we discuss the role of heredity in Alzheimers disease and other forms of dementia.
Dementia is the term used to describe the symptoms of a large group of illnesses which cause a progressive decline in a persons functioning. It is a broad term to describe a loss of memory, intellect, rationality, social skills and what would be considered normal emotional reactions. Alzheimers disease is the most common form of dementia, accounting for 50% to 70% of all cases of dementia. It occurs relatively frequently in older people, regardless of family history. For females aged 65 to 69 years dementia affects 1 person in 80 compared to 1 person in 60 for males. For both males and females aged 85 and over the rate is approximately 1 person in 4.
What Should I Do If My Parent Is Diagnosed With Alzheimers Or Dementia
First and foremost, dont panic. Its not your diagnosis. Get tested so you have factual data. After getting a test you can act accordingly. Sometimes people get diagnosed with the ApoE gene and never get diagnosed with Alzheimers. Taking preventative measures regarding diet,exercise, and mentally stimulating activities puts them in far better condition than many who dont even have the gene.
Although there is no known way to prevent Alzheimers, and while we cant change our genetic profile, we can change our lifestyle to reduce our risk.
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Will You Get Alzheimers If You Have The Gene
The answer is: it depends. There are many different factors that come into play in the development of Alzheimers disease and other types of dementia, and taking preventive measures as early as possible can help greatly reduce your risk for this disease.
Genetic testing for Alzheimers allows you to determine exactly what your genetic risk of Alzheimers is, so that you can take the necessary steps to protect yourself against this disease.
At What Age Does Alzheimer’s Usually Start
Damage occurring in the brain of someone with Alzheimer’s disease begins to show itself in very early clinical signs and symptoms. For most people with Alzheimer’sthose who have the late-onset varietysymptoms first appear in their mid-60s. Signs of early-onset Alzheimer’s begin between a person’s 30s and mid-60s.
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Neuropathology Of Case I3
The brain weighted 850 g. Gross examination revealed a diffuse symmetric cortical atrophy, particularly marked in the medial temporal lobes, and moderate dilatation of the lateral ventricles. Tissue sections of the isocortex stained with Gallyas and Congo red techniques, and immunostained for A showed a high density of senile plaques, predominantly neuritic plaques, corresponding to CERADs frequent level, and thus fulfilling criteria for the neuropathological diagnosis of definite Alzheimers disease. Numerous neurofibrillary and neuropil threads in a bilaminar arrangement were also observed with a distribution and density corresponding to a Braak and Braak Stage VI. Amyloid-staining techniques revealed widespread vascular deposition of A in leptomeningeal and intracortical vessels in both cerebral and cerebellar cortices. -Synuclein immunostains showed abundant cortical Lewy bodies and neurites in deep cortical layers restricted to limbic areas. There were Lewy neurites and diffuse somatic -synuclein labelling in hippocampal sector CA2 and the substantia nigra, but neither Lewy bodies nor evidence of neuronal loss were present in the latter. In addition, -synuclein immunostains labelled senile plaques in a transcortical distribution in extralimbic regions. Neither microinfarcts nor haemosiderin deposits were present.
First Evidence Of Recessive Gene In Alzheimers Discovered
- American Academy Of Neurology
- An unusually high incidence of Alzheimers disease in an Arab community provides the first evidence that a recessive gene is involved in the disease, according to a study published in the September 12 issue of Neurology, the scientific journal of the American Academy of Neurology.
ST. PAUL, MN An unusually high incidence of Alzheimers disease in an Arab community provides the first evidence that a recessive gene is involved in the disease, according to a study published in the September 12 issue of Neurology, the scientific journal of the American Academy of Neurology.
Researchers found that the high incidence of Alzheimers was not caused, as might be expected, by a high incidence of the gene variant apolipoprotein E-4, or apoE-4, which is a major risk factor for the disease. In fact, apoE-4 showed up in this population at the lowest level on record, according to neurologist Amos Korczyn, MD, MSc, of Tel Aviv University in Israel.
Because marriages between people who are relatively closely related is common among Arabs who live in Israel, researchers speculate that a recessive gene may account in part for the high frequency of Alzheimers. All of the genes identified as playing a role in Alzheimers are dominant no recessive genes have been linked to the disease. A dominant gene will show its effect if it is inherited from only one parent a recessive gene must be inherited from both parents to show its effect.
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Genes: A Blueprint For Health And Disease
The genes encoded in our DNA are profoundly involved in many aspects of our health. They act as a sort of blueprint for the construction, operation, and repair of our bodies throughout life. Genes provide instructions for the creation and regulation of our bodys building blocks. We inherit one copy of each gene from each of our parents, which is one reason why every person has a unique appearance and metabolism.
The effects of a gene can be dramatically changed by mutation of even one pair of its molecules. Specific versions of genes, called alleles, are passed down through a familys lineage, potentially creating an entire population of people who share a healthy characteristic such as resistance to cancer a more neutral characteristic such as eye color or a heightened risk for a specific disease such as Alzheimers disease .
Many of us have learned about Mendel, who was an Austrian monk, and the pea plants he bred as he discovered basic principles of genetic inheritance. Just as with Mendels plants, some physical characteristics can be transmitted to our offspring through inheritance of even one version of a gene. Many diseases are inherited this way, too.
Alzheimer Disease: Medlineplus Genetic
Early-onset familial Alzheimer disease is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means one copy of an altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder. In most cases, an affected person inherits the altered gene from one affected parent Spinocerebellar ataxia is a progressive, degenerative, genetic disease with multiple types, each of which could be considered a neurological condition in its own right. An estimated 150,000 people in the United States have a diagnosis of spinocerebellar ataxia at any given time.SCA is hereditary, progressive, degenerative, and often fatal This activity analyzes a published scientific figure from a study of a family that has a high prevalence of Alzheimers disease. A rare form of familial Alzheimers disease, which is caused by a mutation in the presenilin-1 gene , is highly prevalent in some parts of Antioquia, Colombia.To understand the origin of this mutation in these populations, scientists studied the family. Linkage of Alzheimer disease to DNA markers on chromosomes 14, 19, and 21 was studied in 10 families in which the disease was apparently inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Families were derived from a Dutch population-based epidemiologic study of early-onset AD
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How Can I Reduce My Risk Of Dementia
For the vast majority of people, our genes are only one factor affecting our risk of dementia. There are many other factors involved, such as age and lifestyle. While we cannot change our age or genes, research has found that up to a third of all cases of dementia could be avoided through lifestyle changes.
There are simple things we can do that may help lower our risk:
- Do not smoke.
- Drink fewer than 14 units of alcohol per week.
- Control high blood pressure.
- Keep cholesterol at a healthy level.
- Keep active and exercise regularly.
- Maintain a healthy weight.
- Eat a healthy balanced diet.
You can find more detailed information about how you can reduce your risk of dementia here.
Am I At Risk For Alzheimer’s
Whether we have seen early signs in ourselves or not, many of us want to know what our chances of getting this disease may be. Research has shown a number of possible factors that can impact your chances of getting Alzheimer’s disease, although none of these are a cause in and of themselves.
Some ages are more at risk
Old age is one of the most obvious risk factors. The vast majority of people develop the disease after the age of 65, and once you reach 65, your risk of getting Alzheimer’s doubles every five years. But Alzheimer’s doesn’t only affect people over 65 it has been known to affect people half that age, although this is much rarer.
Alzheimer’s is hereditary
A family history will also increase your risk of getting the disease. The risk increases even more if you have multiple family members who have suffered from the disease.
Whilst this may be due to the hereditary genetic factors we will look at in more depth later, there may be other factors at play. These could include environmental factors that impact both yourself and your family.
Gender is another significant risk factor. The first discovery of the disease back in 1906 was in a woman, and about twice as many women as men over 65 have Alzheimer’s. This may be in part to the fact that women have a longer lifespan or may even possibly be linked to menopause.
Genetic factors of Alzheimer’s
Other risk factors
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More Evidence That Alzheimer’s Disease May Be Inherited From Your Mother
- American Academy of Neurology
- Results from a new study contribute to growing evidence that if one of your parents has Alzheimer’s disease, the chances of inheriting it from your mother are higher than from your father.
Results from a new study contribute to growing evidence that if one of your parents has Alzheimer’s disease, the chances of inheriting it from your mother are higher than from your father. The study is published in the March 1, 2011, print issue of Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.
“It is estimated that people who have first-degree relatives with Alzheimer’s disease are four to 10 times more likely to develop the disease themselves compared to people with no family history,” said study author Robyn Honea, DPhil, of the University of Kansas School of Medicine in Kansas City.
For the study, 53 dementia-free people age 60 and over were followed for two years. Eleven participants reported having a mother with Alzheimer’s disease, 10 had a father with Alzheimer’s disease and 32 had no history of the disease in their family. The groups were given brain scans and cognitive tests throughout the study.
The study was supported by the National Institute on Aging and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.