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What Is Dementia In Arabic

Sociocultural Insights On Dementia Care

What is Alzheimer’s Disease? (Arabic)

Published online by Cambridge University Press: 25 March 2022

Suzanne H. Hammad*
Affiliation:Liberal Arts Program, Northwestern University Qatar, Doha, QatarCentre for Humanities and Social Sciences, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar
Suhad Daher-Nashif
Department of Population Medicine, College of Medicine, QU Health, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar
Tanya Kane
Department of Population Medicine, College of Medicine, QU Health, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar
Noor Al-Wattary
Department of Population Medicine, College of Medicine, QU Health, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar

Epidemiology Of Alzheimers Disease And Dementia In Arab Countries: A Systematic Review

Ashraf El-Metwally

1College of Public Health and Health Informatics, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

2King Abdullah Specialist Children Hospital, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

3Saudi Food and Drug Authority, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

4Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan

5King Abdullah International Medical Research Center/King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Ministry of National Guard-Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

6Ministry of Health and Prevention, Dubai, UAE

7Epidemiology and Biostatistics Section, Health Sciences Research Centre, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia


1. Introduction

A dementia report from the WHO has revealed an alarming increase in dementia across the Middle Eastern region, where prevalence may have an increase of 125% by 2050 . Several studies have been conducted in Arab countries to obtain data on the prevalence, risk factors, prevention, and management of AD and dementia, but no review had yet been conducted to systematically summarize current existing evidence. Therefore, we aimed to fill this gap in the literature by carrying out a systematic review to evaluate the epidemiology of dementia in Arab countries, with a clear focus on its prevalence, distribution, and risk factors.

2. Methods

2.1. Data Collection Strategy
2.2. Study Eligibility Criteria
2.3. Identification and Study Selection
2.4. Data Analysis

General Care And Support

If you care for or know someone who is living with dementia, it can make you feel frustrated and helpless. Its important to have people around who take time to build empathy and trust, and help provide a safe and predictable environment. Your emotional and physical support will be a great help to the person when the world seems confusing and hostile.

In some cases, its helpful to make changes to a persons home environment to help them feel less disoriented . Visit Health Victorias website for some ideas on creating ‘dementia-friendly environments’.

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When Should I Speak To A Doctor About Dementia

See your doctor for a full examination if you notice several of these signs:

  • Memory loss forgetting things that should be familiar, and not remembering them later
  • Difficulty with familiar tasks mixing up the steps in a task, such as making a meal then forgetting to eat it
  • Language problems forgetting simple words or substituting incorrect words
  • Disorientation of time and place getting lost on their own street, forgetting how they got somewhere or how to get home
  • Poor judgement such as making risky moves when driving
  • Problems with abstract thinking such as counting and doing finances
  • Misplacing things putting things away in inappropriate places
  • Changes in mood or behaviour such as rapid mood swings for no apparent reason
  • Changes in personality becoming more suspicious, fearful, uninhibited or outgoing than before
  • Loss of initiative becoming uncharacteristically passive or uninvolved in activities
  • Its important not to assume someone has dementia based on these symptoms alone. Other treatable conditions such as depression, infections, hormone imbalances and nutritional deficiencies can also cause dementia-like symptoms.

    What Is Mixed Dementia

    What Is Dementia In Arabic

    It is common for people with dementia to have more than one form of dementia. For example, many people with dementia have both Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia.

    Researchers who have conducted autopsy studies have looked at the brains of people who had dementia, and have suggested that most people age 80 and older probably have mixed dementia caused by a combination of brain changes related to Alzheimer’s disease,vascular disease-related processes, or another condition that involves the loss of nerve cell function or structure and nerve cell death .

    Scientists are investigating how the underlying disease processes in mixed dementia start and influence each other. Further knowledge gains in this area will help researchers better understand these conditions and develop more personalized prevention and treatment strategies.

    Other conditions that cause dementia-like symptoms can be halted or even reversed with treatment. For example, normal pressure hydrocephalus, an abnormal buildup of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain, often resolves with treatment.

    In addition, medical conditions such as stress, anxiety, depression, and delirium can cause serious memory problems that resemble dementia, as can side effects of certain medicines.

    Researchers have also identified many other conditions that can cause dementia or dementia-like symptoms. These conditions include:

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    What Are The Different Types Of Dementia

    Various disorders and factors contribute to the development of dementia. Neurodegenerative disorders result in a progressive and irreversible loss of neurons and brain functioning. Currently, there are no cures for these diseases.

    The five most common forms of dementia are:

    • Alzheimers disease, the most common dementia diagnosis among older adults. It is caused by changes in the brain, including abnormal buildups of proteins, known as amyloid plaques and tau tangles.
    • Frontotemporal dementia, a rare form of dementia that tends to occur in people younger than 60. It is associated with abnormal amounts or forms of the proteins tau and TDP-43.
    • Lewy body dementia, a form of dementia caused by abnormal deposits of the protein alpha-synuclein, called Lewy bodies.
    • Vascular dementia, a form of dementia caused by conditions that damage blood vessels in the brain or interrupt the flow of blood and oxygen to the brain.
    • Mixed dementia, a combination of two or more types of dementia.

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    Can Dementia Be Prevented

    Because the causes of dementia are not yet fully known, there is no sure way to prevent dementia. However, you can reduce the risk of dementia by caring for your:

    • Heart health Whats good for your heart is good for your brain. Have a healthy dietand stop smoking.
    • Body health Regular physical activity increases blood flow to the brain. Keep an active lifestyle.
    • Mind health An active mind helps build brain cells and strengthens their connections. Stay social, play games like puzzles and crosswords, and take up new hobbies and languages.

    Learn more about the risk factors of dementia such as ageing, smoking and high cholesterol and blood pressure:

    Who Can Diagnose Dementia

    mhGAP Dementia: Arabic with French Subtitles

    Visiting a primary care doctor is often the first step for people who are experiencing changes in thinking, movement, or behavior. However, neurologists doctors who specialize in disorders of the brain and nervous system are often consulted to diagnose dementia. Geriatric psychiatrists, neuropsychologists, and geriatricians may also be able to diagnose dementia. Your doctor can help you find a specialist.

    If a specialist cannot be found in your community, contact the nearest medical school neurology department for a referral. A medical school hospital also may have a dementia clinic that provides expert evaluation. You can also visit the Alzheimers Disease Research Centers directory to see if there is an NIA-funded center near you. These centers can help with obtaining a diagnosis and medical management of conditions.

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    What Is Dementia Symptoms Types And Diagnosis

    Dementia is the loss of cognitive functioning thinking, remembering, and reasoning to such an extent that it interferes with a person’s daily life and activities. Some people with dementia cannot control their emotions, and their personalities may change. Dementia ranges in severity from the mildest stage, when it is just beginning to affect a person’s functioning, to the most severe stage, when the person must depend completely on others for basic activities of living.

    Dementia is more common as people grow older but it is not a normal part of aging. Many people live into their 90s and beyond without any signs of dementia.

    There are several different forms of dementia, including Alzheimers disease. A persons symptoms can vary depending on the type.

    How Do I Care For Someone With Dementia

    Coordinate their care Your loved one will need more care as time goes on. It can be helpful to designate one person who coordinates care and helps them put together a care plan.

    Plan ahead It is wise to plan early for the future. Encourage them to arrange for a trusted person to manage their affairs through a power of attorney, and to draw up an advanced care directive explaining what treatments they would prefer if they become unable to give consent later on.

    Care for yourself Looking after a loved one with dementia can be tough and draining. Make sure you spend time socialising and meeting other people. Find activities and interests you can draw encouragement from. Give yourself space to rest, grieve and appreciate your loved one.

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    What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Dementia

    Signs and symptoms of dementia result when once-healthy neurons, or nerve cells, in the brain stop working, lose connections with other brain cells, and die. While everyone loses some neurons as they age, people with dementia experience far greater loss.

    The symptoms of dementia can vary and may include:

    • Experiencing memory loss, poor judgment, and confusion
    • Difficulty speaking, understanding and expressing thoughts, or reading and writing
    • Wandering and getting lost in a familiar neighborhood
    • Trouble handling money responsibly and paying bills
    • Repeating questions
    • Not caring about other peoples feelings
    • Losing balance and problems with movement

    People with intellectual and developmental disabilities can also develop dementia as they age, and recognizing their symptoms can be particularly difficult. Its important to consider a persons current abilities and to monitor for changes over time that could signal dementia.

    Mccfad And Arab Xpressions Present Skit On The Word Kharaf And Stigmas Around Dementia

    Arabic Diagnosing Dementia

    Posted: Saturday 10.17.2020 3:00 pm Revised: Friday 12.25.2020 3:00 pm

    DEARBORN The Michigan Center for Contextual Factors in Alzheimers Disease has teamed up with Arab Xpressions at the University of Michigan to bring a unique skit that explores how a medical word for dementia is often misused in the Arab community.

    The skit premiered Friday, Oct. 9 as part of a MCCFAD community event which centered on stigmas around dementia and Alzheimers Disease. MCCFAD holds monthly informative community events, where its team of experts interact with the Arab American community in Metro Detroit in informational sessions about various topics on Alzheimers Disease and related dementias.

    The COVID-19 pandemic has caused the center to hold these events over Zoom.

    Arab Xpressions is an annual performance put on by the Arab Student Association at U of M, with the help of Arabesque and other Arab student organizations on campus. The show is a display of the unique and diverse regional cultures within the larger Arab community.

    The Arab American News spoke to MCCFAD members and the creative team at Arab Xpressions about the significance of the skit, specifically the term kharaf, the technical term in Arabic for medical diagnosis of dementia.

    MCCFAD Director Dr. Kristine Ajrouch said the need for the skit arose after a MCCFAD community event in February, where the Arabic word for dementia was displayed, which an audience member found insulting.

    Bringing the idea to life

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    People That Suffer From That Disease Also Have To Suffer The Stigma Thats Present In The Community We Are Glad We Get To Do Our Part In This Way To Reduce That Stigma Nicolas Nunu

    Nicolas Nunu, who is earning a masters degree in biomedical engineering at U of M, said the word kharaf was not a word the brothers were familiar with before working with MCCFAD on the skit.

    The word sounded a lot like how the word retard is used in English, he said. Michael and I worked at a Special Olympics summer camp in Pennsylvania and I am disturbed when that English word is used negatively. I now have similar emotions around kharaf and want to help reduce the stigma around Alzheimers Disease.

    People that suffer from that disease also have to suffer the stigma thats present in the community. We are glad we get to do our part in this way to reduce that stigma.

    In terms of writing the script, we met with Donna Jawad and Kristine and they had a vision for the skit, Michael Nunu said. Nick and I started brainstorming from there and it really came to life through our discussions.

    We underwent a lot of revisions and this really was the work of a lot of people. It was a collaborative effort across many days and many . While we got expertise from MCCFAD, Nick and I tried to focus on the creative aspects, working with various angels and tried to make sure every shot captured the essence of the moment and evoked the message we were trying to convey.

    Michael Nunu is a junior studying movement science within the School of Kinesiology at U of M. Besides Nicolas Nunu, Melissa and Rozana Ansara, and Rania Nunu act in the play.

    • Tags

    Validation Into Arabic Versions Of Dementia Rating Scales Dementia Caregivers Scales And Dementia Research Instruments

    aInstitute for Development, Research, Advocacy and Applied Care , Beirut, Lebanon

    bDepartment of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, Balamand University Faculty of Medicine, Beirut, Lebanon

    cDepartment of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, St George Hospital University Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon

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    Instruments Translated In Arabic

    What are the signs of dementia? – Arabic

    Among the commonly used informant-based screening tools is the eight-item Alzheimer’s Dementia screening test, which is a brief, valid sensitive instrument that reliably discriminates signs of normal aging from mild dementia. AD8 is recommended as a key diagnostic tool to use in primary care, and it has been argued to be more appropriate for routine use in primary care than the MiniMental State Examination , . It was originally validated as an informant-based interview however, it also can be completed by the patient as a self-rating tool . A high sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 93% have been reported for the AD8 test, with excellent abilities in detecting early cognitive changes . The AD8 has been translated from the original English version and validated into several languages, including French, Spanish, Portuguese, Chinese, Korean, and Taiwanese , , , , , .

    The Alzheimer’s Questionnaire is another brief, informant-based assessment for cognitive impairment. From a clinical perspective, the AQ provides more information on the underlying etiology of the cognitive impairments than other screening tools. The AQ validation study revealed that the AQ has an excellent sensitivity of 89% and specificity of 91% for detecting amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and 99% and 96%, respectively, for Alzheimer’s disease .

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    How Is Dementia Diagnosed

    An early diagnosis allows someone to get support quickly, or in some cases identify a treatable condition. Referral to a neurologist, a neuropsychologist and/or a geriatrician may also be appropriate.

    Diagnosing dementia requires a full medical and psychological assessment. This may include:

    What Causes Dementia

    More than 100 different diseases can cause dementia. In most cases, dementia isnt inherited from your parents see more on genetics of dementia.

    Alzheimers disease, the most well-known cause of dementia, affects nearly 7 out of 10 people with dementia. Alzheimers disease causes certain proteins and other chemicals to build up in the brain and as a result, cells will gradually die and cause the brain to shrink. These changes interfere with a persons thinking and short-term memory, and results in dementia that worsens over time.

    Vascular dementia is a broad term to describe dementia caused by problems with blood circulation to the brain. Some people develop dementia after several small strokes . Others develop dementia when high blood pressure and thickened arteries cause poor blood flow.

    Lewy body disease causes unusual round clusters of protein to develop inside certain brain cells. These cells eventually break down and die, causing dementia.

    Frontotemporal dementia is caused by gradual damage to the front and temporal lobes of the brain. In these cases, the first changes tend to occur in mood, behaviour and personality, rather than memory.

    Alcohol-related dementia is a form of dementia caused by excessive alcohol consumption. Its thought that the brain damage is partly caused by a lack of vitamins due to consistent heavy drinking.

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    What Is Dementia

    Dementia is a broad term used to describe the gradual loss of someones memory, intellect, ability to think rationally and social skills. Dementia is not one specific disease, but a collection of symptoms of a long-term brain disorder such as Alzheimers disease or vascular dementia.

    Dementia affects around 1 in 15 Australians aged 65 and over. While dementia is more common in older people, it is not considered a normal part of ageing. People in their 40s and 50s can sometimes get dementia as well. This is known as younger onset dementia.


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