Managing Depression In Dementia
- Try to keep a daily routine for the person with dementia.
- Incorporate daily exercise, because this has been proven to have a positive impact on symptoms of depression.
- Limit the amount of noise and activity in the environment if this causes a problem. This will help avoid overstimulation.
- Large group situations can make some people feel worse, while others may benefit from the stimulation of a busy, active gathering. It is important to know what the person has enjoyed in the past, because it is likely that similar activities will still appeal.
- Have a realistic expectation of what the person can do. Expecting too much can make both the person with dementia and the carer feel frustrated and upset.
- Be aware of when the person is usually least tired and do any important tasks at that time.
- Be positive. Frequent praise will help both the person with dementia and the carer feel better.
- Include the person in conversation to the extent that they feel comfortable.
Coping With Hallucinations In Elderly Dementia Patients
When it comes to handling a seniors hallucinations, Marion Somers, Ph.D., author of Elder Care Made Easier: Doctor Marions 10 Steps to Help You Care for an Aging Loved One, suggests joining them in their version of reality. Ask the dementia patient about what they are experiencing as if it is real so you can more effectively defuse the situation. Refrain from trying to explain that what they are seeing or hearing is all in their head. Otherwise, youre going to aggravate them, and you dont want to increase the level of agitation, Somers advises.
Reassure them by validating their feelings. Say something like, I see that youre upset. I would be upset if I saw those things, too. Tell them that they are safe with you and you will do everything in your power to help them feel secure.
A comforting touch, such as gently patting their back, may help the person turn their attention to you and reduce the hallucination, according to the Alzheimers Association. You also can suggest that they move to a different room or take a walk to get away from whatever may have triggered the experience.
Hallucinations arent just a symptom of Alzheimers disease, either they are also very common in seniors with Lewy body dementia. Furthermore, poor eyesight, hearing loss, certain medications, dehydration and urinary tract infections can all contribute to hallucinations.
What Are Hallucinations And How Do They Affect People Living With Dementia And Their Families
A hallucination is a sensory experience of something that appears real but is simply created in our mind. Hallucinations are commonly experienced by persons living with dementia although exact estimates of their frequency differ. The frequency of hallucinations may also depend on the type of dementia. For example, as many as three quarters of persons diagnosed with dementia with Lewy bodies, and up to two-thirds of those with Parkinsons Disease dementia, may at some point experience hallucinations compared to only about one fifth of individuals affected by Alzheimers disease.
Hallucinations in individuals with dementia can cause fear and anxiety in those experiencing them as well as their loved ones. They are also related to worsening cognitive function, and further undermine the affected persons ability to perform their usual activities of daily living such as grooming, using the bathroom and so on. Deterioration in ADLs in itself undermines quality of life of persons with dementia.
Hallucinations may affect all five of the senses . For example, a person might see an image or object that isnt real. According to the Alzheimers Society other types of hallucinations may include:
- Hearing things, such as footsteps or voices
- Smelling things, perhaps perfume or cigarette smoke
- Physically feeling things, like insects crawling over the skin or someone touching you
- Tasting things, like a metallic taste in the mouth
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Can Antipsychotics Be Useful
Antipsychotics can be useful to help someone manage the severe symptoms of a condition like schizophrenia, if they have this in addition to dementia. A low, short-term dose of an antipsychotic can be useful if someones behaviour is presenting a high risk, while other ways of meeting the persons needs are explored and put into practice.
When a range of non-medical interventions have been tried without success, a proportion of people with dementia will experience less distress and disturbance if they take antipsychotics.
In situations where a person with dementia wants to stay at home and the person caring for them wants them to continue, the needs of both parties should be considered. Carefully monitored use of antipsychotics may enable everyone involved to have a better nights sleep, so feel much more able to manage the demands of the day, for example.
Managing Memory Changes In Dementia
- avoiding stressful situations providing emotional support, reducing background noise and distractions, and exercise can all help to reduce stress and improve memory
- maintaining a regular routine keeping to a routine can help with a sense of security and reduce confusion
- trying memory aids using memory aids like lists, diaries and clear written instructions, can help if the person with dementia is happy to use them.
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Does Dementia Commonly Cause Hallucinations
By Debbie Waddell 9 am on November 16, 2021
Dementia is a neurological disorder that causes changes in the brain. As a result, older adults may often experience alarming and unfamiliar symptoms, including hallucinations. Continue reading to learn how dementia can cause hallucinations and what family caregivers can do to mitigate this symptom.
Treatments For Dementia With Lewy Bodies
There’s currently no cure for dementia with Lewy bodies or any treatment that will slow it down.
But there are treatments that can help control some of the symptoms, possibly for several years.
- medicines to reduce hallucinations, confusion, drowsiness, movement problems and disturbed sleep
- therapies such as physiotherapy, occupational therapy and speech and language therapy for problems with movement, everyday tasks, and communication
- psychological therapies, such as cognitive stimulation
- dementia activities, such as memory cafes
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Von Willebrand Factor Dot Blot
Samples were initially centrifuged again for 20min at 15,000rpm to remove any particulate matter then diluted 1:400 in TBS. The standard was 7 serial dilutions of a reference homogenate, starting with a dilution of 1:100 in TBS. Prior to assembling the dot blot manifold, the membrane was soaked in TBS for at least 10min. One hundred microlitres of each sample was loaded onto the membrane after it had been placed in the dot blot vacuum manifold and was incubated for 75min. The manifold was then disassembled and the membrane washed for 3×10min in TTBS prior to blocking in 5% milk/TBS for 1h at room temperature with agitation. After a further 3×10-min washes in TTBS, the membrane was incubated overnight at 4°C with agitation, in rabbit polyclonal anti-vWF antibody diluted 1:3000 in 5% milk/TTBS. Following 3×30-min washes, the membrane was incubated in HRP conjugated goat anti-rabbit antibody diluted 1:5000 in 5% milk/TTBS for 1h at room temperature with agitation. After a further 3×30-min washes, 6ml of the substrate was added to each membrane, and after 4min, it was imaged in a BioRad imager . All samples were assayed in duplicate on each membrane and on two different membranes. The intraclass correlation coefficient for this assay was 0.69, indicating good consistency.
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When Trouble Might Occur
Visual hallucinations are one of the hallmark symptoms in Lewy body dementia and often occur early in the illness. In other dementias, delusions are more common than hallucinations, which occur well into the disease cycle, if at all, and are less often visual.
Fluctuating good days and bad days are another hallmark of LBD. On a good day, thinking is clear, and these illusions, hallucinations and delusions may not occur on a bad day, they may be intense.
As LBD progresses, these types of symptoms may first intensify, then later burn out.
In dementia, symptoms always change, so what a person experiences this month may not be happening the next month, though such distressing symptoms seem to last an eternity for the caregiver.
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Know How Senses Can Be Affected
Visual hallucinations are more common in older adults with dementia, but its not rare for seniors to experience problems that involve other senses, such as hearing and smell. For example, your loved one may believe he or she hears other people talking in a room when no one is present. Your parent could also smell food cooking in the kitchen when, in reality, the things he or she smells only exist in his or her mind.
How Are Hallucinations Diagnosed
The best thing to do is call your doctor right away if you suspect that your perceptions arent real. Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and perform a physical exam. Additional tests might include a blood or urine test and perhaps a brain scan.
If you dont already have a mental health professional, the Healthline FindCare tool can help you find a physician in your area.
If you know someone whos hallucinating, dont leave them alone. In some severe cases, fear and paranoia triggered by hallucinations can lead to dangerous actions or behaviors.
Stay with the person at all times and go with them to the doctor for emotional support. You may also be able to help answer questions about their symptoms and how often they occur.
Your doctor will be able to recommend the best form of treatment for you once they figure out whats causing your hallucinations.
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Give Them Kind Reassurance
If your loved one with dementia is experiencing hallucinations, you can offer them kind reassurance. For example, you can let them know you will check on them often. Or you can say something like “Don’t worry. I am here to protect you.” And if your loved one is in a care facility, inform their caregivers of their hallucinations and how it impacts them.
Alzheimer’s And Hallucinations Delusions And Paranoia
Due to complex changes occurring in the brain, people with Alzheimer’s disease may see or hear things that have no basis in reality.
- Hallucinations involve hearing, seeing, smelling, or feeling things that are not really there. For example, a person with Alzheimer’s may see children playing in the living room when no children exist.
- Delusions are false beliefs that the person thinks are real. For example, the person may think his or her spouse is in love with someone else.
- Paranoia is a type of delusion in which a person may believewithout a good reasonthat others are mean, lying, unfair, or out to get me. He or she may become suspicious, fearful, or jealous of people.
If a person with Alzheimers has ongoing disturbing hallucinations or delusions, seek medical help. An illness or medication may cause these behaviors. Medicines are available to treat these behaviors but must be used with caution. The following tips may also help you cope with these behaviors.
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Tips For Managing False Beliefs And Delusions As They Happen
Please remember that sometimes the claims the person with dementia is making may be right and someone could be stealing from them or taking advantage of their vulnerability. This needs to be carefully checked before jumping to the conclusion that what they are saying is a false belief or delusion. If you are concerned, you can contact Dementia UKs Admiral Nurse Dementia Helpline on0800 888 6678
Stage : Moderate Dementia
Patients in stage 5 need some assistance in order to carry out their daily lives. The main sign for stage 5 dementia is the inability to remember major details such as the name of a close family member or a home address. Patients may become disoriented about the time and place, have trouble making decisions, and forget basic information about themselves, such as a telephone number or address.
While moderate dementia can interfere with basic functioning, patients at this stage do not need assistance with basic functions such as using the bathroom or eating. Patients also still have the ability to remember their own names and generally the names of spouses and children.
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What Are Psychotic Symptoms
People who live with severe mental health problems, such as schizophrenia, experience what are called psychotic symptoms. People with dementia can experience psychotic symptoms too. Hallucinations are an example of a psychotic symptom: they involve seeing, hearing, tasting, smelling or feeling something that isnt actually there. The most common type of hallucination is hearing voices, or what is called an auditory hallucination.
Another type of psychotic symptom is a delusion, which means that a person holds very unusual beliefs about themselves or those around them. A person may believe that they are God or another religious figure for example. More frighteningly, they may believe that someone or something is trying to harm them. This is known as a paranoid delusion.
Responding To Paranoia In Elderly Dementia Patients
Paranoia tends to worsen as a dementia patients cognitive abilities decline. According to the Alzheimers Association, when paranoia occurs, caregivers should assess the problem and devise solutions by considering these questions:
- What happened right before the person became suspicious?
- Has something like this happened before?
- Was it in the same room or at the same time of day?
- Can a trigger be removed or altered to avoid eliciting suspicion?
If someone is exhibiting paranoid behavior, it is important to discuss their medications with their doctor. Sometimes medications interact with one another or the dosages are too large, notes Somers. That can bring on paranoia, but a doctor can address problems and adjust the seniors regimen to minimize issues.
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Outlook For Dementia With Lewy Bodies
How quickly dementia with Lewy bodies gets worse varies from person to person.
Home-based help will usually be needed, and some people will eventually need care in a nursing home.
The average survival time after diagnosis is similar to that of Alzheimer’s disease around 6 to 12 years. But this is highly variable and some people live much longer than this.
If you or a loved one has been diagnosed with dementia, remember that you’re not alone. The NHS and social services, as well as voluntary organisations, can provide advice and support for you and your family.
What Is Lewy Body Dementia
While not as well known as some other types of dementia, Lewy body dementia is a common type of progressive dementia that according to the Alzheimers Association, accounts for 5 to 10 percent of dementia cases worldwide. The disease is caused by the accumulation in the brain of abnormal microscopic protein depositsnamed Lewy bodies after the neurologist Frederick Lewy who first observed their effect. These deposits disrupt the brains normal functioning, causing it to slowly deteriorate.
LBD can take two forms: dementia with Lewy bodies or Parkinsons disease dementia. The difference between them lies mainly in how the disease starts.
In dementia with Lewy bodies, you may have a memory disorder that looks like Alzheimers but later develop movement and other distinctive problems, such as hallucinations.
In Parkinsons disease dementia, you may initially have a movement disorder that looks like Parkinsons but later also develop dementia symptoms.
Over time, though, both diagnoses will appear the same. Most people with LBD develop a similar spectrum of problems that include variations in attention and alertness, recurrent visual hallucinations, shuffling gait, tremors, and blank expression, along with various sleep disorders.
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Stage : Age Associated Memory Impairment
This stage features occasional lapses of memory most frequently seen in:
- Forgetting where one has placed an object
- Forgetting names that were once very familiar
Oftentimes, this mild decline in memory is merely normal age-related cognitive decline, but it can also be one of the earliest signs of degenerative dementia. At this stage, signs are still virtually undetectable through clinical testing. Concern for early onset of dementia should arise with respect to other symptoms.
Ways To Respond When Someone Is Experiencing Dementia Hallucinations
1. Determine if a response is neededThe first step is to determine whether the hallucination is bothering your older adult.
If its pleasant, you might not want to respond or call attention to it.
Just know and accept that its a dementia symptom and thankfully isnt causing distress.
If the hallucination is upsetting them or causing them to do something unsafe, then its time to quickly step in to provide comfort or redirect to a safe activity.
2. Stay calm and dont argue or try to convince using logicWhen someone is having a dementia hallucination, its important to stay calm and avoid contradicting them.
What theyre seeing is a dementia symptom and is very real to them.
Trying to explain that it isnt real simply wont work because of the damage that dementia has caused in their brain.
In fact, knowing that you dont believe them might make them even more upset and agitated.
If theyre calm enough to explain, it may also help to understand what theyre seeing. Listen carefully and try to pick up clues to what theyre seeing.
But keep in mind that dementia damage in the brain may affect their ability to use the correct words. For example, they could unintentionally say cabbages when they mean green cushions.
3. Validate their feelings and provide reassuranceBe careful not to dismiss your older adults experience.
Brushing off what theyre seeing by saying something like, Dont be silly, theres nothing there, is likely to upset them.
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