Statistics Of Alzheimers Incidence
Is it true that youre less likely to develop Alzheimers as an educated person? Does alcohol consumption increase ones risk for the condition? Get answers to the questions and learn much more about the incidence of the disease with the elaborate statistics below.
Granulovacuolar Degeneration And Neuropil Threads
Granulovacuolar degeneration occurs almost exclusively in the hippocampus. Neuropil threads are an array of dystrophic neurites diffusely distributed in the cortical neuropil, more or less independently of plaques and tangles. This lesion suggests neuropil alterations beyond those merely due to NFTs and SPs and indicates an even more widespread insult to the cortical circuitry than that visualized by studying only plaques and tangles.
Risk And Protective Factors
Alzheimers disease is multifactorial disorder that is determined by genetic and environmental factors as well as their interactions. Population-based prospective study is the major epidemiological approach to identifying influential factors for chronic multifactorial diseases such as dementia, in which the life-course approach should be taken into consideration. Age is the most powerful determinant of Alzheimers disease, and gene mutations contribute to a small proportion of all cases. The strong association of Alzheimers disease with increasing age may partially reflect the cumulative effect of different risk and protective factors over the lifespan, including the effect of complex interactions of genetic susceptibility, psychosocial factors, biological factors, and environmental exposures experienced over the lifespan. Evidence from epidemiological, neuroimaging, and neuropathological research, supports the role of genetic, vascular, and psychosocial factors in the development of Alzheimers disease, whereas evidence for the etiologic role of dietary or nutritional factors, occupational exposures, and inflammation is less clear .
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Ps1 And Ps2 Mutations
Approximately 50-70% of early-onset autosomal-dominant AD cases appear to be associated with a locus mapped by genetic linkage to the long arm of chromosome 14 . Numerous missense mutations have been identified on a strong candidate gene, called PS1.
At the same time, another autosomal dominant locus responsible for early-onset AD was localized to chromosome 1. Two mutations were identified on the candidate gene, designated PS2. The physiological role of presenilins and the pathogenic effects of their mutations are not yet well understood.
Alzheimers Statistics United States & Worldwide Stats
We know that Alzheimers affects so many lives around the globe, but to what extent? How many individuals are directly affected by Alzheimers and how many are receiving care? This condition is incredibly serious, as so many lives are being affected on a daily basis. In fact, out of the top ten causes of death in America, Alzheimers is the only condition which cannot be slowed down, prevented, or cured.
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Descriptive Epidemiology Of Alzheimers Disease
The number of dementia patients is projected to reach 152 million by mid-century worldwide, with the greatest increase expected in low-and middle-income countries . According to 2020 Alzheimers disease facts and figures, the number of AD patients might increase greatly from 5.8 million to 13.8 million by 2050 in America . The obviously increased AD prevalence was found in community-dwelling investigations of Japan and China over the last few decades . Particularly, age-specific global prevalence in women was 1.17 times larger than in men and the age-standardized mortality rate of women was also higher than men, suggesting the longer lifespan was not the only determinant of the women dominance . In addition, death tolls with AD increased 146.2% from 2000 to 2018 and AD became the fifth-largest cause of death in American old people . Notably, caregivers would experience more mental stresses and negative emotional influences . Therefore, the social and family burden of caring for AD population will be huge and unsustainable.
Alcohol Can Lead To Dementia As Per Alzheimers Disease Facts And Figures
Consuming alcohol excessively over a long period may cause brain damage and increase the chances of developing dementia. More specifically, heavy drinking can reduce the volume of the brains white matter, responsible for helping in the transmission of signals between brain regions. That way, there may be issues with brain function.
Be that as it may, facts about dementia and Alzheimers disease affirm that moderate drinkers are less likely to develop Alzheimers or other dementia than those who dont drink alcohol at all.
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Antecedent Risk Factors That Increase The Risk Of Alzheimer Disease
Factors that modify the risk of Alzheimer disease
|Insulin and A compete for clearance|
|Obesity||Increased risk of type II diabetes inflammatory|
|Traumatic head injury||A and amyloid precursor protein deposition|
|Improves lipid metabolism, mental stimulation|
What Is The Global Healthcare And Pharma Market Q2 Outlook
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Figure 1 presents the total prevalence of AD in ages 60 years and older in 2021 in Spain, the US and Japan. The data are derived from GlobalDatas Alzheimers Disease: Epidemiology Forecast to 2028 report. Japan showed the highest total prevalence of AD, with 23.23% and 11.55% in women and men, respectively. The US showed the second-highest total prevalence rates of AD, with 11.64% in women and 7.66% in men. Spain had the lowest total prevalence of AD out of the three major pharmaceutical markets, with 11.23% and 3.80% in women and men, respectively. These trends raise questions about what might be causing the lower prevalence of AD in Spain.
According to a 2019 article in News Digest, Spain ranked first on a list of the 169 healthiest countries in the world. Spains citizens are often commended for their Mediterranean diet, which comprises olive oil, nuts, fish and legumes, as well as less processed meat and baked goods than other countries. Spains engagement in a healthy diet can be associated with its lower prevalence of AD. A 2018 study by Berti and colleagues published in the American Academy of Neurology showed that the brains of healthy middle-aged people who adopt a Mediterranean diet showed less accumulation of the protein amyloid-, which is a hallmark of AD, compared with those who did not maintain the diet.
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Progress Is Continuously Made In Finding The Best Alzheimers Disease Treatment
Alzheimers current treatments improve symptoms of memory loss, as well as thinking and reasoning issues, but only temporarily. With this in mind, future Alzheimers treatments might involve a combination of medications. Some of the ongoing treatment studies are focused on plaques, keeping tau from tangling, reducing inflammation, and researching insulin resistance.
Informative Probability Sampling And Major Prevalence Findings From The Aging Demographics And Memory Study
ADAMS was designed to provide nationally representative data on the antecedents, prevalence, outcomes, and costs of dementia and CIND, using a unique study design based on the Health and Retirement Study . ADAMS is the first population-based study of dementia and CIND in the United States to include subjects from all regions of the country, while at the same time using a single standardized diagnostic protocol in a community-based sample. A sample of 856 individuals age 71 years or older who were participants in the ongoing HRS received an extensive in-home clinical and neuropsychological assessment to determine a diagnosis of normal, CIND or dementia . Linkage of data from the ADAMS with detailed HRS longitudinal data on health, health care utilization, informal care, and economic resources and behavior, allows for in-depth investigations into the risk factors and outcomes of CIND and dementia, as well as the lifetime costs of dementia in the population.
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As Per 2020 Alzheimers Disease Facts And Figures 468 Million People Have Alzheimers Or Other Forms Of Dementia
Compared to white people, African-Americans are twice more likely to have Alzheimers or other forms of dementia. As for Hispanics, they are around 1.5 times more likely to have some form of dementia.
Additionally, to understand the cost of Alzheimers, lets make it represent a countrys economyit would be the 18th largest in terms of the economic impact, between Turkey and Indonesia, based on Alzheimers disease statistics.
About 5%6% Of Alzheimers Patients Get It Before 65 As Per Alzheimers Stats
Its called young-onset Alzheimers, and its an uncommon form of dementia. According to Alzheimers disease statistics, of 6 million Americans with Alzheimers, approximately 300,000360,000 have the young-onset form. In addition, these people develop symptoms of the disease between the ages of 30 and 60.
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Putative Modifiable Risk Factors And Prevention For Late
Evidence from observational studies has accumulated during the past few years and shown several potentially modifiable risk factors , concerning AD prevention some potential feasible suggestions are provided .
Potential modifiable risk factors for Alzheimers disease
Risk factors mainly included pre-existing diseases, unhealthy lifestyles and environmental exposures, while some factors concerning psychosocial conditions as well as healthy lifestyles might protect against AD. In addition, some factors appeared to be risk factors as well as symptoms of AD, possibly due to the reverse causality, these factors were highlighted in bold. Abbreviation: BP = blood pressure, DASH = Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension, MIND = Mediterranean-DASH diet Intervention for Neurodegeneration Delay, PUFA = polyunsaturated fatty acid, HDL- cholesterol = high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.
Oxidative Stress And Damage
Oxidative damage occurs in AD. Studies have demonstrated that an increase in oxidative damage selectively occurs within the brain regions involved in regulating cognitive performance.
Oxidative damage potentially serves as an early event that then initiates the development of cognitive disturbances and pathological features observed in AD. A decline in protein synthesis capabilities occurs in the same brain regions that exhibit increased levels of oxidative damage in patients with mild cognitive impairment and AD. Protein synthesis may be one of the earliest cellular processes disrupted by oxidative damage in AD.
Oxidative stress is believed to be a critical factor in normal aging and in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and AD. Formation of free carbonyls and thiobarbituric acid-reactive products, an index of oxidative damage, are significantly increased in AD brain tissue compared with age-matched controls. Plaques and tangles display immunoreactivity to antioxidant enzymes.
Multiple mechanisms exist by which cellular alterations may be induced by oxidative stress, including production of reactive oxygen species in the cell membrane . This in turn impairs the various membrane proteins involved in ion homeostasis such as N -methyl-D-aspartate receptor channels or ion-motive adenosine triphosphatases.
Cholinergic Neurotransmission And Alzheimer Disease
The cholinergic system is involved in memory function, and cholinergic deficiency has been implicated in the cognitive decline and behavioral changes of AD. Activity of the synthetic enzyme choline acetyltransferase and the catabolic enzyme acetylcholinesterase are significantly reduced in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala in patients with AD.
The nucleus basalis of Meynert and diagonal band of Broca provide the main cholinergic input to the hippocampus, amygdala, and neocortex, which are lost in patients with AD. Loss of cortical CAT and decline in acetylcholine synthesis in biopsy specimens have been found to correlate with cognitive impairment and reaction-time performance. Because cholinergic dysfunction may contribute to the symptoms of patients with AD, enhancing cholinergic neurotransmission constitutes a rational basis for symptomatic treatment.
Alzheimers May Be Responsible For Over 500000 Annual Deaths In The Us
As we can see, the data on Alzheimers disease death rate is quite disturbing. According to a study, the mortality rate might be five to six times higher than what official estimates originally suggested, making Alzheimers the third leading cause of death in the US, right after heart disease and cancer.
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Amyloid Hypothesis Versus Tau Hypothesis
A central but controversial issue in the pathogenesis of AD is the relationship between amyloid deposition and NFT formation. Evidence shows that abnormal amyloid metabolism plays a key pathogenic role. At high concentrations, the fibrillar form of Ab has been shown to be neurotoxic to cultured neurons.
Cultured cortical and hippocampal neurons treated with Ab protein exhibit changes characteristic of apoptosis , including nuclear chromatin condensation, plasma membrane blebbing, and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. The fibrillar form of Ab has also been shown to alter the phosphorylation state of tau protein.
The identification of several point mutations within the APP gene in some patients with early-onset familial AD and the development of transgenic mice exhibiting cognitive changes and SPs also incriminate Ab in AD. The apolipoprotein E E4 allele, which has been linked with significantly increased risk for developing AD, may promote inability to suppress production of amyloid, increased production of amyloid, or impaired clearance of amyloid with collection outside of the neuron.
Autopsies have shown that patients with 1 or 2 copies of the APOE E4 allele tend to have more amyloid. Additional evidence comes from recent experimental data supporting the role of presenilins in Ab metabolism, as well as findings of abnormal production of Ab protein in presenilin-mutation familial Alzheimer disease.
Global Dementia Cases Forecasted To Triple By 2050
New analysis shows a decrease in prevalence due to education countered by increase due to heart health risk factors
DENVER, JULY 27, 2021 Positive trends in global education access are expected to decrease dementia prevalence worldwide by 6.2 million cases by the year 2050. Meanwhile, anticipated trends in smoking, high body mass index and high blood sugar are predicted to increase prevalence by nearly the same number: 6.8 million cases. Both according to new global prevalence data reported at the Alzheimerâs Association International Conference® 2021 in Denver and virtually.
With these forecasts incorporated, researchers with the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation at the University of Washington School of Medicine reported at AAIC 2021 that they estimate the number of people with dementia will nearly triple to more than 152 million by 2050. The highest increase in prevalence is projected to be in eastern sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa and the Middle East.
The U.S. National Institute on Aging estimates people over the age of 65 will make up 16% of the worldâs population by 2050 â up from 8% in 2010.
Recently published in Alzheimerâs & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimerâs Association, Nichols and team used the same data set to estimate that Alzheimerâs mortality rates increased by 38.0% between 1990 and 2019.
This study was partially funded by the Alzheimerâs Association.
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People With Dementia Are Four Times More Likely To Die From Covid
Nearly two-thirds of dementia patients with COVID-19 are hospitalized, compared to 25% of the general public. As for African Americans with dementia, that figure jumps to 70%.
Also, data on the mortality rate of Alzheimers disease reveals that more than 20% of patients with dementia died when they contracted the virus, compared to only 5% of people without dementia.
Asia Records The Fastest
Besides the fact that people who have dementia live primarily in low- or middle-income countries, the Alzheimers rates worldwide also show that the number of people with dementia is growing fast in countries like China, India, and their neighboring countries. As for the countries with the lowest Alzheimers rates, they are India, Georgia, Cambodia, and Singapore.
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Alzheimers In The United States
- Alzheimers is the 6th leading cause of death in the United States.
- Alzheimers is the only disease in the 10 leading causes of deaths in the United States that cannot be cured, prevented or slowed.
- 1 in 10 Americans over the age of 65 has Alzheimers.
- Between 2017 and 2025 every state is expected to see at least a 14% rise in the prevalence of Alzheimers.
- There was an 89% increase in deaths due to Alzheimers between 2000 and 2014.
- More than 5 million Americans are living with Alzheimers.
- By 2050, its estimated there will be as many as 16 million Americans living with Alzheimers.
- Every 66 seconds someone in the United States develops Alzheimers.
- 1 in 3 seniors dies with some form of dementia.
- When the first wave of baby boomers reaches age 85 , it is projected that more than 3 million people age 85 and older will have Alzheimers.
- One-third of Americans over age 85 are afflicted with the illness.
- Typical life expectancy after an Alzheimers diagnosis is 4-to-8 years.
- By 2050, there could be as many as 7 million people age 85 and older with Alzheimers disease, accounting for half of all people 65 and older with Alzheimers.
- Proportion of People With Alzheimers Disease in the United States by Age: 85+ years 38%, 75-84 years, 44%, 65-74 years, 15%, < 65 years, 4%
Prevalence Of Ad And Pd By Gender And Education
The prevalence rates of AD and PD for men were 2.30% and 1.20% , respectively and for women were 4.17% and 0.87% , respectively. A significant difference was found between the genders for both AD and PD .
Table 2. Effect of gender, education and setting on AD and PD prevalence.
In the context of education, the prevalence of AD was 5.39% for the illiterate and 1.92% for the non-illiterate. The education showed a significant impact on the prevalence rate . PD was not analyzed due to insufficient data.
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Systematic Review And Record Identification
Our initial search identified a total of 5,528 citations from PubMed, WanFang, VIP, and CNKI databases. After elimination of duplicates and records of irrelevancy or insufficient information, 364 records remained. After further full-text review, 265 records were excluded based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria . Thus, a total of 99 records were eligible for data extraction, including 75 records for AD and 24 for PD . The information of the included studies was described in Supplementary Tables 1, 2, including location, gender, setting, education, phase design, response rate, diagnostic assessment, diagnosis criteria, age, sample size, and quality score.
Figure 1. Flow diagram of study identification. AD, Alzheimer’s disease. PD, Parkinson’s disease Reason 1, not population-based Reason 2, not based in China Reason 3, no numerical prevalence measurement Reason 4, conducted in an unrepresentative population, such as hospital-based, in elderly social welfare, etc. Reason 5, overlapped data in different studies Reason 6, unclear diagnosis.